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.AZ 



CHICAGO ADTntTlBEHnm. 

iro. Ill Bandolph Street, Chicago, niluois. 



JOHIsT B. IDESOISr & CO., 

Sole Agents for the manufiicturc of the Pntent Bmootli 

Vulcanized Rubber Beltinff, 

tVHICH WK IV ARRANT OF THB BUST dUUiITT. 

CONDUCTING AND ENGINE HOSE, 

or any requireil size or sirengtii, 

Rubber and Henfp Packing, Leatlier Eelting, best qnafil^, 

LACE LEATHBR, BELT HOOKS AKD FASTEHIIIG8, 

EmtTT WliiK'ls. Hiirse t'overv, Cnmp Klankcln, air Heibi ami PillowB, anny Capes and 
I'niirlKMi, Fire Buckela, Dningista' Arlick'a, Toys ami Conilxi, liubber Cloth and Bbeetlng^ 

SOLDIER'S FILTERS, RURRER CLOTHING, ROOTS MO SHOES, 

Ami cvciTlliinft in llic Itubber Line, Wiiolbbale and Rktaiu 



i^. Bit u:>H>viCTi: Sc oo., 

— GREAT WESTERN — 

Billiard Table Manufacturers, 

Ollcc sDd HalearooBi, Kos. U, 16 and 1» Bindolph BtrMt, 
Between Dearborn and State Streets, <SH;l)@ft@@> GLIU 



IMPORTERS ASD WUOI.KSAIJ! DEA1.EKS IK 

Billiard Clotb and Balls, French Chalk, Cne Tit*, 

Cue Cenieni. Plum and Fancy Cues, and other HatcrlalH belonging t« tha trade. 



TABI.B8 gCPPLIED WITH OUR 

fflPEOVED COMBINATION CUSHIONS at short NOTIOE. 

<>rders from the country pmmptly nttended to, liy addressing the Ktbacrlben, 
P. 0. B«x 9IS2. X. BBmraWIOE A OD., Ohiosga;' ZDiaolc 



raiBoiT ADTBRTMnaDrrS. 






^9' 

1CAHT7FACTUBEB8 AND WHOLBSALB DBALKB8 IN 

Hats, Caps, Furs, Straw Goods, 

BUCK ■ITTENS, GLOVES AND BUFFALO ROBES; . 

MANUFACTUBBB8 AND DBAUCB8 IN 



Oasli paid fbr all desoriptions of Furs and Deerskins. 



BOOKS, BOOKS, BOOKS 



WH0LB8ALB AND RETAIL DEALBR8 IN 



School and Miscellaneous Books, 

FANCY AND STAPLE STATIONERY, 

CAP, LEHER & NOTE PAPER, ENVELOPES, PENS, INK, 

Xietter Preiiaa, Blank Books, Kemorandum and Pass Books, etc. 

No. 90 Woodward Avenue, ©IITl^Ollir. Mhh. 



Saadajr Sckool, library aid ftit Boolu, la great Tarlety, at Eastern prices. 
9t>o% 9mom^ 4oiie in the moit workmanlike man^i^, at reasonable prices. 



REV TORK 



< 

g COFMCU's are used in the Public Schools of the Cltj of New York. 

„ Cenieirt are used in the Public Schools of the City of Brooklyn, 

li Conell'l ara iu«d in the PubUc Sthools of the City of Albany. 

1 C«rMlI1 MeuBedinUiePublicStlioolsoftheCityofTroy. 

^ CorBClll we lised In the Public Schools of the City ofRocheater. 

g Conell'a ureuwalin thePublic ScliooUoftheatyofPhandelphia. 

Q .Conell'l are used In the Public Bdiooli oftbe City trfBaltlmore. 

■ Coraeiri are used in the Public Schools of the City of Hutfoid. 
^ C*neir> are used in the Public SclioolB of the aiy 

H ContiVa are used in the Public Schools of the City 

^ C«n«ll*a are used in Uie Publio Schools of the City 

ac 0«niCll*a used in the Public SchooU of the city of Washington. 

{^ Cora«ll*a adopted for^tlie Public Schools oftbe State of 3(ichigan. 

2 Conieiri are adopted for the Public Schools of the Slate of Kansas. 
'^ Conell'* ^tt^^i^ are adopted for the Public Schools oftbe State of California. 

^ Cvraell'l are adopted for the Public Schools of the Stale of Wiscondn. 

g, Cvneil'a areadoptedfortbcPublicSchooUofUieSiateof Indiana. 

■ CoracH'B are adopted for the Public Schools oftbe State of Vermont. 
M CfirwclV* arc adopted for the Public Schools of the State 

^ COHEU'S GEOGRIFHIESARE IK GENERU. USE III AUPkRTS OFTHE UNITED STITES. 

D 

* Ctraeirs First stem in to precede Cornell's 

tlie ind profitably to the 

B beautiful ' with niuueruus maps and illustra- 

g! „ s. Price, 25 ccntB. 

•ICOMELL'S GEOGRAPHICAL SERIES 

hi I CONSISTS OF 

^ I PrlBM7 4to. S6 pp. 13 maps, beautiMly illustrated. Price, 50c. 



»-!io 

O j IM 12mo. 405 pp., richly illus- 

l" iruted. Geography. Price, 80 cts. 

t Alias. 5BI i for study; also, a set of 
5 Referei 

H THBT ABE SYSTEMATIC * FROOKESSITX. 

a RECENTLY PUBLISHED: 

XI Conell'l Series of Ontllne MspR, of which a Descriptive Circular irill be sent 

HJ for the Stndr and Practice of Hap-Drawins— Deigned to 

tt I , bnt specia to tlie scale of Comell's Grammar 

*[ ,«. Price, per set als. 

5 D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

^1 443 Knd ««S BBOADWAT, BKW TOBK. 



THE FLOEENOE SEWINS MAOEDTE OOMPAlfT 

Offer their oelebrited Revsnibte Feed, Knot and Lock Stitoh 

To tlie publk as being the Ho»r Pebvbct, ftnd adapted to Bore diffiereat kinds of 
work tiwn any other Sewing Machine now \a use. 




THH IRE THE BEST M THE WOULD I 



loibli fMtan* of tbte Hichlne oTer (II sUim 

pwfHl ralliblllV, nefBriklpplna lUldiai >Dil,ili» mililaE at 
(hb- AHBnnt •tllchi* fw Um (arwu klDdi sC vort tho aiiara- 

fVESTCRN OFFiCE 45S tLl^'b!!!! 

SALCSROOlJl S',^-^ ^S'i 

Cirur if Jeferui ui Hnimri Aniiu, ^"^ Mm. .m. »d 

No. 7 Merrill Block, DETROIT. "o^Sm ii«circoi«. 

Addreeh H. TT. OX.X:^SON, Deti-olt, 

FAlfLYSElwMACHINE 

ONE OF THE BEST MACHINES IN THE MARKET. 



Stme tf iit fntdfUt Niits if Iiullun tHatti in tki BruuB KuUh itbt otben, in: 

It (llspcnscB wi^ll the use of a band fur driving the Machine. 

The works are bo perfectly airanged that Xhe jilachine can be run hackwardii or fbr- 
warda wltli the iwme fltclUty ; it can always be started with the foot alone, and always 
sure to he right. 

Both tlie upjier and under threads are used directly from the original spool, Ihus doing 
away with the trouble of re- winding. 

In simplicity of conetruclion anuaction. It is the easiest running Machine mude. 

C9~ It SewB over Heavy Seanu, and Liglit and Heavy F&biioa with equal facility, 
The Slilch is not only double locked, but very elastic, so that any scam can be stretch- 
ed lo the capacity of the goods without breaking the stitch, and the Hcam will not rip 
although evciy fourth stitcli be cut. 

It will Stitoh, Hem, Quilt, Gather, Fell and Embroider, beautifully. 
tW Don't fail lo call and sec tbem belbrc purchasing elsewhere. Agents wanted. 
Frinelpal oSee for the HMtL-vsst, Mo. t KsnilLBlMk, ooraer of Jeflsnon and Wood< 
ward AvettiiM, Detroit, MleUgan. 

QaaBTBl Amwa% for tlie Nortti-^veat. 



DSTROrr ADTBBTIBBiaBim. 






^. BURISriIA.M & CO., 



idBA.Xiaazis X2T 



READY-MADE CLOTHING, 

AND GENTS' FXJBNI8HING GOODS. 



DETROIT, MIOHICAN. 



WHEATON, PEEK & BURR, 

Wholesale Grocers 



JLXn MAKVFACTVRmRS OF 






M. '^. Burr. 






Keep alTV^ys on hftnd a Pull and 'well-seleoted Stock of Goods 

for 88le^ at the lonrest Market prices. 



The purity and imilbnnity of Wm. Peek's Vinegak, the satisfection it has given 
to GorttHnasB in •my plaoe, and in ahnoat every fisunily in the State, have rendered it the 
dandard of Vinegar wherever it has been used, and no pams will be spared to keep up its 
hi|^ reputetiaiL 




-> f 



MicHia^isr 3'i(^fy 



STATE GAZETTEeIi 



AND 



BUSINESS DIRECTORY 

FOR 1863-4, 

XMBBAcnre 

HISTORICAL AOT) DESCRIPTIVE SKETCHES OF ALL THE CITIES, 
TOWNS AND VILLAGES THROUGHOUT THE STATE, 

TOGETHER WITH 

Claesifled Xiiets or all Professions, Xrades and Pursuits, ]N'ames 

of* all Orfi^anized Companies, State and County Officers, 

and fVill inf<>miat^on regrardins tlie JMCercantile and 

JVIannfkotnrins Interests of* tlie State. 



SE002^TD JBlDXrVXOJ^, 



DETROIT: 

COMPILED AND PUBLISHED BY CHARLES F. CLARK, 

At the Offlco of City Directory and Commercial Adyertlfler, 
53 GhrisTvold Street. 

1863. 



1 

i 

r- 

). 

■^ 

;. 
•I 

.i. 

r. 



r 



r 

■ 

\ 

I 






i< 



ItamxxD, AoooBTOVo TO AoT or Oonaxna, nr na tbae 1868, 

BT CHARLES F. OLABK, 

Ih THi Olxbx^s Omoi of the Dibtsiot Oovbt of thb UirmD Statbb fob tbi Distbiot of Mxobioas. 



PREFACE 



<•»■ 



l5 presenting to the public the first number of what is designed to be a 
thorough and complete "Qazetteeb and Business Dibectory of the State of 
MiCHiOAir," the Publisher feels no ordinary degree of difiSdence, appreciating, as he 
does, the immense amount and variety of the labor required to perfect a work of 
ibis character. Relying entirely upon the intelligence and appreciation of his readers, 
he waives the usual custoip of authors in ofiering an apology, believing that if the 
work possesses any merit, no apology is required, and if devoid of merit, the least 
said the better. A work of this character is necessarily the result of a consultation 
of a multitude of authorities.—often varying and not always reliable, — how well the 
publisher has succeeded in his task, he leaves his readers to decide, hoping that 
their kind indulgence will be extended toward the shortcomings of the work, and 
that its merits will not be overlooked. 

To the following authorities the publisher is greatly indebted, having drawn 
liberally upon them in various parts of the book. 

Foster &. Whitney's Report of the Geology and Topography of the Lake Superior 
Land District, Ray Haddock's Reports of the Trade and Commerce of Detroit, R. E. 
Roberts' Sketches of the City of Detroit, Dupee, Beck & Sayles' Copper Stock 
Reports, Sheldon's History of Micbinan, Blois' Gazetteer of Michigan, Lee & South- 
erland's Michigan State Directory, Uuited States Census Report for 1800, Clark's 
Detroit City Directory, United States Post Office List, Annual Report of the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction, McCabe's Detroit Directory of 1837, Michigan Geological 
Report of 1859-60, Lectures of Gen. Lewis Cass, Henry R. Schoolcraft and Majors 
Whiting and Biddle, George L. Whitney's articles in Detroit Daily Advertiser, Henry 
C. Leach, U. S. Indian Agent, Truman B. Fox, Esq., of East Saginaw, J. P. Crippen, 
Esq., of Coldwater, and the editors of newspapers generally throughout the State, 
together with a host of paid writers and voluntary contributors. 

CHARLES F. CLARK, PuUisher. 



BimBXD, AooosmNO to Act or OoxawB, nr ins rmkR 1868, 

BY OHABLES F. GLARE, 

Ik TBI Olbbx^b Offiob or tee Dotuot Ooitbt or thi Uhitsd BrATas fob tbm Distuot or Miohioai.. 



PRE F- ^ C E 



<•»■ 



In preaeDting to the public the first number of what is designed to be a 
thorough and complete ''Gazetteer and Business Directory of the State of 
MicniGAX," the Publisher feels no ordinary degree of diffidence, appreciating, as he 
dc>es, the immense amount and variety of the labor required to i)orfect a work of 
this character. Relying entirely upon the intelligence and appreciation of his readers, 
he waiTes the usual custon? of authors in oiTering an apology, bclieying that if the 
work possesses any merit, no apology is required, and if devoid of merit, the least 
said the better. A work of this character is necessarily the result of a consultation 
of a multitude of authorities,— often varying and not always reliable, — how well the 
publisher has jiucceedcd in his task, he leaves his readers to decide, hoping that 
their kind indulgence will be extended toward the shortcomings of the work, and 
that its merits will not be overlooked. 

To the following authorities the publisher is greatly indebted, having drawn 
liberally upon them in various parts of the book. 

Foster & Whitney's Report of the Geology and Topography of the Lake Superior 
Land District, Ray Haddock's Reports of the Trade and Commerce of Detroit, R. E. 
Roberts' Sketches of the City of Detroit, Dupee, Beck & Sayles' Copper Stock 
Rep^irts, Sheldon's History of Michigan, Blois' Gazetteer of Michigan, Lee & South- 
erland's Michigan State Directory, United States Census Report for 1800, Clark's 
Detroit City Directory, United States Post Office List, Annual Report of the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction, McCabe's Detroit Directory of 1837, Michigan Geological 
Report of 185^-60, Lectures of Gen. Lewis Cass, Henry R. Schoolcraft and Majors 
Wti'iUDg ami Biddle, George L. Whitney's articles in Detroit Daily Advertiser, Henry 
C. Leach, U. S. Indian Agent, Truman B. Fox, Esq., of East Saginaw, J. P. Crippen, 
Esq., of Coldwater, and the editors of newspapers generally throughout the State, 
to^retber with a host of paid writers and voluntary contributors. 

CHARLES F. CLARK, Publisher. 



Agricultural College . . 

Alphabetical List of the Counties of 

Michigan 81 

Amboy. Lansing and Traverse Bay Bail- 
road 44 

Ancient Garden Beds 60 

Ancient Mounds 66 

Antiquities 66 

Asylum for the Deaf, Dumb and Blind.. 72 

Alcona County : 81 

Allegan County 81 

Alpena County 82 

Antrim County 82 

Barry County 83 

Battle of Bloody Bridge 23 

Battle of Frenchtown 26 

Bay County 83 

Berrien County 84 

Biddle John Major, Lectures of 17 

Bleeker County 86 

Boundaries of the State 17 

Boundary Troubles 30 

Branch County 85 

Brock, General 26 

Cadillac, Mons do la Motte 19 

Calhoun County 87 

Cascade La Portaille 121 

Cass County 87 

Cass General, Lectures of 17 

Cass Lewis, appointed Governor 27 

Census Statistics 73 

Cheboygan County 88 

Chippewa County 88 

Clare County 89 

Clinton County 88 

Coal 37 and 122 

Copper Interest 62 

Comparative Population of the United 

States '. 80 

counties of Micliigan, Alphabetical List of. 81 
Crawford County 90 



Death of Pontiac 28 

Defeat of St. Clair 24 

Delta County 90 

Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad 42 

Discovery 6f Michigan 17 

Doric Arch 121 

Eaton County 90 

Education 67 

Emmet County 91 

Fishing Interest 68 

Flint and Pero Marquette Railroad 48 

Frenchtown, Battle of 26 

Fruit 89 

Fur Trade 18 

Genesee County 91 

Geological Structure 37 

Gladwin County 92 

Gladwin, Major 22 

Governors of Michigan 35 

Grand Traverse County 92 

Grand Trunk Railway 44 

Gratiot County 92 

Great Western Railway of Canada 46 

Gypsum 37 

Harrison, General 26 

Hillsdale County 98 

Houghton County 94 

Hull's Surrender 25 

Hull's Treaty 25 

Huron County 96 

Indians of Michigan 64 

Ingham County * . 97 

Internal Improvements 40 

Ionia County 97 

Iosco County 99 

Iron Interest 67 

Isabella County 99 

Jackson County : 99 

Kalamazoo County 100 

Kalcasca County 101 



INDBZ TO HISTOBT. 



Kent County 101 

Keweenaw Connty 103 

Likefl 86 

Lake County 108 

Lapeer County 108 

Leelenaw County 104 

Lenawee County .104 

List of QoTemors 85 

List of Mining Companies 66 

LJTingston County 105 

Lomber Interest 48 

Macomb County 105 

Vanistee County 106 

Uanitou County 107 

Marquette County.. 107 

Mason County 110 

Mason John T, appointed Secretary 28 

Massacre of the River Raisin 26 

Mecosta County 110 

Michigan Central Railroad 40 

Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana 

Railroad 43 

Michillimackinac (Mackinaw) County ... 110 

Midland County Ill 

MiUer, Colonel 26 

Missaukee County 112 

Monroe County 112 

Montcahn County 113 

Montmorenci County 113 

Mormons, their settlement on Big Beaver. 107 

Muskegon County 113 

lames of QoTemors 35 

Kewaygo County 114 

Bormal School 71 

Borthern half, of Lower Peninsula 128 

Korthem Peninsula, soil, climate and 

productions 35 

Oakland County 114 

Oeeana County 115 

Ogeman County 115 

Ontonagon County 116 

Olceola County 116 

Oicoda County 116 

OUego County 117 

Ottawa County 117 

Peace of 1763 63 

Peace of 1783.. 23 

Pterrr's Victory 27 

Pictured Rocks 121 

Pllitor 87 



Pontiac 20 

Population of the United States 80 

Pre-£mption Scheme A 

Presque Isle 118 

Proctor, General 26 

Prohibition of Slarery 25 

Randall &> Whiting's Pre-emption Scheme 24 

Reform School 71 

Rivers , 86 

River Raisin, Massacre of 26 

Roscommon County 118 

Sagard, Father 17 

Saginaw County 118 

Saginaw Valley Saw Mills 50 and 51 

Salt Interest 51 

Sanilac County 120 

Sault Ste Marie Ship Canal 88 and 46 

Schoolcraft County .* 121 

Schoolcraft Henry R, Lectures of 17 

Shiawassee County 121 

Siege of Detroit 22 

Slavery Prohibited 25 

Soil^and Productions 89 

Southern Peninsula, Topography of 86 

State Agricultural College 72 

State Boundaries 17 

State Normal School 71 

State Reform School 71 

St. Clair County 122 

St. Joseph County 123 

Surrender of Detroit 25 

Tabular List of Governors 85 

Tecumseh, Death of 27 

Territory of Michigan constituted 25 

Tippecanoe, Battle of 26 

Treaty with the Chippewas 27 

Tuscola County 124 

United States Census 73 

Upper Peninsula 133 

Van Buren County 124 

War of 1812 25 

Washtenaw County 125 

Wayne County 120 

Wayne's Victory 24 

Wexford County 128 

Whiting Henry, Major, Lectures of 17 

Winchester, General 26 

Witherell James, appointed Secretary.. 28 
Woodbridge William, appointed Secretary 27 



BUSINESS INDEX TO DETROIT ADYERTISERS. 



•*•¥- 



Atiomay t Wmw* 

Edward Y. Swift 18 

ArelilteeUu 

James Shearer & Bro ...18 

Billiard Sal<K>M. 

Charles Schnlenburg 14 

Btllimrd Table llEaniifaetiirere. 

Charles Sq)iuleDbarg 14 

Bird Caches. 
Samuel Adams 9 

Bonnet Bleachers and Preeeers. 

Wright & Lee 7 

Books and Stationery. 

Raymond & Adams second fly leaf 

Boots and Shoes, IHanalketarers and 
Dealers In. 

C. C. Tyler dt Co 2 

Edward LeFavour 12 

Nelson, Hayward & Co 15 

Brashes. 
H. & L. Simoneau 8 

Builders* 
Morhous & Dewey 5 

Butchers. 

William Smith 10 

Candles. 

Schulto & Bros 13 

Carbon Oil. 

Cleveland Carbon Oil Co 7 

Michigan Oil Co 10 

Oarrlases. 

Johi^ Patton 6 



Clothiers, "Wholesale and Retail. 

Buruham & Co fifth fly leaf 

Heavenrich Bro's 8 



Composition Gravel Rooflu 

J. W. Gilbert dt Co 18 

Croehery and Glass IFare. 

P. WetmoredtCo 11 

Dentists. 

J. H. Farnsworth 5 

J.H. Farmer 10 

Bress and Cloak SKaker. 

Mrs. H. J. Lindner 18 

Bruffs and medicines. 

H. & L Simoneau 8 

Dry Goods, IVholesale. 

Edward Orr Inside Front Cover 

Town & Shelden 1 

Root, Johnson & Barbour 8 

Dry Goods, "Wholesale and Retail* 

George Peck 2 

J. W. Frisbie, Jr 7 

Dye WToods and Dye StuITs. 

n. k L. Simoneau 8 

EnsruTer. 

Geo. P. Conklin 18 

Fancy Good*. 

George Schuler , 2 

Charles Schwartz 11 

Fish, Dealer In. 

James Craig 10 

Furnaces and Heaters. 

John Holmes 4 



Furniturot manufacturers and 
Dealers In. 

Henry Weber 11 

Furs. 

F. Buhl & Co second fly lea! 

Cloths and Casslmeres. 

Heavenrich Bro's 8 «»» Fixtures. 

Coal and Iron. | F. Wetmore & Co U 

Groceries and ProTlslons. 

Trowbridge, Wilcox <k Co 6 



James E. Pittmau 9 

Collars and Rosoms. 

Chandler & Bro 8 

Commission Merchant. 
James Craig 10 



Moore, Foote & Co '» 

Groceries, WTholesale. 

WheatOD, Peek 6l Burr .' . fifth fly leal 



BlfSINBSS nrDSZ TO DETTBOir ABYEBTISEBS. 



9 



Hiu^iraTe and Cvtlerj* 

0. P. Woodruff 2 

Charles Bnach 6 

Bate and Caps* 

P. Buhl & Co second fly leaf 

Kotels* 
Biddle House, (J. &. A. B. Taber, Props.) 6 

J. T. WhiUng d& Co 4 

Biddle d& Stanton 6 

A. G. Lindsay 15 

Wm. B. Wesson 16 

George W. Hofl&nan.... opp. page 608 

8. A. MatUson back fly leaf 

Insurance Companies. 

Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Co 16 

Manhattan Fire Insurance Co 16 

Irving " " " 16 

North American " " 16 

Long Island " " " 16 

Howard " " " 16 

Merchants* " " " 16 

New York Life " " back fly leaf 

iBtna " " '' opp. page 608 

Iron Founders* 
Jackson dt Wiley Inside back cover 

Iron, mannfaeturers of. 

VTyaDdotte Rolling Mill Co 4 

Detroit and Lake Superior Iron Manufac- 

torlDg Co 12 

Eianips and Oils. 
F. Wetmore & Co 11 

Lapidary. 

Anthony Pohl 3 

I^ard OU. 

Shulte &Bro8 13 

Ija^ir Books. 

B.D. Elwood 16 

licaf Tobacco, Dealer In 

Rothschild & Bro 12 

Lieatlier and Hides. 

George Kirby 13 

Lime and Plaster. 

J. B. Hinchman 4 

Linens and Sbeellnffs* 

George Peck 2 

MaciilnlsUi. 

Jackson & Wiley Inside back cover 

Map Publishers. 

K. Farmer k Co 10 

master Dullders* 

James Shearer &^Bro»« 



Wm. Smith 10 

Neek Ties. 

Chandler A Bro 8 

NePFspapem. 

Michigan Conmiercial Advertiser, Chas. F. 
Clark, Editor and Proprietor 10 

Paper TFarelionse, IVlLolesale. 

Comwell, Van Cleve 6l Barnes 14 

Patent Hedlelnea* 

H. 6l L. Simonean 8 

PlC Iron* 

James E. Pittman 9 

Plantnn; and Savrtnc* 

Morhoos dc Dewey 6 

Planing and Clapboard Ttlaehlne* 

A. A. Wilder 19 

Plaster ISUl. 
J. B. Hinchman 4 

PnbUsliers. 

Charles F. Clark 10 

8. D. Elwood 16 

Ready Made Olotblnc* 

Heavenrich Bro*s 8 

Resistors and Ventilators. 

John Holmes * 4 

Restaurant. 

Safford's Eating house 12 

Roofing Material. 

J.W.Gilbert &Co. 18 

Scliool. 

Academy of the Sacred Heart 17 

School Rooks. 

Raymond & Adams second fly leaf 

Seii^lns MacHlne. 

Braman Sewing Machine fourth fly leaf 

Florence Sewing " " " 

Singer & Co last fly leaf 

Sbafts and Railroad Axles. 

Wyandotte Rolling Mill 4 

Sblpplnff and Insurance Afj^ents, 

J. T. Whiting&Co 4 

SElilp Cbandlers. 

Trowbridge, Wilcox & Co 6 

Moore, Foote & Co 7 

Slilp Rullders. 
Jones &> Co 5 

Slilrts, Manufacturers of; 

Chandler &. Bro S 

SOiLOe Findings. 

George Kirby 18 



10 



BUSINBBS INDEX TO DETSOIT IDYXBTIBEBS. 



Samuel Adams 9 

Silks and SliaMrLi. 

George Peck 2 

J. W. Frisbie, Jr 7 

Slate Mootmu 

E. W. Ladd & Co 18 

Slate Tile* 

E. W. Ladd&Co 18 

Soap aad Talloir* 

Schulte & Bros 13 

Statloaem* 

8. D. Elwood 15 

Steam Knglne»> 

Jackson &> Wiley Inside back cover 

Sto-Fee and Tlnnrare. 

Charles Busch 6 

Stra^ir Goods. 

F. Buhl &Co second fly leaf 



TannenM and Ourrlen' Toole. 

George Kirby 18 

Tarred Rooflns Paper and Cement* 

Comwell, Van Cleve & Barnes 14 

Tolmeeo and d^are. 
Rothschild & Bro 12 

I7plioleterers> material. 

Henry Weber 11 

TtneBar, ManuDiketarera of. 

Wheaton, Peek & Burr fifth fly leaf 

Watcltee and Jeivelry. 

George Schuler 2 

Anthony Pohl , 8 

irilloDr Ware. 

Charles Schwartz 11 

IFire, ManoAusturers of. 

Samuel Adams 9 

Tankee Notions. 

Knoll &> Wiseman 5 

Charles Schwartz 11 



♦ .»» » 



BUSINESS INDEX TO CHICAGO ADVERTISERS. 



•«•»■ 



Ales and Porters. 

Lill &. Diversy 88 

Aleoliol and Spirits* 

A. F. Croskey 25 

Banker and Broker. 

James Boyd 82 

Beddlnffs and ISattrasses. 

E.G. L. Faxon 86 

Billiard Table IHanafkctarers. 

E. Brunswick & Co First fly leaf 

Bren^erles. 

LUl & Diversy 88 

Bmskes. 

H. W. Adams & Hitchcock 28 

Bnflblo Skins and Slel^rk Bobes. 

Thomas B. Morris & Co 82 



Bomlns Fluid. 

Fuller & Finch , 



83 



Olotblers, ITkolesale* 

S. Stettheimer & Co 86 

Coal Tar, Beoflnc, Pltck and Felting. 

Gilbert, Hubbard & Co 29 



Coal and Carbon Oils. 

Pope & Slocum 80 

Fuller & Finch 88 

Carry Combs and Cards. 

H, W. Adams & Hitchcock 28 

Bemljohnst Flasks and Bottles, 

A. F. Croskey 26 

Bmgrs, HTkolesale. 

FuUerA Fhich 88 

Blectrotypinff. 
Chicago Type Foundry .84 

Fiskinff Tackle. 

Gilbert, Hubbard & Co 29 

Fla^s, Banners and Ensigns. 

Gilbert, Hubbard & Co 29 

FlaTorins Extracts. 

H. W. Adams & Hitchcock 28 

Frenck and Bridal Skirts. 

Louis Trager 31 

Famaces, Hot Air and Steam. 

Walworth, Hubbard &. Co 26 



BUSINESS INDEX TO CHICAGO ADYEBTISEBS. 



11 



Furs mnd Fur Goods. 

Thomas B. Morris & Co 82 

Gents Farnlsliliiff Goods. 

8.8tettheimer& Co 86 

Ctffoc«n' mnd nm^slsts' Goods on Man* 
olkcCnrers' Aeconnt* 

H.W. Adams & Hitchcock 28 

Grocers, l¥lioIe8aIe* 

O.C.Cook&Co 80 

Polltrd&Doane 40 

Ground CofTees and Spices. 

H. W.Adams &. Hitchcock 28 

Hoop Skirts. 

New York & Illinois Hoop Skirt Manu- 

fitctory 31 

C. E DeForest & Co 34 

Hotels. 

Sherman House 39 

India Rubber Belting:. 

John B. Ideson & Co first fly leaf 

India Rubber Goods. 

John B. Ideson & Co first fly leaf 

India Rubber Hose. 

John B. Ideson & Co first fly leaf 

India Rubber Springs. 

John B. Ideson & Co first fiy leaf 

Injectors (Glfikrd's). 

Walworth, Hubbard & Co 26 

Kerosene lianips. 

Pope&Slocum 30 



Lamps and Oils. 

Pope & Slocum 



30 



Ijltlaoffraplier. 

Bdward Mendel opp. 40 

JHetal IVarebonsc. 

Vinderroort, Dickinson & Co 27 

Ifenrspaper. 

Chicago Times 37 



Paints and Oils. 

Mler& Finch 



33 



^per Hanfflng^S) jflanuffacturers of. 

B. 0. L. Faxon 36 

Printers' MaterlaL 

Chicago Typo Foundry 34 

Produce ConunUslon Blerohants. 

Batet, Stone & Co 40 



Rectiflers. 

A. P. Croskey 25 

Rectifying* 

A. F. Croskey 26 

Ropes and Twines, (Pittsburg Co.) 

H. W. Adams & Hitchcock 28 

Rubber Belting. 

Walworth, Hubbard &. Co 26 

Safes, Manufaetarers and Oealers. 

Herring &. Co opp. title page 

Searing Maoblnes* 

Florence Sewing Machines 40 

Ship Cbandlers. 

Gilbert, Hubbard & Co 29 

Standard Scales, (Howe's.) 

Vandervoort, Dickinson & Co 27 

Starcb, (IlllnoU Co.) 

H. W. Adams & Hitchcock 28 

Steam Bngfnes and Boilers. 

Walworth, Hubbard& Co 26 

Steam and Water Gauges. 

Walworth, Hubbard & Co 26 

Steam Pumps, (Wortbington's.). 

Walworth, Hubbard & Co 26 

Sugars, IVbolesale. 

G. C.Cook & Co 30 

Tents and Airnings* 

Gilbert, Hubbard & Co 29 

Tin Plates and Sbeet Iron. 

Vandervoort, Dickinson & Co 27 

Twines and Cordage. 

Gilbert, Hubbard & Co 29 

Type Founders* 

Chicago Type Foundry 34 

Uncolored Japan Teas. 

Pollard & Doane 40 

Upbolsterers' Goods. 
E. G. L. Faxon 36 

'Wines and I<iquors, Wbolesale. 

A. F. Croskey 25* 

Woolens, Foreign itnd Domestic. 

S. Stettheimer & Co 35 

Tarn and Hosiery. 
0. H. DeForest &. Co 84 



MISCELLANEOUS ADVERTISEMENTS. 



• •• 



AtiornejB at I«air* 

Bennett & Bancker (Jackson) 20 

Bankeni* 

B. Follett & Co. (Ypsilanti) 20 

IkGller, Davis 6l Webster (Ann Arbor)... 20 

Hotels, 

Cooks Hotel (Ann Arbor) 20 



Commerelal OoUeca* 

Albion Commercial College 21 

Plaster ^Hannftietiireni. 

Grand Rapids Plaster Co 21 

Selftool Books. 

D. Appleton & Co. (New Tork). third fly leaf 



m ♦•» 



EAST SAGINAW ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Driggs W. J 24 

Estabrook J. 8 28 

Gooding Brothers 23 

Robinson Charles K 23 



Schmitz Anthony 24 

Silsbee H. C 28 

Webber, Thompson 6l Gage 24 



>♦» ^ 



SAGINAW CITY ADVERTISEMENTS. 



•*«4 



Burrows Geo. L 22 

Gaylord Aug. S 22 



Jerome D. H. & Co 

Webster House (Stevens M. C). 



22 

« • • • • "^ 



♦— ^ 



ALrnABETICAL LIST OF NEWSPAPEIl ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Union Herald, Albion -11 

Argus, Ann Arbor 42 

News, Ann Arbor 43 

Argus, Charlotte 48 

Gazette, Cold water 43 

American, Corunna 46 

Michigan Commercial Advertiser, Detroit. 41 

Citizen, Flint 40 

Democrat, Flint 43 

Clarion, Grand Haven 41 

Eagle, Grand Rapids 45 

Enquirer, Grand Rapids 42 

Citizen, Jackson 44 

Patriot, Jackson 47 

independent, Jonesville 47 

Pioneer, Hastings 46 



Democrat, Hillsdale 44 

Gazette, Kalamazoo 48 

Telegraph, Kalamazoo 47 

Republican, Lansing 45 

Republican, Lapeer 42 

Jefferstmian, Lt»xington 44 

Kxi)ounder, Marshall 48 

Statesman, Marshall 45 

Commercial, Monroe 48 

Berrien Counlv Freeman 49 

Inquirer, Niles 47 

Press, Paw Paw *. 49 

Jacksonian, Pontiac 44 

Gazette, Pontiac 48 

Republican, St. Johns 46 

Reporter, Three Rivers 45 



NAMES TOO LATE FOR REGULAR INSERHON. 



•»• 



DEARBORN. 
(?oi Dncmirnoir or Town, sto., bu Paab 287.) 

Alexander John, jeweler. 

Allen David, boot and shoe maker. 

ALLEN GEORGE W, proprietor Dearborn 

House. 
Htlpin John, proprietor Western Hotel. 
Howard Edward C, grocer and postmaster. 
Jackson Frederick, wagon maker. 
Lapham Abraham, proprietor R R Hotel. 
Moody Alexander, blacksmith. 
Rjan John B, blacksmith. 
8I088 Darid, dry goods. 
8I0SS Margaret, dry goods. 
Snow Edward S, physician. 
Sweney Thomas N, physician. 



DE \A/ITT. 
(FoK DwcKiPTioN 07 Towv, XTa, 8KB Paos 287.) 

Ballard Cnnice, milliner. 

Chapin DeWitt C, attorney. 

Cobb Henry D, physician. 

Porman Tobias, boots and shoes. 

Gillett Linus, cooper. 

Goodale M Rev, (Congregational). 

Headley Moses P, general store. 

Hoyt Sykester, attorney. 

Hutchiiis Ezra M, justice of the peace. 

Lee Augustus, lumber dealer. 

Lewis Enoch, blacksmith. 

Lott Chauncey, justice of the peace. 

Moore Daniel, gunsmith. 

Pearsall Jonathan R, justice of the peace. 

Randall Abram, blackhmith. 

Topping George W, physician. 

Webber Rivaldo, ma^on. 

Whitney Bradley I, grocer. 

William's Joseph E. foundry and carpenter. 

Woodruff Addison A, cabinet maker. 

Woodrutt Riley J, grocer. 



WATROUSVILLE- 

( Fob DiscBipnox of tow», bto., 8« Pao» 600.) 

Black Russell D, physician. 
Buddington George W, hotel. 
Burdick Aaron, grocer. 
David^jon A J Mrs, general store. 
Peming James S Rev, (Christian). 



Goff Lyman, mason. 

Hamilton John Rev, (Methodist). 

Haskins Benson, carpenter. 

Hawkins John Rev, (Baptist). 

Honsinger Willard, blHckvmith. 

Kins William, general store. 

Nettelton Benjamin F, carpenter. 

Nettelton Tiffhay, carpenter. 

Pattee John R, carpenter. 

Pbelps J 8, cari>enter. 

Rogers William L, carpenter. 

Sherman Henry G, cot»per. 

Sherman John, carpenter. 

Sherman Orlando, carpenter. 

Stoddard Asa, mason. 

Van Gieson William, blacksmith. 

Vaughn Horace G, hotel. 

Walton John, carriage maker. 

Watrous Aaron, flonring and saw mill. 

Watrous Benjamin F, saloon. 

Wood Benjamin A, boot and shoe maker. 



WAYNE. 

( Fob Dibcwption of Town, bto., ssk Paok 600.) 

Brown, Bunting & Cutting, (Ammon Brown, 

Jacob D Bunting and Norman Cutting), 

Wayne Nurbcry. 
Brown Charles, carpenter. 
Bunting Jacob D, general store. 
Cady Alonzo, justice of the peace. 
Collar Alexander, physician. 
Corbett William R, hotfl. 
Corey & Smith, (Almus Corey and Jacob T 

Smiih), saw mill. 
Crane Wallace, carpenter. 
Curtis John, carpenter. 
Curtis Warren, physician. 
Dawson Robert, hotel. 
Hammon John F, boot and shoe maker, and 

dealer. 
Hedge H G Rev, (Methodist). 
Kilborn Henry S, blacksmith. 
Knickerbocker Chauncey W Rev, (Unlver- 

salist). 
Marker Jacob, blacksmith. 
Miiitonga John, iron founder. 
Morrison Thomas, physician. 
0'(Jonner Jeremiah, general store. 
Schamber Jacob, saloon. 
Sheldon Elias, boot and shoe maker. 



14 



NA20B TOO LATE FOB BEGITLAK INSEBTIOK. 



Smith Michael, harness maker. 

Steers William, general store. 

Steers William C, general storo. 

Walker & Curtis, (Samuel W Walker and 

Stephen F Curtis), saw mill. 
Walker Samuel W, justice of the peace. 
Wingard Joseph, mason. 






WEST BERLIN- 
( Fob Dksoriftiom or Town, sra, b» Pagi 000.) 

Bennett Parker, justice of the peace. 

Clark Silas, shoe maker. 

Dake William, hotel. 

Douglass John, shoe maker. 

Fort James, blacksmith. 

Frost Daniel B, justice of the peace. 

Frost Lewis, grocer. 

Hagerdorne John, cooper. 

Hall Qeorge, justice of the peace. 

Hemett William, F, grocer. 

Hubbard Ezekiel, blacksmith. 

Lester Charles, flour mill. 

Lester Girley, grocer. 

Lockwood Levi, carpenter. 

McCrossen David D, physician. 

Saunders Eugene, hotel. 

Shafer Nelson, blacksmith 

Sheny Albert, justice of the peace. 

Smith Elias, hotel. 

Sweet Edmund, blacksmith. 

Sweet Jndson, carpenter. 



VA^ILLIAMSTOWN. 
( Fob DxsoBipnoif or Towir, nra, sbb Page 604.) 

Bishly John, blacksmith. 

Brown John F, insurance agent. 

Brown John F Mrs, milliner. 

Carr Charles S, justice of the peace. 

Carr Charles W, hotel. 

Fairbanks James, boot and shoe maker. 

Grattan Crary, grocer. 

Grattan Egbert, general store. 

Hale Philip, mei chant tailor. 

Hartwe August, blacksmith. 

Hartwe William, blacksmith. 

Hewson Thomas, grocer. 

Horton Hiram, cooper. 

Horton Hiram A, saloon. 

King Israel, boot and shoe maker. 

Krumbeck John F, harness maker. 

Leasia James A, physician. 

Lindner John, carriage maker. 

Loranger, Brown & Co, (Eli P Loranger, 

John F Brown and Nelson Loranger), 

general store. 
Randall C L, physician. 
Scott 8 James, lawyer. 
Sbuert Daniel, hotel. 
Steele Joseph H, iron founder. 
Taylor Ira, blacksmith. 
Taylor Jonathan B, flouring mill. 



Tompkins Charles W, carpenter, 

Wagner John, carriage maker. 

Waldo J B & J W, (JeromeB and Jamc 

general store. 
Waldo &> Tompkins, clothiers. 
White Clark, cari)enter. 



NA^HITE LAKE- 

( Fob Dkbobiptiom or Towk, kto., beb Paob 

Babbitt Grove Rev. 

Ballard William, blacksmith. 

Brock Martin, carpenter. 

Buchanan Carydon, justice of the peace 

Clark John C, general store. 

Doty Tobias, carriage maker. 

Foote Charles C Rev. 

Frisbie William & Co, blacksmiths. 

Green Calvin, mason. 

Hopkins E d^ R, (Erastus and Ralph] 

mill. 
Phips Daniel, carpenter. 
Phips Harvey, daguerreotypist. 
Predmone Lewis, carpenter. 
Meenteo John, boot and shoe maker. 
Richard Aaron, physician. 
Tucker Norman Rev, (Presbyterian). 
Van Eveiy E, hotel. 



WHITE RIVER. 

( Fob Dbsobiption or Town, bto , skb Paok 8 

Basom Daniel E, boot and shoe maker. 
Bennett A, physician. 
Britton A B, machinist. 

Brown , saw mill 

Brown George, stave dealer. 

Cady John H, merchant tailor. 

Caine Alfred A, grocer. 

Carlton Israel E, lawyer. 

Corell A J, stave dealer. 

Covell & Thompson, saw mill. 

Dalton & Bros, general store. 

Dal ton James jr, lawyer 

Dicev Elmer C, machinist. 

DOWLING GEORGE E, insurance agent 

Duke Walter, carriage maker. 

Ferry Noah H, gent^ral store and saw mi 

Franklin Georte, real estate agent. 

Friday Adolph, fctave dealer. 

Friday Conrad, carriaj:e maker. 

Gableson Joseph, blacksmith. 

Goldring James, ship builder. 

Griflin Amos Rev, (Methodist). 

Griffin Lewis J Rev, (Methodist). 

Heald & Avery, (Chicago), general store 

saw mill. 
Hitchcock Andrew J, blacksmith. 
Ilubbard Charles, general store. 
Hubbard Charles Mrs, milliner. 
Joice Stephen A, physician. 
Jones Horace, cooper. 
Jones J, carriage maker. 



WBmammmums^ammbum 



m 



KAMES TOO LATK FOB SEGULAB INSEBTIOK. 



15 



Kennedy & Franklin, (William J Kennedy 
and George Franklin j, bankers. 

Kennedy William J, real estate agent. 

Klmider John, mason. 

Lanford L W, hotel. 

Lnscomb & Price, (Milwaukee), general 
store and saw mill. 

Hears Alfred, stave dealer. 

Hears Charles, general store. 

Hears Nathan, general store. 

Hoody George W, machinist. 

O'Brien Michael W, general store. 

Peck Bichard, mason. 

Planket Thomas, ship builder. 

Pullman Jesse, lawyer. 

Sargent Nathan, blacksmith. 

Shepard Orrin W, carpenter. 

Simons &> Carlton, general store. 

Stebbins Joseph D, machinist. 

Steel Bufus, ship builder. 

Storms Benjamin D, grocer. 

Storms Lucy A, hotel. 

Thenrer John M, boot and shoe maker. 

Tyrer John, harness maker. 

Watson Sylvester J B, justice of the peace. 

Wheeler Elizabeth, milliner. 

Wheeler John A, physician. 

Wier Bobert, cooper. 



WOODHULL- 

( FoK DiflosEPTioN OF Toww, ETC., SEX Paos 604X0 

Bacon Newton, boot and shoe maker. 
Burlingame Solomon, blacksmith. 
Butterfield George, mason. 
Corcoran John, justice of the peace. 
Corcoran Owen, lawyer. 
Gelding John J, justice of the peace. 
Graham James, lawyer. 
Hard William Rev, (Universalist). 
Kay Richard Rev, (Presbyterian). 
Mower Christopher, carpenter, 
Cakes Hugh, justice of tbo peace. 
Cakes Owen, mason. 
Pulver James, blacksmith. 
Shalt John P, boot and shoe maker. 
Stevens Henry, justice of the peace. 
Stickley George, carpenter. 
Tower David J, real estate agent. 
Warfle Martin, machinist. 
Warner Benjamin F, machinist. 
Watson Lorenzo D, carpenter. 
Woodhull Josephus, lawyer. 
Wright Samuel, cooper. 



WOODLAND. 

( Fob DisoRxraoK of Toww, etc , bbi Paob 504>^.) 

Batinger Melchior, hotel. 
Brand August, physiciau. 
Brining Christian, carriage maker. 
CawthomeJohn Rev, (Methodist). 
Covell David B, carpenter. 



) 



Elson Lorain, mason. 

Goucher C W, physician. 

Grant Nathan 0, blacksmith. 

Haight Stephen, carpenter. 

Hil^rt Lawrence, general store. 

Holmes Levi, justice of the peace. 

Holmes Sarah Miss, milliner. 

Irving Hiram, blacksmith. 

Johnson George, saw miU. 

Kilpatrick John, justice of the peace. 

Mando Leonard, boot and shoe maker. 

Myers George N, justice of the peace. 

Miller John, carpenter. 

Phillips John, blacksmith. 

St. John Joel, cooper. 

Sandy Edwin, justice of the peace. 

Smoke Henry L, druggist 

Titus William S Rev, (United Brethren). 

Tyler Joseph, carriage maker. 

Van Antwerp George, physician. 

NA/OODSTOOK. * 
( Fob Desobiptiok of Town, bto., bcb Pagb 504^^. 

Adams Hiram D, grocer. 

Barnes Lewis J, boot and shoe maker. 

Beaman Joshua, mason. 

Boley Hiram, cooper. 

Brown William, physician. 

Carmichael Charles jr, general store. 

Darling Leander P, justice of the peace. 

Drake Robert M, mason. 

Frost Emerson, cooper. 

Grant Mrs, milliner. 

Iveson Beniamin, carpenter. 

Lamb Oisam us, justice of the peace. 

Lane Jacob L, hotel. 

Lewis Elisha, carpenter. 

Losey Edward C, blacksmith. 

Morley Amos, blacksmith. 

Morris Joseph H, carpenter. 

Mullinex John B, carpenter, 

Munger Charles C, harness maker. 

Nichols William B, saw mill. 

Osborn Alvin C, hotel. 

Osbom Erasmus, insurance agent. 

Osborn William W, lawyer. 

Osbom Richard T, grocer. 

Palmer John F, merchant tailor. 

Pomerjoy Chauncey R, physician. 

Pratt Cavallo S, saw mill. 

Rogers James H, mason and justice of the 
peace. 

Sanford Lewis, justice of the peace. 

Sickly Martin V, insurance agent. 

Smith Brothers, (George A and Legrand J), 
general store and flouring mill. 

Smith & Wilcox, (George A Smith and Wil- 
liam S Wilcox), flouring mill. 

Squier George W, carriage maker. 

Stone Oliver, carpenter. 

Sweet John, cooper. 

Van Etten John, grocer. 

I Williams Henry S, hotel. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MICHIGAN. 



THE name "MicraoAN,'* derived from the Indian word ''Michitagegan^^ signifying 
a great lake, was applied by the early wyageiin to all that section of the country 
lying between the great lakes of Michigan and Huron, though the present boundaries, as 
defined by an act of congress, passed June 15th, 1836, are as follows : ** Beginning at the 
point where a line drawn direct from the Southern extremity of Lake Michigan to the 
most northerly cape (called North Cape) of Maumee (Miami) Bay, intersects the eastern 
boundary line of the State of Indiana, and running thence with the said line to the most 
northerly cape of the Maumee Bay ; and thence from the said north cape of the said bay, 
north-east to the boundary line between the United States and the Proyince of Upper 
Canada, in Lake Erie ; thence with the said boundary line between the United States and 
Canada, through the Detroit river, Lake Huron and Lake Superior, to a point where 
Uie said line last touched Lake Superior, being the mouth of Pigeon river ; thence 
in a direct line through Lake Superior to the mouth of the Montreal river; thence 
through the middle o^ the main channel of the said River Montreal, to the middle 
of the Lake of the Desert ; thence in a direct line to the nearest head water of the Mono- 
monie river ; thence through the middle of that fork of the said river first touched by the 
said line, to the main cliannel of the said Monomonie river ; thence down the center 
of the main channel of the same, to the center of the most usual ship channel of 
the Green Bay of Lake Michigan; thence through the center of the most usual 
ship channel of the said bay, to the middle of Lake Michigan ; thence through the 
middle of Lake Michigan to the northern boundary of the State of Indiana, as that 
lin#%'as established by the act of congress of the nineteenth of April, eighteen hundred 
and sixteen ; thence due east, with the north boundary line of the said State of Indiana, 
to the north-cast comer thereof; and thence south, with the east boundary line of Indiana, 
to the place of beginning." 

From an interesting series of lectures delivered before the "Historical Society 
of the Stale of Michigan," in the years 1830, 1831 and 1832, by General Cass, Majors 
John Biddle, Henry Whiting, Henry R Schoolcraft, Esq., and other talented gentlemen, 
we extract many interesting facts relative to the early history of the State : 

Its discovery and early settlement were promoted by the French, the motive 
of which seems to have been the engrossing of the Indian ftir trade, and, incidentally, the 
conversion of the aborigines. In prosecution of the latter purpose. Father Sagard 
reache<l Lake Huron, by w^ay of the Grand river, (of Upper Canada) in 1632, seven years 
subsequent to the founding of Quebec, although the present site of the city of Detroit had 
been visited as early as 1610. Soon after the middle of the seventeenth century, trading 
2 

# 



18 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MICHIOAN. 



posts were established at Sault de Ste. Marie, Michillimacinac, (old fort) and Green Bay ; 
the two fonner, in a military point of \*iew, very important positions. 

From information received through the Indians, that there existed a large river west 
of the great lakes, running south, it was supposed from the limited geographical 
knowledge at that time, that this river discharged into the Pacific. To ascertain this 
important fact, the French Intendant, M. Talon, employed Joliet, a citizen of Quebec, 
and Father Marquette, a Jesuit, to make the discovery. They conducted the expedi- 
tion through the lakes, ascended the Fox river, crossed the portage, and descended 
the Wisconsin to the Mississippi, where they arrived tlie 17th of June, 1678. They 
descended the Mississippi to the Arkansas, which they ascended; but, from some 
untoward circumstance, were thwarted in tlieir purpose, and compelled to return without 
accomplishing their object. But the project was not to be abandoned. Robert de 
La Salle, a native of Normandy, but who had for many years resided in Canada, 
a gentleman of intelligence, enterprise, and the most indefatigable perseveraftje, obtain- 
ing the permission of the King of France, set upon this expedition of discovery 
from Frontenac, in 1768, accompanied by Chevalier Fonti, his lieutenant. Father 
Henepln, a Jesuit missionary, and thirty or forty men. He built the first vessel that 
ever navigated these lakes. She was called the (Mffin^ and was launched at Erie, in 1679. 

In this year he embarked, sailed up the Detroit, reached Mackinac, where he had left 
his vessel, and coasted along the Eastern shore of Lake Michigan, built a fort at the 
mouth of the " River of the Miamis, " (supposed to be the site of Chicago) crossed 
the country to the Illinois river, and descended it a distance, but was stopped for want of 
supplies. Here he built a fort, and proceeded back to Canada for supplies, and returned. 
He then explored the valley of the Mississippi to its mouth, and took possession of 
it in the name of Louis, King of France, and called it, in honor of his name, Lmtitiana. 
The details of this expedition abound in incidents of the most thrilling interest, but they 
are too elaborate to be here related. 

The ftir trade has ever been regarded as the great source of wealth, and it formeriy 
constituted the chief value of the regions bordering the lakes ;♦ tie possession of it was, 
therefore, the principal subject of contention between the French and English. Its lucra- 
tivcness was not confined exclusively to this region, for it appears that most of the 
internal jealousies and contentions of the English colonies, especially the infant 
New England colonies, had their origin, not so much in the loss of soil or jurisdiction, as 
in a fear of thereby losing the exclusive right to this invaluable trade.f 

To obtain exclusive right of trade with the Indians, it was necessary to cultivate 
their friendship. But however great the exertions of the English might have ^^, 
there seems to have been a want of success, owing to a predilection of the Inomns 
to the French, or to a more natural affinity in their habits and manners, which 
I he two latter had to each other. The French succeeded in captivating the affec- 

*To give 6ome Idea of the lacratlveneas of UkU butlnesa, the sutdolned account of the trade at Leech Lake. 
oear the Murce of the MisslMlppl. It appended. 

"The standard of value and compatatlon in this trade. Is an abimlnlkwa. or prime beaver, called ptut 
by the French. A plus, tradition states, was given for as much vemilllion as would cover tho point of a case 
knife, and the same price was paid, respectively, fbr four charges of powder, or four charges of shot, or fif- 
teen balls, or two branches of wampum. It is related that an outfit of six bales of goods, worth, say two 
thousand dollars, bought from Athabaska. ninety-six packs of beaver, each of which would weigh ninety poQnds.at 
a time when prime beaver was worth four dollars a pound." [that ls,fA« value qftwo thoutand doUart in goodi, 
in exchange Jbr tMrty-faur thousand doUart worth rtfjun.] 

In 1784, at the post of the Pic. **a bear was estimated at one plus, an otter, three niattens, a lynx, fif- 
teen mu»krat8, respectively, one plus. A buflalo robe, two plus. A keg of mixed mm. thirty plus." (Si^toaicrqft^i 
Bscpedition through the Upper Mii$i$tippi in 1832.) 

t y*dt Webster's Hist. 



mSTORY OF THS 8TATB OF MICHIGAN. 19 



tioiis of most of the tribes, save the Ottogamies or Foxes, whose ayersion could never 
be overcome. 

It was to more effectually secure these regions to their possession, that prompted 
the possession of the strait of Detroit, the great key to the northern lakes. This 
politic measure had been determined upon by the English, but their rivals were first 
to effect it 

The expedition was fitted out by the Governor General of New France, in 1701. 
It was headed by Mons. de la Motte Cadillac, accompanied by a Jesuit, and one 
hundred men, carrying all the necessaries of a militaiy establishment. In June of 
the same year, after careful examination of the strait, the present site of the city of 
Detroit was selected, and its occupation effected. When first visited by the French, 
it was the site of an ancient Indian village, Teuch^m-grondie^ or, according to some 
accounts, it was called Watteatononff — in signification, indicating the circuitous approach 
to it 

The work erected was a rude, stockaded fort, inclosing a few houses, occupied by 
for traders and those attached to the post, of slight construction, and ** calculated rather to 
overawe the Indians, than seriously to resist them." It was called Fort Ponchartrain. 

From this period to the commencement of the administration of Gk>vemor Cass, the 
history of the peninsula may be said to be the histoiy of Detroit, although many of those 
fiicts most interesting in its history, are disconnected, meagre, and obscure. 

The Indians were always the instruments used by the contending parties in their 
strife for sovereignty. No sooner had one party gained the ascendancy in some par- 
tialis, than the other, piqued at the success, redoubled ardor and professions of friendship 
to the Indians, as the opposite party relaxed into coldness and security. The triumph 
of the one was but the undoubted prelude to finesse and intrigue in the other. 

The French having gained this important post, the Indians next were to be wrought 
upon as the only means of dislodging them. The chiefs living in the vicinity were 
invited to Albany, and they returned disaffected to the French. The town was set 
o& fire, but it was fortunately extinguished without much injury. The Indians were after- 
wards repulsed with success, by Sieur de V incennes, in an attack made on the fort. There 
were three villages in the vicinity — a Huron and a Pottawatomie on the south, and 
an Ottawa on the opposite side of the strait — facts which show the attachment of 
the three tribes to this region of the peninsula. Game was abundant, and herds 
of bufialo ranged the prairies and valley of the Detroit This, and the superior beauty of 
^ country, are supposed to be the cause of their selection of this location, the place 
of figmmon resort to various tribes of the interior. 

^Tie Fox or Ottogamie Indians had long been the enemies of the French. They 

were probably instigated by the English, who used the means of gaining their favor by 

the interchange of presents, as early as 1686. From some cause unknown they broke out 

into open hostility to the French. In May, 1712, they collected in great numbers around 

the fort, in the absence of the friendly Indians, who were engaged in hunting. Their 

piot, intended to be secret, was discovered by a friendly Ottogamy. Expresses were sent 

^ the friendly tribes, and preparations made for defense. The garrison, then under 

command of Du Buisson, consisted of only twenty soldiers. The Foxes, finding their plot 

(iiaooTered, commenced an attack upon the fort, but desisted and retired into an entrenched 

cimp, on the appearance of the friendly Indians. In this, they were besieged by the 

tOied forces, and, although twice suing for peace, made a determined resistance, which 

ihnost disheartened their enemies. They at last retreated, imder cover of night, to the 

bodcrof Lake St Clair. Here they were pursued and attacked, but they resisted their 

opponents with the greatest bravery. At the end of four days, by means of a field bat- 



20 HIBTORY OF THE STATE OF MICmOAK. 



tery, their position was carried, and the besieged put to the sword, save the women and 
children, who were divided as slaves among the confederates. The loss of Uie Ottogamies^ 
in this expedition, was more than 1,000 warriors. 

This tribe afterward collected their scattered bands, and settled on the border of 
Fox river, where they were able to command the portage between it and the waters of 
the Mississippi. From this position, by their war parties, they continued to harrass all 
who had opposed them, till they were invaded in their intrenchments, and humbled into 
submission. 

From this time forth, to 1760, the posts of the peninsula were compelled to struggle 
with all the incidents to which their insulated condition, and the fickle inconstancy and 
treachery of their savage neighbors, exposed them. In 1740, government sent out emi- 
grants, f\imished with farming utensils, provisions, etc., to settle the regions lying on the 
Detroit Peace was scarcely enjoyed by this remote colony. During the early part of 
the eighteenth century, the mother country was continually at war with England — a 
circumstance which inevitably resulted in involving their colonial plantations in like con- 
tentions, and retarded the growth and prosperity of both. 

But in 1700, the fortune of war changed, and the die was cast in favor of England. 
By the capitulation of Montreal, Detroit and the otlier western posts were taken possession 
of by the British. 

It is to be remarked, to the honor of the French, that, even in times the most adverse, 
during the three following years, when the least opposition would have been the means of 
releasing them from their adversaries and regaining their former sovereignty, the articles 
of capitulation were kept inviolable. But it was soon found that the temporary triumph 
of the English over their rivals, was a secondary matter, wholly different from winning 
the affections of their savage allies, whose settled aversion could never brook their domi- 
nation ; there was a rankling in the breast, at the loss of the favors and friendships of their 
allied friends and associates. A crisis in the affairs of every nation, whether civilized or 
savage, finds a leader competent to conduct their forces, and decide their destinies. 

Pontiac, the great Ottawa chief, was destined to be the hero of his country, the Napo- 
leon of his age — whose deeds of bravery and greatness of mind richly entitle him to a 
niche in the gallery of renowned warriors, whose fiime is stamped with immortality. In 
this respect, he may rank with Phillip, of Mount Hope, with Tecumseh, or with Oceola. 

His influence over the neighboring tribes had no limits, and hence the success of his 
deep laid plans. He had the bitterest hatred and enmity to the English, which prompted 
a revenge that no sacrifice was too great to satiate or retard. 

After the surrender, the first detachment sent by the English to relieve the Frmch 
garrison at Detroit, was stopped on the way, by Pontiac, who demanded the object of^e 
mission. This was satisfactorily explained to him by Major Rogers, who commanded the 
detachment Pontiac professed friendship, and proper belts were mutually exchanged, 
and permission and protection given him to accomplish his object ; and even assistance to 
forward his supplies. But tliis formal friendship was undoubtedly delusive, and very 
probably affected, merely for the purpose of executing a deeper design, which might have 
been conceived on their first interview. This design was to extirpate the English, and 
drive them from his country, beyond the Alleghanies. 

His scheme was to unite all the Indian tribes on the western frontier into a confed- 
eracy, and, with treacherous secrecy, fall simultaneously upon the garrisons, and massacre 
them. But Pontiac was equal in power and ingenuity to tlie magnitude of his project* 

* It is related, that daring the war. Pontine Inued blllB of credit, which were Inscriptions drawn on bark, rep- 
reaentlnff the article delivered to him. and the flgnre of an otter* the arms, or toUm of his ftmtlj. under It. This 
currency was reoelred hj the French settlers, and Calthfolly redeemed by him. 



HIBTOBT OF THE STATE OF MICmOAK. 21 



Eyery inflammatoiy topic was used to exasperate the feelings of his subjects against the 
English. He exhibited to the Indians a belt, which he pretended to have received fix>m 
the King of France, with commission to expel the English. He convened a great council 
at the River aux Ecorces, and related a dream of a Delaware Indian, who professed direct 
inspiration fix)m the Great Spirit. This professed prophet dispensed express directions 
how to conduct themselves in the expulsion of their adversaries, by the mortification of 
their persons, and abstinence &om the use of all articles of civilization. These, and many 
other directions, were related by Pontiac, accompanied with the most exasperating philip- 
pics against the English. The natural aversion, the deadly enmity of the renowned 
warrior, Pontiac, breathing insidious eloquence, together with the conmiand of the Great 
Spirit, inspiring success, soon united the frontier bands to hostility. 

Whether in savage or civilized warfare, it is rare to find a plot of such magnitude, 
however secret it might be, that terminated with such extraordinary success. The posts 
were Niagara, Presque Isle, Le BcBuf, Venango, Du Quesne, (now Rttsburgh) Detroit, 
Michillimadnac, Sault Ste. Marie, Green Bay, Chicago, St. Joseph, beside one other, making 
twelve in number, and extending on a frontier of more than one thousand miles. Da 
Quesne and Niagara were regular fortifications ; the others were temporary works, calcu- 
lated merely to overawe the savages. 

In the month of May, 1768, a simultaneous attack was made upon all these posts, and 
so completely were they surprised, from the secrecy of the plot, that nine of the unsus- 
X>ecting garrisons were captured and shared the fate which savages usually mete to their 
victims. Niagara, Pittsburgh, and Detroit narrowly escaped. 

The circumstances of their capture are little known. Govemw Cass gives the follow- 
ing relation of the capture of Michillimadnac : " The Ottawas, to whom the assault was 
committed, prepared for a great game of ball to which the ofl^cers were invited. While 
engaged in play, one of the parties gradually inclined toward the fort, and the other 
pressed after them. The ball was once or twice thrown over the pickets, and the Indians 
were suffered to enter and procure it. Almost all the garrison were present as spectators, 
and those upon duty were negligent and unprepared. Suddenly the ball was again 
thrown into the fort, and all the Indians rushed after it. The rest of the tale is soon told. 
The troops were butchered and the fort destroyed."* 

But Fort Detroit was, of all, the moat important post ; and the taking of this, Pon- 
tiac reserved to himself It seems to have consisted of a quadrangular stockade, with a 
single row of pickets — block houses at the comers and over the gates, and an open court 
intervening between the houses and pickets, encircling the town. The fort was manned 
by two six pounders, a three pounder, and three mortars, but badly mounted. The fort was 
commanded by Major Gladwin, and the garrison consisted of eight officers and one hundred 
and twenty-two men ; to which may be added forty traders and engagees, who resided in 
town. Two armed vessels were anchored in the river, fronting the town. The plan of 
attack was to meet the British commander in the council, and, at a concerted signal — the 
presenting a belt of wampum in a particular manner — to fall upon and massacre the 
oflScers, throw open the gates, admit the warriors, and slaughter the garrison. 



* A like Instance of Indian atratagem In surprising a garrison. Is related by Prof. Beck* of an ancient French 
fort in Illinois, opposite the month of the Tennessee. "The Indians, then at war with the French, laid a curloiu 
stratagem to take the fort. A number of them appeared In the day time on the opposite side of the river, each of 
whom was covered with a bear skin and walked on all fours. Supposing them to be bears, a party of the French 
crossed the river In punult of them. The remainder of the troops left their quarters to see the sport. In the mean 
time, a large body of warriors, who were concealed In the woods near by. came silently behind the fort, entered it 
wlthont opposition* and Tery few of the French escaperl the massacre. They afterwards built a fort on the same 
ground, and caHed It Jfofiae. In memory of the disastrous event"— F&fe Beefc't OoMeUeer. 



22 HIBTORT OF THB 8TATB OP MICmOAR. 



On the 8th of May, 17^, Pontiac presented himself at the gates of the Fort, with a 
body of warriors, requesting a council with the commanding officer. Each had his armor 
complete. They had previously sawed off their rifles that they might conceal them under 
their blankets. But, fortunately, the plot was revealed to Major Gladwin, on the eve pre- 
vious to the intended massacre, by a fHendly Indian woman, employed in making mocca- 
sins for the garrison. No time was to be lost The fort was immediately put in order, 
and every man within it was prepared for the intended catastrophe, and the officers 
walked the ramparts during the night All was silent but the songs and dances of the 
Indian camps. Morning came. Pontiac and his warriors were admitted into the council 
house, where they were received by Major Qladwin and his officers. " The garrison was 
under arms, the guards doubled, and the officers were armed with swords and pistols. 
Pontiac inquired of the British commander the cause of this unusual appearance. He 
was answered that it was proper to keep the young men to their duty, lest they should 
become idle and ignorant The business of the council then commenced, and Pontiac 
proceeded to address Major Gladwin. His speech was bold and menacing, and his man- 
ner and gesticulations vehement, and they became still more so as he approached the criti- 
cal moment When he was upon the point of presenting the belt to Major Gladwin, and 
all was breathless expectation, the drums at the door of ^e council house suddenly rolled 
the chai^, the guards leveled their pieces, and the British officers drew their swords from 
their scabbards. Pontiac was a brave man, constitutionally and habitually. He had 
fought in many a battle, and often led his warriors to victory. But this unexpected and 
decisive proof that his treachery was discovered and prevented, entirely disconcerted 
him. Tradition says he trembled. At all events, he delivered the belt in the usual man- 
ner, and thus failed to give his party the concerted signal of attack. Major Gladwin 
immediately approached the chief, and drawing aside his blanket, discovered the shortened 
rifle, and then, after stating his knowledge of the plan, and reproaching him for his treach- 
ery, ordered him from the fort The Indians immediately retired, and as soon as they had 
passed the gate, they gave the yell and flred upon the garrison.** 

The war, thus commenced, was prosecuted with the accustomed barbarity of their race. 
They laid siege to the fort, and used their endeavors to annoy the garrison fh)m behind 
several out-houses and rows of pickets. The fire was returned, with but little injury to 
either party. The design was then conceived of obtaining Major Campbell, (an officer 
who had held the command of the fort for the three previous years, and who had but 
recently been superseded by Major Gladwin,) and holding him in pledge for its surrender. 
Under pretence of wishing to terminate the war, Pontiac succeeded in inducing him to 
come into his camp, by the promise that he might go and return in safety. Lieutenant 
McDougall accompanied him. But they were both treacherously held as hostages. The 
latter succeeded, by swiftness of foot, in an unguarded moment, to escape, and the former, 
after remaining some time, was murdered by an Indian, though to the pointed displeasure 
of Pontiac. 

In the latter part of the month of May, a detachment, on their passage fh)m Niagara 
to succor the fort, were surprised at Point Pelee, and twenty-three batteaux, laden with 
stores and subsistence for the defense of the garrison, taken, and all on board captured or 
killed, save an officer and thirty men, who escaped in a boat to Sandusky Bay. 

On the 3d of June, 1763, information was received of the peace between France and 
England, and of the cession to the latter of all New France. But this did not hinder the 
progress of the war with the Indians. Pontiac afterward attempted to enlist the French 
in his favor, but without any success. Skirmishes frequently happened in course of the 
siege,, between the belligerents, but mostly, by annoying the reinforcements while ascend- 
ing the strait 



mSTORT OF THE STATE OF MICmQAN. 28 



On the 90th of July, a party of 800 troope from the garrison, while on their way to 
attack the Indian camp, was way-laid at Bloody Bridge, and although a brave resistance 
was made, seventy of the British were killed, including their brave commander, Captain 
Dalyell, and forty wounded. During the remainder of the siege of Detroit, which in all 
continned eleven months, little occurred worthy of notice. In the course of the season 
followmg, Gkneral Bradstreet, with 3,000 men, arrived, and a treaty of peace was con- 
cluded with the various tribes, but Pontiac took no part in it. This haughty spirit, too 
k>fty to consent to the humiliation of a peace dictated by his adversaries, left the country 
and took his abode in Bhnois, where his life was terminated by the hand of a Peoria 
Indian. 

From this period, the country enjoyed uninterrupted peace and prosperity to the break- 
ing out of the American revolution. PoUtic measures were adopted, and the Indians 
became warmly attached to the British interests. The contest between England and her 
Anglo- American colonies, found her newly acquired French possessions attached to her 
interest Detroit ceased to be the sufferer, but on the contrary, was the nucleus of Indian 
D&armuders, and from which, devastation and the horrid deeds of savage barbarity were 
dispensed on the western frontier settlement^ Congress, in 1770, in secret session, projected 
an expedition against it, but other objects of more pressing importance caused it to be relin- 
qoiahed. War parties were going and returning continually during the revolution. One 
of the most important was that led by Capt Byrd, consisting of regulars, militia, and a 
lazge body of Indians. The party left Detroit, ascended the Maumce, and descended the 
lOami to the Ohio. They then ascended the Licking, into the interior of Kentucky, and 
spread ruin and devastation in every direction. With a like force, in 1778, Gk)vemor 
Hamilton proceeded fh)m Detroit, for the purpose of dislodging Qeneral George Rogers 
Clarke, who had been sent by the Virginia governor, against the British forts in Illinois, 
and had succeeded in reducing Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and several minor posts. But the 
expedition failed. He was surprised in his camp by Clarke, and having surrendered, was, 
with some of his counsellors who had instigated his system of savage warfare, sent to 
Vii;ginia in irons, though the militia were allowed to return. 

A definitive treaty of peace was concluded in 1783, by which the peninsula was inclu- 
ded within the United States boundary. Preparatory to taking possession of the country, a 
tieatj was held with the Indians, in 1785, by General Clarke, at Fort Mcintosh, by which 
the foraier ceded all that tract of country, six miles in breadth, and extending from the 
Biver Raisin to Lake St Clair, and bounded on the east by Lake Erie, the Strait of Detroit, 
lod Lake St Clair. Two years subsequent the island of Michillimacinac was likewise 
ceded. 

Although hostilities ceased between the late contending parties, yet there was little 
good feeling between them. By the treaty stipulations, the military posts south of the 
l>keswere to be immediately surrendered. Slave property was to be restored, and no 
property whatever was to be carried off. On the other hand, the Americans had agreed 
to pay the British merchants all debts contracted before the war, in sterling money. It 
Via not long after the war that the two countries began to chai^ each other with viola- 
tions of the treaty — a charge (as has been observed) which, although reciprocally denied, 
*ag reciprocally proved. There were doubts raised, on the part of the British, as to the 
W restoration of captured negn)es to their masters as daces, under the EngUsh law ; con- 
sequently that article was violated. Being deprived of their slaves, to work their planta- 
tions, produced an inability in the Americans to liquidate their Britisli claims in the 
nx|oired medium. This delinquency, and the unjust compulsion of some of the states, to 
receive depreciated paper in lieu of specie, was seized upon by the British, as a pretext for 
(retaining the posto south of tlie lakes. One failure and infringement produced another. 



24 mSTORT OF THE STATE OF MlCmOAK. 



The Indians north-west of the Ohio, who had been irritated into frequent depredations on 
the frontier settlements, had risen in open hostility ; and there were many demonstnidoDB 
on the part of the British in this region, to prove the malign influence which was exerdsed 
to excite them to it. 

Pacific overtures had been made to them, but without effect. In 1791, Qen. Harmar 
was dispatched with 300 regulars and 1,100 Pennsylvania and Kentucky militia, to 
destroy their settlements on the Sciotia and Wabash rivers. An engagement ensued, in 
which the militia, panic struck, fled, leaving him defeated with the loss of 860 killed. 

Arthur St. Clair, Governor of the North- Western Territory, afterward took the field, 
with a force of 2,000 regulars and militia, and proceeded to lay waste the Indian villages 
on the Miami ; but the shamefbl conduct of the militia caused a second defeat by an 
inferior number of the enemy. His loss was 88 officers and 600 privates. 

Towards the close of 1793, Gen. Anthony Wayne re-occupied the ground on which St 
Clair was defeated, and built Fort Rec(>very. He then returned to Fort Jefferson, where 
he wintered witli the main body of his army. July 4, 1794, he commenced his campaign 
against the Indians. He proceeded north, scouring the country on every side, and routing 
the enemy. He finally brought them to a decisive battle on the 20th of August. His 
force was about 3,000 men — three-fourths of whom were regulars, and the remainder, 
mounted militia from Kentucky, under command of Gen. Scott. The Indians are dif- 
ferently estimated at 2,000 and 3,000, but only 900 of the American force were engaged. 
His victory over them was complete. Aflcr this triumphant defeat, he took possession of 
the country, which he secured by erecting and garrisoning all of the most important 
points. The campaign lasted three months, and terminated in humbling the insidious 
schemes and machinations of the British, and in the future peace of the fh>ntier. Jay's 
treaty soon after followed, which adjusted all difficulties with Great Britain, and the treaty 
of Greenville amicably settled all difficulties with the Indians. 

In 1795, there was a scheme set on foot by one Robert Randall, of Pennsylvania, and 
Charles Whiting, of Vermont, for obtaining of the United States, the pre-emption right of 
eighteen or twentj' millions of acres, lying between Lakes Huron, Eric, and Michigan. 
They had, for this purpose, entered into an agreement with several fur traders, at Detroit, 
and had endeavored to enlist several members of congress in their views. This tract of 
country was to be divided into forty-one shares, twenty-four of which were to be given to 
those members of congress who should lend their aid in obtaining the requisite law. The 
sum proposed to be paid for this pre-emption right, was from half a million to a million 
dollars. The two penions mentioned were taken into custody of the House, for an 
" unwarrantable attempt to corrupt the integrity of its members." They were examined, 
and the latter was discharged ; but Randall received a reprimand firom the speaker, besides 
being obliged to pay the fees that had accrued in the case. Thus terminated what would 
have been, if executed, of the most serious consequence to the prosperity of Michigan. 

In June, 1796, Capt. Porter entered and took possession of Detroit. Michigan, flrom 
this time, was included under the government of the North- Western Territory, Cincin- 
nati was the seat of government, though afterward, it was removed to Chillicothe. Arthur 
St. Clair was its governor. 

The government imder the dominion of the French was arbitrary, being exercised 
by a "commandant" in whom was concentrated both the civil and military authority, 
within his precinct. Lands were held directly from the king. Temporary or permanent 
uiidergrants were made by his governor-general, to which feodal rent was incident The 
rules respecting devises, succession, and the marriage relation, and those regulating the 
rights of property, generally, were those of the French customary law, (eoulume de Pam) 
as far as applicable to the circumstances of the country. In 1810, their recognition was 
abandoned throughout the territory. 



mSTORT OF THE STATE OF 



MIO^OAK. 25 



In coming into the possession of the United States, the ordinance of 1787 was extended 
over it This Magna Charta was declared irrevocable without the consent of those whom 
hgoTemed, and provided for the establishment of the most salutary laws. The executive 
power was vested in a governor, the judicial in the Judges, and the legislature in both 
united ; all of whom were appointed by the general government. The legislature was 
restricted from originating any laws, or of adopting any except from the codes of the 
several states. Slavery vxu prohibited. This is a short provision, but one in which the 
rigiits, the happiness, and the morals of the north-western states were more deeply con- 
ceroed than in any other, and one, which, if it liad extended to a more southern latitude, 
might have averted the multitude of evils that now afflict that section of the imion. 

This was the first grade of government. Whenever the territory should contain 
5,000 free white males, of fiill age, the people, at their pleasure, might choose a legislative 
body from among themselves, and the general assembly were authorized to elect a dele- 
|Bte to congress. But the people were liable to pay the expenses accruing frt)m this new 
order of things. This was the second grade of government. Whenever the territory 
shoold attain a population of 60,000, it was entitled to be admitted into the American 
UnioiL These, of many, are some of the leading features of the ordinance of 1787. ' 

hi 1798, the North- Western Territory assumed the second grade of government, and 
the county of Wayne, then co-extensive with the Peninsula, sent one representative to the 
general assembly, at Chillicothe. Bills of credit were now issued to defray the public 
expenses. Indiana was erected into a separate territory in 1800, and in 1802, Ohio was 
idmitted as a state into the confederacy, and the peninsula was annexed to Indiana. 

In 1806, the Territory of Michigan was constituted, and the provisions of the ordin- 
loce of 1787, became its fundamental law. On the 11th of June, 1805, Detroit was 
entirely consumed by fire. On the first of July, the government of the territory was 
organized at Detroit by Gten. William Hull, its first governor, who proceeded immediately 
to ky out Detroit in partial accordance with its present plan. In 1804, a land office was 
established at Detroit 

In 1807, Gk)v. Hull held a treaty with the Pottawattomies, Ottowas, Wyandottes, and 
Chippewas, who ceded to the United States a tract of country, bounded south by the 
Maomee bay and river, west by the present principal meridian, and north-west by a line, 
niiming soutli-west from White Rock, cutting the said meridian at a point where an east 
and west line, from the outlet of Lake Huron, intersects the same. On the 6th May, 1812, 
coogresB passed a law for the survey and location in the territory, two mUlion acres of 
the pablic lands, intended for bounty lands, for the soldiers of the then impending war. 
But, in 1816, the law was repealed, and the lands were located in Illinois and Arkansas. 
If we consider how the progress of settlement and improvement has been retarded, in the 
former state, by this location in some of her best lands, Michigan can never have cause to 
regret, that the un&vorable aspect of her soil had averted a great evil from her borders. 

June 18th, 1812, congress declared war against Great Britain. The first shock fell 
upon Michigan. The ignominious capitulation of Detroit by General Hull, and the 
immense loss of property incident to the disasters of war, and the riotous pillage of ruth- 
leK savages and a wanton soldiery, are facts too fi*esh in the mind of the present genera- 
tWD to require minute detail. A sketch, however, of the principal events of the war, as 
&rttthey directly afibcted this territory, may not be uninteresting to the general reader, 
fterioos to the close of 1811, there had been peace with^ the Indian tribes on the western 
bofdera. Hostilities now commenced, and indubitable evidence was then and afterward 
exhibited, to show that they had been instigated to them by the British. 

A ^'Shawnese prophet," the brother of the celebrated Tecumseh, was another prin- 
cipal nistigat<»' among the Indian tribes. General Harrison, then Governor of Indiana, 



26 mST^RY OF THE STATE OF lUCHlGAir. 



v/ith a small force, entered his territoiy, and, on the 6th November, 1811, an engagement 
took place at Tippecanoe, the principal village, in which he entirely defeated him, and 
laid waste the town. General HuU was in Ohio, on receiving intelligence of the dedft- 
ration of war. He directed his course to Detroit, with one regiment of r^ulars, and three 
regiments of Ohio volunteers. After a tedious march of thirty-five days, in which they 
were harrassed by the British and Indians, he arrived at Detroit. On the 12th July, he 
crossed the strait, and took possession of the Canadian shore. Here he remidncd inactive, 
until the 8th of August In the mean time, a force of British and Indians, having bad a 
more early intelligence of the declaration of war, appeared before the post of Mackinac, 
which was surrendered on honorable terms. The summons to surrender, wns the' fim 
information received of hostilities. Without effecting anything of unportance, General 
Hull, on the 9th of August, re-crossed the strait, and abandoned Canada. 

About the same time. Col. Miller, with a detachment of six hundred men, attacked 
the enemy at Monguagon, and entirely defeated them. On the 14th of August, G^ieral 
Brock arrived at Fort Maiden, with a reinforcement, and, on tlie 15th, he appeared at 
Sandwich, and summoned General Hull to surrender. He was answered in the negative, 
and a cannonade was immediately commenced upon Detroit, which was returned with 
effect On the 16th, General Brock crossed the strait with his army, at Springwells, three 
miles below Detroit, without opposition. He marched directly up the strait toward the 
fort, without resistance. A negotiation soon commenced between the two commanders, 
and terminated with the surrender of the army and the Territory of Michigan to the 
British General, to the mortification and bitterest indignation of the American troops, 
who were impatiently waiting orders of attack upon the enemy. The force of General 
Brock is said to have been only " fourteen hundred," while that of General Hull was 
" eighteen hundred." 

The conduct of General Hull met with universal reprobation throughout the Union. 
The popular belief then was, and still continues to be, against his integrity in this trans- 
action ; but a better opinion seems to prevail, that his conduct was owing to imbecility of 
mind — "a want of decision and energy." 

During the &11 and winter of this year, General Harrison collected an army, and 
made preparations for the relief of Michigan. He marched to Sandusky, and detached 
General Winchester to the Maumee. General Winchester reached Frenchtown, on the 
River Raisin, January 19th, 1818, with a force of one thousand men, and encamped on 
the right bank of the strait He was attacked, on the 22d, by British and Indians, amount- 
ing to two thousand men, the former commanded by General Proctor, and the latter by 
the chiefe Roundhead and Splitlog. The Americans made a brave resistance. Unfor- 
tunately, General Winchester was taken prisoner, and his troops, for want of proper 
direction, fell into confusion, and were defeated, with considerable loss. 

General Proctor received the surrender of the detachment, consisting of thirty-five 
officers and four hundred and eighty-aeven non-commissioned officers and privates, com- 
posed of young men of the first respectability, fiom Ohio and Kentucky, upon the ejtpnn 
(xmdUkm of proteetian from the Indians. But this infamous leader was more imbued with 
the sentiments of his savage allies, than with the dictates of civilized and honorable war- 
fore, or respect to his own character. Disregarding his i)romi8e, he marched immediately 
for Fort Maiden, leaving the wounded Americans without guard. The consequence was, 
the Indians commenced an indiscriminate slaughter upon the wounded and captive pris- 
oners. They were dragged from their houses, killed, and scalped in the street, and ^heir 
bodies, horribly mangled, left exposed in the highways. Some of the buildings were set 
on fire, and their inmates forced into the fiames, as they attempted to escape. This event 
is known as the Battle at Frenchtown, or " th£ MasMcre at the River Bamn.'' 



HISTOBT OF TBI STATS OF HICHIOAlf. 



« 



On the 10th September, Commodore Ferry, who commanded the American squadron 
on Lake Erie, met the British fleet, of a superior force, and gained a complete victory. 
General Harrison was soon after Joined by Governor Shelby, and with their forces united, 
sailed for Fort Maiden, which they occupied on the 28th September; General Brock 
having evacuated it, and retreated in anticipation of the movement Detroit was vacated 
cm the 29th. 

General Harrison followed in pursuit of the British army, to the Moravian viUages, 
situated on the banks of the Thames. The enemy's force consisted of six hundred regu- 
lars, commanded by Gleneral Brock, and one thousand Indians, led by the noted chief 
Tecumseh. The engagement took place between the belligerents, on the 5th of October. 
Tecumseh, the principal reliance of the Indians, was killed, the British army signally 
defeated, and neariy all taken prisoners. In July, 1814, an attempt was made to recover 
the post at Mackinac, but it failed of success. An armistice was concluded with the 
Indians, October 18th, by which the future peace of the territory was secured. By com- 
mission of the president, dated October 29, 1813, General Lewis Cass, of Ohio, who was 
last in command of the fort at Detroit, was appointed governor of the territory, which 
ofltee he continued to hold with (Hstingnishcd ability, till his appointment of secretary of 
war, in 1881. October 5th, 1814, William Woodbridge, of Ohio, was appointed secretary 
of the territory. Mr. Woodbridge continued to hold this office till 1828, when he was 
succeeded by James Witherell. This wss a very important office, and the faithM dis- 
charge of its duties by Mr. Woodbridge ^s manifested by inspection of the executive 
record kept during that period. 

The wholesome administration of Governor Cass forms a new era in the histCNry of 
Michigan. The first public land surveys were commenced in 1816 and 1817, and in 1818 
they were, by proclamation of the {^^esident, brought into market for public sale. From 
this period, the prosperity of Michigan may date its commencement. By act of congress, 
passed in 1819, the territory was authorized to send a delegate to that body, and the right 
of suffrage, in this case, extended to all taxable citizens. In 1818, all the territory lying 
north of the present States of Illinois and Indiana, was annexed to Michigan. In 1819, a 
treaty was held with the Chippewas of Saginaw, by which the United States received a 
cession of all the lands lying east of a line commencing at a point nearly west of Detroit, 
and sixty miles west of the principal meridian, and running fh)m thence to the head of 
Thunder Bay, and from thence with the Thunder Bay river, to its mouth. In 1821, all 
that portion of the peninsula lying west of this line, and the western boundary line of the 
cession of 1807, extending north to Grand river, was ceded to the United States. The 
next and last cession was made in 1886, and embraced the remainder of the peninsula, 
and so much of the upper peninsula as lies east of the Chocolate river of Lake Superior, 
and the Esconawba river of Green Bay. 

In 1828, an essential change was made in the form of the territorial government This 
alteration was made by an act of congress, which abolished the legislative power of the 
governor and judges, and transferred the same, with enlarged powers, to a council, consist- 
ing of nine penions, selected by the President of the United States, from eighteen chosen by 
the electors of the territory. The judicial office was limited to a term of four years. By an 
act of congress, passed February 5th, 1825, the legislative council was mcreased to thirteen 
members, selected by the president, from twenty-six elected by the qualified electors of 
the territory, and by his nomination, appointed by and with the advice and consent of the 
senate. By an act approved January, 1827, the electors were authorized to choose, directly, 
thirteen representatives, who were to constitute the legislative council, without the further 
sanction of either the president or congresa 



28 • HIBTORT OF THE STATE OF MIOmOAK. 



In 1^8, James Witherell entered upon the duties of the office of secretary of the 
territory. In July, 1880, he was succeeded by the appointment of General John T. 
Mason, of Kentucky. In July, 1831, Qeneral Gteoige B. Porter, of Pennsylvania, ww 
appointed governor, and Stevens T. Mason, secretary. Governor Porter entered upon the 
duties of his office the 22d September following. 

Some indications of Indian hostilities had existed for several years, but war (Ud not 
commence till the summer of 1832. This was known as the Black Hawk war, and wis 
confined in its effects more to that part of Michigan (now constituting the State of 
Wisconsin,) than to the peninsula. July 6th, 1884, the office of governor became vacant, 
by the decease of CJovemor Porter. But by provision of law for the government of the 
territory in case of the death, removal, reagnation, or necessary absence of the governor, 
the secretary of the territory was required to execute the powers and perform all the 
duties of governor during the vacancy. The functions of tlie office consequently devolved 
upon the secretary, Mr. Mason. 

By the authority of an act of the legislative council, passed the 6th September, ISM^ 
a census was taken, and the number of free white inhabitants in the prescribed limits of 
Michigan was found to be 87,273. By the ordinance of 1787, and subsequent acts of con- 
gress, conferring the benefits contained in its provisions, upon this territory, Michigan wai - 
entitled to be admitted into the Union as a State so soon as her free white population nam* 
bered 60,000. Congress having delayed the necessary steps toward this consummation, 
the preliminaries were commenced by the territory by the eniuneration before mentioned. 
By an act of the council, passed January 26, 1835, a convention was authorized to be held 
at Detroit on the second Monday of May following, to be composed of eighty-nine dde- 
gates, elected by the people on the 4th of April, 1835. The convention met upon Uie dif 
specified, and continued in session till the 24th of June. The most important act of thh 
convention was the formation of the present constitution of the state. 

The proceedings of Ohio and Michigan during the spring, sununer and autumn of 
1835, in their attempts forcibly to sustain their respective claims to disputed territory, tie 
so recent, and were so universally notorious at the time, as to require but a bare alliukB 
to in this place. It is sufficient to state, that the two parties, by their respective legisla- 
tures, with decided unanimity, not only laid claim to it, but without waiting the aiMtn- 
tion of the higher authorities, clothed their respective executives with power, the one to 
sustain, and the other to extend jurisdiction over the territory in dispute. Demonstratiooi 
by military force were made upon the southern boundary by Governors Mason and Lucm, 
and as might have been expected, a high state of excited public feeling preceded and fal- 
lowed. The most serious inconvenience, however, suffered by either party, was the 
apprehension and temporary imprisonment of a few persons. Some, who were called 
fix)m their respective occupations to sustain the laws of the state, viewed with indignatSon 
the indiscretion of the parties; while, by others, of both parties, the scene is remembered 
more as a romantic pastime — a martial array, displayed with all "the pomp," if not **tbe 
circumstance of glorious war." 

In fiict it seems difficult to conceive of two sister states ^eriowAy going to war upon a 
point legitimately subject to peaceable settlement by one of the branches of the geneitl 
government. As means of pacifying the precipitant hostilities of the belligerents, MesanL 
Richard Rush, and Benjamin G. Howard, had been appointed by the president mediators 
between the parties, but with less beneficial results than was anticipated. 

To give a brief statement of the case touching tliis disputed territory, and likewise to 
give a connected view of the history of le^slation upon the subject by congress, !t 
becomes necessary in the following sketch to recapitulate some of the events previooaly 
recited in this article. 



HI8T0RT OF THE BTATB OF MICmOAK. 29 



The line claimed by Michigan as her righifid southern boundary, extends due east from 
the southern extreme of Lake Michigan, to and through Lake Erie, to the western line of 
Pennsylvania. That portion of country north of this line, within the pr^nt jtuisdietion 
of Indiana, is ten miles in width, bounded west by Lake Michigan, east by tlie western 
boundary line of Ohio, north by an east and west line one hundred and five miles long, 
and on the south by an east and west line about one hundred and thirty miles long. The 
tract is estimated to contain about one thousand one hundred and sixty square miles, or 
upwards of thirty entire townships. That poition (the western tract) within the present 
jurisdiction of Ohio, north of the disputed line, is bounded east by Lake Erie, west by the 
eastern boundary of Indiana, north by that part of a line (known as Harris' line) about seven- 
ty-two miles in length, running &om the southern extreme of Lake Michigan to the northern 
Cape of the Maumee Bay, and which is east of Indiana ; and on the south by the line 
(known as Fulton's line) about ninety miles long, being the east and west line claimed by 
^lichigan. The greatest width of this tract on the east is nearly seven miles, and on the 
west about five miles, containing about four hundred and sixty-eight square miles, or 
thirteen townships. 

Tlie eadem tract claimed by Michigan as &lling \^ithin her original boundaiy, as 
defined by the ordinance of 1787, but within the present jurisdiction of Ohio, lies in the 
north-eastern part of the State of Ohio, bounded east by the western boundary line of Penn- 
sylvania, north by Lake Erie, and south by the aforesaid line running due east fix>m the 
southern extreme of Lake Michigan. It includes the greater portion of Ashtabula county, 
the northern part of Gteauga, and a small portion of Cuyahoga county, supposed to cover 
an extent of ten or eleven hundred square miles, or perhaps the amount of thirty 
townships. ^ 

The eastern tract has always been under the jurisdiction of Ohio ; the western tract 
has ever been under the jurisdiction of Michigan until wrested from her by Ohio, sanctioned 
by the odious and illegal act of congress of June 15th, 1830. The tract lying within the 
present jurisdiction of Indiana, was under the jurisdiction of Michigan from 1805 to 1816, 
when by another illegal act of congress it was assigned to Indiana. 

The excellence of the western tract, together with the importance of being in possession 
of the valuable harbors of the bay, and the outlet of the most important river of the lake, 
had a tendency to increase the warmth of contention between Ohio and Michigan, to a 
dt^ee, greater perhaps, than might have been exjKJCted under other circumstances. 

The origin of this dispute was not dissimilar to the ciiuses which produced the several 
state and colonial contentions for boundary among the original states of the confederacy, 
all of which arose either from ignorance of local geography, the unappreciated importance 
of the incipient colony, or an unpardonable disregard to the sacredness of vested rights. 
The crown did not seem to consider that a right once gnmted was so far aliened as to divest 
itself of all jjowcr over its future resumption and disposition, although consonant witli 
natural law and with the common law of England. At least, such is the natural inference 
from a simple view of the acts of thecn)wn in disposing of the possessions held in America. 
In consequence of these loose notions or inatlvertence to rights once given, grants and 
chartered rights were conferred uiwn one company, and at a succeeding day, the same ter- 
ritory was included in the charter of another. Hence ensued contentions and conflicting 
jurisdictions. 

The condition and territorial relation of Michigan much resembled that of the ancient 
colonies. The thirteen original states having succeeded to the possessions of the crown 
in America, proceeded to make disposition of the same in the creation of similar establish- 
ments for their government; but with the light of all former painful experience, it is not a 
little surprising that with respect to Michigan, the same error should be committed by 



• 
80 mSTORT OF THB STATE OF MICHIGAN. 



congress, in assigning territorial limits, especially as a territory is destined eventually to 
hold rank i;tith the states of the confederacy. It would seem that some of the laws toucb- 
ing this territory were passed under the erroneous apprehension that Michigan was not a 
regtilarly organized territory ; that she was not a person artificial in law, but a wild, vaoaot 
possession, without any rights, and subject to any disposition congress might deem fit to 
make of it. 

As before stated, Michigan claims for her southern boundary, a line running castacroflB 
the peninsula Arom the southern point of Lake Michigan, extending through Lake Erie, to 
tlie Pennsylvania line; a claim founded in a right rented — a right (inalienable except by 
common consent) accruing to her by cxnnpaet ; which compact is tlie ordinance of 17W, 
the parties to which were the tliirteen original states, and tlie territory north-west of the 
Ohio ; and, by the succession of parties under statutory amendments to tlie ordinance and 
laws of congress — the United Slates on the one part, and each territory north-west of the 
Ohio, (as far as effected by their provisions) on the other. Michigim claims under the pfwt 
grant or assignation of boundary. Indiana and Oliio claim upon subsequent acts of coc- 
gross admitting them into the uuicm, and removing their northern Ixnmdaries to the 
confines of their present Jurisdiction. How far the claims of the parties are tenable, may 
be seen by the following recited acts. 

The celebrated ordinance of 1787, " for the government of the Territory of the United 
States north-west of the River Ohio," declares the acts therein contained " articles of com- 
pact between the original states and the people and states in the said territory, and forerer 
to remain unalterable, unless by common consent." This onlinancc defines the territoiy 
to include all that region l3ing north and north-west of the Ohio and east of the Missiasippi 
rivers. In the fiflh article it is provided that there shall be formed not less than three, nor 
more than five states, within its confines. The boundaries of the three states are defined 
so as to include the whole territory, conditioneil however, that if it should be found 
expedient by congress to form the one or two more states mentioned, congress is authorized 
to alter the boundaries of the three states " so far as to form one or two states in that pait 
of the said temtory which lies north of an east and ired line drfncn through the wuther^beiid 
or extreme of Ijtke Miehigdny 

The first act touching this point, is an act of congress approved April SOth, 1808, 
which was to enable the people of Ohio to fonn a constitution, and to ailmit her into the 
union, etc. The boundary of that state is declared to be *' on the north by an east and 
west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, nmning east, after inte^ 
secting tlic due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the great Miami, until it sliall 
intersect I^ke Erie, or the territorial line, and thence, witli the same, through Lake Erie 
to tlie Pennsylvania line." The constitution of Ohio adopted the same line, with this con- 
dition: ^^ Provided, cUttat/Sy and it is hereby fiilly understood and declared by this c<hi- 
vention, tliat if the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan should extend so fiir 
south, that a line drawn due east fiom it shoidd not intersect Lake Erie, or if it shooM 
intersect Lake Erie east of the mouth of the Miami river, then in that case, with the assent 
of the congress of the United States, the northern boundar}- of this state shall be estab- 
lished by, and extend to, a direct line, running from the southern extremity of Lake 
Michigan to the most northerly cape of the Miami Bay, after intersecting tlie due north 
line from the mouth of the Great Miami as atbres:iid, thence north-east to the territorial 
line, and by said territorial line to the Pennsylvania line." 

At the succeeding session of congress, the constitution of Ohio was submitted to con- 
gress, and referred to a committee of the house of representatives, which, through its 
chairman, Mr. Randolph, reported that with regard to this part of the boundary, " as the 
suggested alteration was not submitted in the shape of a distinct pn)position, by any com- 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF HICmOAK. 81 



petent authority, for approTal or disapproval, it was not necessary or expedient for con- 
gress to act on it at all." And it was not acted upon, until another disposition was made 
of It, as we shall see, in 1805. The proposition was considered by all parties concerned, to 
be of a distinct character, requiring special consent of congress to make it a yalid part of 
the constitution of Ohio, and, that it has ever been so regarded by Ohio, her continued 
application to congress for the right of exuding her boundary to the proposed line, 
sufficiently proves. 

The Sd section of the act of 1803, above mentioned, provides that all that part of the 
territory lying north of this east and west line, fh>m the southern extreme of Lake Michi- 
gan, shall be " attached to, and made a part of, the Indiana territory," " subject to be 
hereafter disposed of by congress, according to the right reserved in the fifth article of the 
ordinance aforesaid ; and the inhabitants therein shall be entitled to the same privileges 
and immunities, and subject to the sanfe rules and regulations, in all respects whatever, 
with all other citizens residing within the Indiana territory." 

The next act in onler is that approved January Uth, 1805, entitled " an act to divide 
the Indiana territory into separate governments." By this act, the Territory of Michigan is 
established, its boundaries defined, a similar government to that provided by the ordinance 
of 1787, and the provisions of an act for the government of the North- Western Territory, 
conferred upon it; all the rights, privileges, and advantages of the ordinance aforesaid 
conferred upon its inhabitants, and its aouthern boundary defined to be "a Une dratpn ertst 
fratn ihe mutherly bend or extreme of Dtke Michigan, until it intersects Lake Brie*^ It does 
seem that the question of boundary between Michigan and Indiana, and between Michigan 
and Ohio, with regard to the western tract, in a legal point of view, was irretrievably 
settled by this act, so far as congress had to do with it. Even if the ordinance had had no 
binding effect, this must be conclusive. " The consent of congress" had not been given to 
the line conditionally proposed in the constitution of Ohio, but, on the contrary, the disierU 
of congress is expressly given by this act itself, while the proposition of Ohio is pending, 
and the line is established agreeably to one of the lines defined in the constitution of Ohio 
previously proposed and accepted l)y congress, and agreeably to the 5th article of the 
ordinance of 1787, at least, so far as regards the boundary line west of Lake Erie. By this 
act. congress gave to Michigan what was solicited by Ohio, divested itself of all future right 
of its disposition, by vesting that right in an artificial person of its own creation — the 
territory of Michigan. 

To any change restricting the boundary of Michigan after tills act, her formal and 
unequivocal assent became necessary — an assent which she has never given, although the 
controversy is forever suspended. All acts of congress afler this of 1805, restricting 
her boundary, must be considered nugatory, and, as congress has discharged its final 
constitutional duty, all controversies of boundary between Michigan and another territory 
or state, properly became questions of judicial cognizance, subject to the decision of that 
tribunal only whose jurisdiction extends " to controversies between two or more states," 
and " to all cases in law and equity arising under the constitution and laws of the United 
States." 

At some periods of the controversy the claim of Ohio seems to have rested upon 
the omission of congress to act upon the question at the time of accepting her constitution, 
by which a feigned admission of her right to the claimed boundary was inferred ; and yet, 
at other periods, she appeared to deem the question unsettled by insisting upon the action 
of congress in its disposition. Accordingly we find by act of congress approved the 
20th May, 1812, the surveyor general authorized, under the direction of the president, 
to cause a survey to be made of the boundary between Ohio and Michigan as established 
agreeably to the act entitled " an act to enable the people of the eastern division of the 



32 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MICmOAN. 



territory north-west of the River Ohio, (now State of Ohio) to form a constitntion and state 
government^ and for tlie admission of such state into the union/* etc.; *'to cause 
to be made a plat or plan of so much of the boundaiy line as runs fh>m the southeii^ 
extreme of Lake Michigan to Lake Erie/* etc. For some cause the line was not 
immediately surveyed. Li 1816 an appropriation was made for the purpose, and in 
1818 the line was run. In consequence of a resolution introduced in the house of 
representatives, April 24th, 1820, the claim un'derwent a rigid examination before the com- 
mittee on public lands, of which Mr. Anderson, of Kentucky, was chairman. The 
claim of Ohio w^as strenuously urged by her delegation, and as ably opposed by Mr. Wood- 
bridge, the then delegate fn)m Michigan. The final result was the unanimous report 
of the committee in favor of the due east and west line claimed by Ifichigan, tliougb little 
to the satisfaction of the unceasing importunity of Ohio ; and nothing but the pressure and 
hurry of business prevented the passage, by both houses, of a resolution recognizing that 
to be the true boundary line between Ohio and Michigan. 

The extension of the Jurisdiction of Indiana upon the soil of Michigan was marked 
with less acerbity of feeling, though against tlie assent of Michigan. The south-western 
border of the territory then contained but few, if any settlements, and but comparativdy 
little was known respecting its value. The act was passed likewise upon an fx parU rep- 
resentation of the case, consequently with less regard to the interests of Michigan. This 
act, approved April 19, 1816, entitled " an act to enable the people of the Indiana territoiy 
to form a constitution and state government, and for the admission of such state into the 
union, on an equal footing with the original states," defines the northern boundary of that 
state to be " an east and west line, drawn through a point ten miles north of the southern 
extreme of Lake Michigan." Thus Michigan was deprived of a valuable tract of 
territory on her southern fix)ntier by an act of assumption of power by congress, as 
untenable in law as repugnant to the act of 1805, and the sacred rights of Michigan. 

In the early part of September, 1885, Charles Shaler, of Pennsylvania, received the 
appointment of secretary, in place of Mr. Mason, but the office not being ac(!epte<l, John 
S. Homer, of Virginia, was appointed in his place. He arrived in Detroit and coronienoed 
the duties of his oflicc on the 2l8t of the month. At the first election, on the first Monday 
in October, the constitution was submitted to, and ratified by the people. Stevens T. 
Mason was elected governor, Edward Mundy, lieutenant governor, and Isaac E. Craiy, 
representative in congress. The first session of the legislature, under the constitution, was 
conmienced at the capitol, in the city of Detroit, on the first Monday of November, 
at which John Norvell and Lucius Lyon were elected senators to congress. 

A regular election for delegate to congress was held, as usual under the territorial 
laws, and George W. Jones, of Wisconsin, received the necessary certificate and obtained 
his seat in congress, although by the official returns the Hon, William Woodbridge 
was entitled to it, having the greatest number of votes. A highly important act was 
passed March 8th, 1836, appointing the Hon. William A. Fletcher to prepare a code 
of laws for the government of the state. This code was accordingly prepared. At an 
extra session held specially for the purpose, and the regular session following, it was sub- 
mitted, revised, and passed into a law\ to take effect in September, 1838. 

In May, 1830, the western part of Michigan having been erected into a distinct terri- 
tory by the name of Wisconsin, the acting governor for Michigan territory was appointed 
its secretary. By act of congress, passed June 15th, 1836, the constitution and state 
government of Michigan was accepted; and, " upon condition" of accepting the prescribed 
boundary limits, admitted into the union. 

This act could be viewed by the people of Michigan in no other than an odious light, 
as an act of ii^ustice. The conditions of the compact, contained in the ordinance of 1787, 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MICHIGAN. 38 



had kmg since been complied with, by possessing tlie requisite number of inhabitants, and 
by forming a constitation for state government, which was essentially republican, and was, 
as mch, accepted by congress. By the ordinance, Michigan had a right to the east and 
west line drawn through the southern extreme of Lake Michigan to the Pennsylvania line, 
for her southern boundary; and by the act of 1805, she had a right to a line drawn through 
the southern extreme of Lake Michigan, through the middle of the lake to the northern 
extremity, and then a line due north to the northern boundary of the United States, for 
iier western boundary. After congress had given the eastern tract, of more than a thou- 
auid square miles, to Ohio, by the act of 1802, — beside, between eleven and twelve hun- 
dred square miles to Indiana, by the act of 1816, it woidd seem, that the work of exdsio \, 
on the part of congress, ought to have ceased. But another operation was yet left in 
nsare. Notwithstanding the boundary had been fixed by the ordinance of 1787, and again 
oonfirmed by the act of 1805, still, in the face of these acts, congress presumed to require 
IB t condition, that Michigan should purchase her admission into the Union, in accepting 
for her soothem boundary the line claimed by Ohio, and thus giving to Ohio an invaluable 
tnct of about 470 square miles, apparently, as a supposed equivalent, in exchange for a 
wild and comparatively Scandinavian waste on the sliores of Lake Superior. 

The sequel is well known, and might be here omitted, were it not that it may be im- 
mediately connected with the fhture acUudication of the question. In the histoiy of 
Bstions and states, it is not unfrequent to find, tliat, in cases of great public emergency, 
requiring the greatest unanimi^ of public sentiment, party divisions and discord intervene, 
U> retard, if not prevent, their successful termination. This was unhappily the case with 
Miclugan. Although a decided unanimity prevailed with regard to the justness of her 
diim to the tract in dispute, yet, under the circumstances, the expediency of retaining or 
T^bquishing her right, had become a subject of contention between two formidable 
pirtieB. A year had already elapsed since the formation of the state constitution, and 
lalf that period spent by her delegation to congress in fruitless solicitation for admission. 
Some began to despond. One party seemed to consider the participation in the benefits 
of the union paramount to all other considerations. The force of this had a greater 
wdght at that time, from the fact tliat a lai^c amount of surplus revenue was about to be 
diatributed among the several states; and which, it was supposed, might be lost to the 
sute, by an unseasonable admission ; therefore, by further delay, there was much to loose 
and nothing to gain. By the other party these reasons had no weight Rather than to 
nbmit to so gross an act of injustice, they were inclined to forego the inconveniences 
which might result from delay, till a more favorable action of congress. Full reliance 
wm placed in congress ultimately to do her justice by unmndiUoruilly admitting the state 
into the confederacy ; that the state, having a present right to admission, would conse- 
quently have an equitable right to her proportionate share of the surplus revenue, which 
ooogress could not refuse to grant, whenever she was admitted. Thus stood the parties 
when a special session of the legislature convened at Detroit, on the 11th July, 1886. On 
the dOth, an act was approved, providing for the election of delegates to a convention, to 
aooept or reject the proposition of congress. It provided that fifty delegates should be 
dected, and that the convention should be held at Ann Arbor, on the 20th of September. 
This convention was composed of a full representation of both parties. On the SOth, it 
a^joomed, dissenting to the proposed boundary by a vote of 28 to 21, and three delegates 
were appointed to repair to Washington, at the next session of congress, to co-operate with 
our representatives on the general interests of the state. 

This dissent was unsatisfoctory to a considerable portion of the people, and, without 
waiting the regular call of a convention by the legislature, means were resorted to, by 
whkh to reverse it During the autumn, two respectable primary assemblies of that por- 
3 



S4 mSTORT OF THE BTATB OF MICmOAK. 



tion of the people assenting to the conditions, were held, one in the county of Wayne, and 
the other in the county of Washtenaw, two of the most populous counties in the slate. A 
second convention of the people was proposed to be held, for another trial of the question; 
and the governor was rcqnestetl to call the same by proclamation. Although the pro- 
posed convention was approved of, yet the issue of a proclamation, unauthorized by law, 
was, for its alleged want of validity, very properly declined by the executive. However, a 
convention had been decided upon, and, on the 14th of November, a circular from the 
proper officers of the assenting party was issued, which recommended the qualified voters 
in the several counties to meet on the 5th and 6th of December, and elect delegates to 
attend a convention ; that the number of delegates be twice the number elected to the pop- 
ular branch of the legislature, and that the election be conducted at the proper places, l^ 
the same officers, and agreeably to the legal formalities governing other elections. The 
election was accordingly held, tliough unattended by those who dissented to the proposi- 
tion of boundary, or w^ho considered the convention as void, fh)m its illegality. The 
delegates elected to tliis convention, met at Ann Arbor on the 14th December, and on the 
15th, unanimously resolved to accept the condition imposed in the proposition of congress; 
but at the same time, protesting against the constitutional right of congress to require this 
preliminary assent as a condition of admission into the union. 

The proceedings of this convention were immediately submitted to congress. As might 
have been expected, in the debate on the subject, the validity of the last convention was 
called in question. By some, it was urged tliat this convention was entirely at pari^/ that, 
having been voluntarily originated fh)m a portion only of the people, being unauthorized 
by any legal provision, it could not, by its acts, bind the remaining portion of the commu- 
nity, nor even itself, or those whom it represented, any more than the voluntary expres- 
sion of any other public assemblage of the people ; that questions of this magnitude, 
affecting the sovereignty of a state, could only be determined by the people, according to 
.such form as the suprem? power of the state might prescribe. By others, it was urged, 
that while the assent of a majority of the people was necessary, it was immaterial how 
that assent was given, whether according to a prescribed law of the state, or not — it was 
sufficient if the will of a mi^^^^y ^^ ^^^ people was ascertained ; and moreover, that no 
act of congress had prescribed any mode by which the people should give their assent ; 
and, that the recent convention had expressed the will of a majority of the people of the 
state, evidence of a change in public opinion since the first convention, was adduced to 
prove. By others, again, it was maintained, that the expression of the first convention, 
authorized by the legislature at the extra session, was the only legal expression of the will 
of the people of Michigan on the question ; that the proposition of congress, requiring the 
state to relinquish part of her territory, to obtain admission, was wholly gratuitous — was 
unjust and wrong ab initio; tliat any determination congress might make upon the validity 
of the latter convention, would be equally gratuitous, and could neither alter the &ct8 in 
the oise, whatever they might be, nor the rights of the state ; that former proceedings 
ought to be disregarded, and that Michigan ought to be unconditionally admitted into the 
union, on an equal footing with the other states of the confederacy ; that thereby congress 
would have discharged a duty incumbent on it, and tlie contending parties might be at 
liberty to settle the controversy, before the proper judicial tribunal of the country. 

These were some of the opinions and arguments elicited by the parties in debate on 
the subject. However conflicting these opinions might be, there seemed, withal, to be a 
disposition in all parties to admit the state, although the dissatisfaction of some, at the 
irregularity of the proceedings in accomplishing the object, and the obnoxious preamble 
coupled with the act of admisdon, prevented their votes being given in the affirmative. 
The final decision was made by an act approved the 26th January, 1837, which, after 



r THK BTATK or MicmaAX. 



■g, by preamble, that the people of the state bad given their conwnt to the pio- 
pcMed bomulaiiFS, in the coarenUoD of the 15th December, decUred UehigMi "to be ttw 
at the Uidt«d Btmlea, and Bdmitted lulo the union on on equal fbotiog with the originU 
riitn. in all reelects whatever." 

Stevens T. Haatm was elected flnt governor of the stale. The following table wDI 
ibow the subsequent govemois of the state, with the dates of election and term of oflbio 
of each: 



The present cooslilution was adopted In convention, at Lansing, Aiigusl Sth, 1800. 
Tb« right to vote is secured to every white male cidzen, and to every while male reddent 
in the stale on the Ist Januaiy, 1650, who has declared Intention of becoming a cltizoi 
rii months preceding the eleoiion, or who has resided in tlie state two and lialf years and 
declared stKh intetiUon ; Hnd to every civilized male inhabitant of Indian descent, not a 
member of any tribe: Prori^rd, (dvay. That evciy elector shall be at least twenty-one 
years of age, and have resided in the slate iliree montlis, and in the election district ten 
days next preceding tbe election. The legislature consixts of a senate of thiny-two roem- 
liers, and a house of represcntutlve^ of seventy-two members, chosen biennially In sin^e 
districts. The governor and lieutenant-go vemur, and also the administrative officers, are 
elected biennially. TliP judiciary consists of a supreme couri, circuit courts, probate 
conila, and jnsllccs' courts. Municipal courts of civil and criminal Jurisdicllon may also 
be established. All Judges and Justices are eti^cted by the people. Micliignn sends iix 
representatives to congress. 

That section of the state known as the " Northern Peninsula," lying between Lake 
Superior and Luke Michigon is three hundred and sixty miles long, and from thirty-six to 
one hundred and twenty miles wide. This portion of Die state Is, as yet, comparatively 
unsettled, tfaotigU its advantages are such as to induce a rapid immigration. The general 
surfiicc is much diversified by mountains, hills, valleys and plains. The eastern portion to 
the " pictured rocks," is undulating, rising grudually IVom the lakes to the interior, where 
it assumes tbe character of an elevated table-land. Westward, the country becomes 
broken into hills, nith Intervening plains, until Ji is interrupted by the Porcupine Honn- 
tains, which form the dividing ridge separating the wateis of Lake Superior fhim those of 
Lake Hlchigan. The highest peaks toward the western boundary are trcaa one thousand 
dght hundred to two thousand feet high. The ridge is often broken through by the larger 
ttreama, bordered by extensive valleys. The spurs of these mountains project in different 
dliections, often extiilnllog their denuded clifls upon the northern shores. The greater 
portion of the peiiiiisula, the sand ])lah)s excepted, is covered with immense forests, prlnd- 



86 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MICHIOAK. 



pally of white and yellow pine. Of the pine lands, there are millions of acres stretching 
between the Sault de Ste. Marie and the Ontonagon and Montreal rivers. The country is 
abundantly supplied with water, and though none of the streams are large, yet they ftar- 
nish immense power, and the means of internal navigation. The head branches of those 
flowing in different directions frequently interlock. The lake coast of this section of the 
state is estimated at between seven hundred and eight hundred miles in length, and it is 
believed that five-sevenths of the entire i>enin8ula may be reached by the common lake 
vessels. 

The "Southern Peninsula" has generally a level or rolling surface, in some parts 
broken and hilly. The eastern portion, for a distance varying from five to twenty-five 
miles from the shore, is almost a dead level, but westward the land rises into an irregular 
ridge, in some parts attaining the height of six hundred or seven hundred feet alx>ve the 
level. This ridge has much greater proximity to the eastern than to the western shore, 
and serves to separate the waters flowing into lakes on each side. The portion of the 
southern part of the state denominated hilly, branches off from the principal ridge in 
different directions through the a(\joining country. The hills consist of an irregular 
assemblage of somewhat conical elevations, occasionally attaining the height of one hun- 
dred and fifty to two hundred feet, but ordinarily of not more than from thirty to forty 
feet. The main portion of the table land passing westward to Lake Michigan, with the 
exceptions noted, assumes a very gradual descent, exhibiting a gently undulating and very 
rarely broken surface. The ridge of land before spoken of again takes a rise near the 
mouth of Au Sable river, and is seen from the lake to stretch on for many miles along and 
beyond the coast. It has been considered as the highest land of the state, and forms 
perhaps the most nigged part of the lower peninsula. Taking the great extent of this 
peninsula into consideration, however, it may, in a comparative point of view, be said to 
possess a great evenness of surface, with a sufi[icient declivity, nevertheless, to allow the 
waters to drain off in lively and healthy streams. The coasts, both towards Lakes 
Michigan and Huron are sometimes exhibited in high, steep banks ; and those of the 
former are frequently seen in blutis and sand hills, varying from one hundred to three 
hundred feet in height. 

The rivers of Michigan are in general comparatively smaller, but more numerous than 
is commonly observed in most other sections of the union; a fact attributed not only*to 
the uniformity of descent, but also to the more favorable structure of the interior to furnish 
them constant supplies. The Detroit, St. Clair, and St. Mary's are more properly called 
straits ; they are tranquil, deep, copious, and expansive streams, uniting the great lakes, 
the w-aters of which they conduct toward the ocean. The largest rivers of the southern 
peninsula are the Grand, the Muskegon, St. Joseph, and Kalamazoo, which flow into Lake 
Michigan ; the Sheboygan and Thunder Bay rivers, that discharge into Lake Huron, and 
the Saginaw, which empties into the bay so called. The streams flowing eastward are 
small, owing to the position of the dividing ridge, which is considerably east of the middle 
of the peninsula. The largest inland rivers are the Raisin, the Huron, the Clinton, and the 
Rouge. The largest rivers of the northern peninsula are the Montreal, the Great Iron, the 
Ontonagon, the Huron, the St. John's, and the Chocolate, which flow into Lake Sui>erior, 
and the Menomonee and Manistee, which flow^ the former into Green Bay, and the latter 
into Lake Michigan. There ai*e several other considerable streams, though of smaller 
grade, a description of which will be found in our review of the state by counties and 
towns. The rivers of Michigan are, without exception, lively, pure and healthy, supplying 
mill power, and draining the fine agricultural lands through which they course. 

Michigan is encompassed by five great lakes, four of which are the largest collections 
of fresh water on the globe. Of these immense mediterranean waters, Lake Superior is by 
fiur the largest It lies directly north of the upper peninsula. Lake Michigan is the second 



mSTORT OF THE STATE OF IQCmOAK. 87 



in Biie. It is a long narrow lake, stretching between the lower peninsula, and the States 
of Dfinob and Wisconsin. Lake Haron is next in dimensions. The shf^pe of this lake is 
Toy Irr^golar; its principal indentations are Saginaw bay, which extends down into the 
interior, and two others, one immediately north of Manitou Islands, and the other south-east 
of them. The latter, sometimes called Manitou bay, or (Georgian lake, is Tery laige, 
estimated at one-fourth the extent of Lake Huron. It empties through St. Clair strait into 
Lake St. Clair, the smallest of the fiye lakes bordering on Michigan, and this again dis- 
charges itself through the Detroit into Lake Erie. More than thirty miles of this latter 
borders Michigan, and opens to the state a iree navigation to the principal ports along its 
coasts. Nor is this state merely surrounded by lakes, but the Interior is interspersed with 
them from one border to the other. The country, indeed, is literally maculated with these 
collections of water, from an area of 1 to 1,000 acres, though as a general rule they do not 
pertiaps average 500 acres in extent They are usually very deep, with gravelly bottoms, 
waters transparent, and cool at all seasons. This latter fact is attributed to springs, which 
ftimiah tiiem constant supplies. Water-fowl of various sorts inhabit their shores, and their 
depths are the domain of abundance of fish, which grow to an enormous size. It is usual 
to find some cre^ or rivulet originating in tliese, but many have no perceptible outlet, 
and yet are stored with fisli. 

The geological structure of Michigan is extremely varying ; the northern peninsula, 
bordering on the Superior, is primative, but the portions bordering on Green Bay, are 
secondary, while the southern peninsula is exclusively secondary in its formation. In 
geological formation, southern Michigan greatly resembles western New York; its rocks, 
conasting of horizontal strata of limestones, sandstones, and shales; the limestones being 
generally found in the beds of rivers near the lakes, and the sandstones in the interior. 
The mineral resources of Michigan are ^ow being rapidly developed. The richest copper 
mines ever discovered exist in its northern peninsula in the primitive formation, occupy- 
ing a belt of 120 miles in length, and from 2 to 6 miles in width ; silver has been found in 
connection wiUi the copper, and iron of a very superior quality exists in a belt of states, 
from 6 to 25 niiles wide, extending westward for 150 miles into Wisconsin, and approach- 
ing the lake at the nearest point within twelve miles. Salt springs are being developed in 
various parts of the state ; also, lead, gypsum, peat, limestone, marl and coal ; the latter in 
abundance at Jackson and Corunna, within 100 miles of Detroit. The present activity 
which prevails in the mining re^on of the northern peninsula, greatly exceeds that of 
any former year, and a constant and regular increase in tlds branch of industry in the 
fbtore, may now be safely presumed. 

The rugged and generally inferior soil of the northern peninsula, with its agricultural 
alMlity to a great extent undeveloped, contrasts somewhat unfavorably with the character- 
istic fertility of most of the soil in the middle and southern portions of the lower penin- 
sula. Portions of the former are well timbered with white pine, spruce, hemlock, birch, 
oak, aspen, maple, ash, and elm, while much of southern Michigan is occupied by those 
beautiful and fertile natural lawns, called oak openings, covered with scattered trees and 
fiwe finom under^'ood. Another portion is prairie, and yet another timbered land, covered 
with black and white walnut, sugar maple, different species of oak, hickory, ash, bass- 
wood, soft maple, elm, linden, locust, dogwood, poplar, beech, aspen, sycamore, cotton- 
wood, cherry, pine, hemlock, cypress, cedar, chestnut, pawpaw, etc. 

Michigsin is eminently an agricultural state ; the staple products being wheat, Indian 
corn, oats, potatoes, butter, hay, maple sugar, wool and live stock, with large quantities of 
buckwheat, lye, peas, beans, barley, fruits, cheese, beeswax, honey, etc. 

The climate of Michigan is much tempered by its peculiar situation between vast 
mland seas, though the extremes of heat and cold arc more appreciable than in almost any 
section of the U^ted States. In the northern peninsula the winters are long and severe, 



mSTOST OF TBK STATE OP UCHiaAK. 



Uioiigh not suffldentlj bo to affect the growth of the hardier cereok. The clinwte of the 
sontfaem peninmiU, on the coatnuy, is mild and compamtlTel; even, permitting the fiiH 
msturitr of Indian com, and of sil deacriptloiiB of fruit tltat can be grown in central Nev 
York. 

The state luu now a population of nearly one million inhabitants, with an araltle area 
of 86,S8&,S00 acre«. It has fifty-four organlzied counties, beside* nineteen unorganized, a 
(hll description of which, with their towns and villages, their resources, and alpliabetinJ 
list of persons engaged in bnuneas, will he found immedinlely foUowbg this history. 

Bdng Dearly surrounded by navigable water, tlie 8tat£ of Uichigan la bvorahlj dta- 
ated for canying on an eiten^ve commerce. The total lake trade of the state, valued at 
180,000,000 in 1851, is now eatimaled at $63,000,000, notwithstanding the &ct that the 
development of the gigantic railroads of the west has absorbed a large portion of the trade 
that would otherwise have been conducted through the lakes. The great mining district 
of the northern peninsula, to which, as yet, no railroad has been constructed, finds an 
outlet for its productions only through the lakes, and yearly odds a large quota to the 
already heavy commerce of the state. The shipping, estimated in IBM at 88,144 tons, is 
now increased to upwards of 100,000 Ions. The Internal and trantit trade of the Mate, by 
means of Its ntilroads, etc., is also immense, and has been largely Increased rince the 
completion of the great Canadian lines. 

Although provided by nature with a ready means of access to all her bordBis, 
this youihfiil state has made rapid advances in improvements to bdlllata Internal 
communication, and has now already completed within her borders nearly twelve hundred 
miles of railroad, beudes various other lines projected and in course of construction. Hie 
Bault Ste. Harle ship canal, In the northern peninsula, connecting the waters of the lower 
lakes with those of Lake Superior, is another work of improvement, gr«atiy bcdlltating 
commerce between the rich mineral districts of the northern and the manufacturing 'dis- 
tricts of the souUiem porlJiHi of the state. From the last annual report of the superin- 
tendent of the ship canal, we have the following comparutive statement, showing the canal 
recdpts, expenses, and amount depo«lted fhim 18SS to 1861 : 



.™. «C»PT^ 


„,„^ 


"™° 










J* 




i 




Mg. „ ^»^ 


Sis 




S 



Table »hom«g On nvmber of tota nf Cupper, Iroa, Orti 
/or Ou gear 1801. 



, Oe., pamiag through Ihe Coital 



mSTORY OF THB STATE OF MICmOAH. 39 



The inducements which Michigan offers to the emigrants are numerous. Her 
chmate is comparatiyely mild, and her soil exceedingly fertile. A yast portion of the 
state is still covered with the primeyal forest, which only awaits the strong arm of the 
chopper to uncover a soil which yields a long succession of crops without manure. The 
vast Tesoarces of this state are only Just now becoming known to the world. A few years 
•go, her mineral products were undiscovered — her coal, g3rpsum, copper, and iron lay in 
their strata^ undistiubed by the hand of the miner. Her salt springs were not economized, 
tnd even her agricultural products were not calculated to attract attention. A change has 
come o^er the spirit of the time. The woods are falling beneath the axe of the settler. 
The snorting of the iron horse is heard, where, a few years ago, the silence of the forest 
was onbroken by a sound. The farmer, with the power of a magician, has caused the 
wildaiiesB "to rejoice and blossom as the rose" — the miner has dccended into the bowels 
of the earth, and dug up some of the richest ores which the world has ever seen ; and in 
flome places ndning skill was not required, for the ore lay on the surface — the merchant 
has built palatial residences where, a few years ago, the tents of the Chippewas or Pottaw* 
atlomies held undisputed possession of the ground. 

The fiinners of Michigan have easy access to best markets in America or Europe, So 
that the produce of their land at all times meets a ready sale. Hundreds, we might say 
thousands, of miles of rail and plankroads diverge from Detroit and penetrate into the 
richest districts of the state; and the vast chain of lakes and rivers which nearly surround 
it, afford extraordinary advantages of navigation. The fisheries, of themselves, are in 
themselves unfiiiling sources of wealth, and the lumber which is cleared away by the 
settler, brings millions of dollars into pockets of the dealers in this indispensable article. 
The horses, cattle and sheep of the state are beginning to attract attention in other distant 
marketa, and, if we are to judge by the improvement which has taken place in the domes- 
tic animals within the last ten years, in five years more the stock of this state will be 
among the very best on this continent. Great progress has been made in horticulture 
within the last few years, some of the best varieties of garden and orchard fVuits have 
be»i introduced; the export from this delightful branch of rural economy are becoming 
large, and there can scarcely be a doubt but the profits derived from the growing of fhiit 
will be very large in a few years. 

The soil of Michigan is exceedingly fertile, yielding almost every kind of cultivated 
crop in the richest profusion. The wheat of this state is highly prized in the English and 
French markets, and when our farmers pay a little more attention to the selection of the 
Tery best varieties of seed, and to the cleaning of the grain for market, the wheat of the 
Peninfular State will not be surpassed on this continent Maize ripens perfectly and pro- 
duces an abundant jrield in every part of the lower peninsula, and when we consider that 
not only the grain of this plant, but also the cob, leaves and stems arc useful for the feed- 
ing of stock, the benefit to be derived from this crop will at once become evident. Potatoes 
thrive so well in our soil that a large quantity is annually exported to states which are 
not fiivored with a soil so rich as ours, and in which drought takes more effect. 

As a fruit growing state, Michigan is superior to many western states. Apples, pears, 
plums, quinces, peaches, grapes, apricots, etc., reward the labors of the horticulturist, and 
attain a size and flavor which cannot be equaled in other places. These facts have 
aheady attracted attention from friut growers in every part of the union. A considerable 
portion of soil, well suited for orchards and gardens, is still covered with the natural forest, 
which has only to be cleared away by the settler to unfold a soil so rich as to produce 
crops for several years without the aid of manure, and almost every part of the state is 
now within reach of an excellent market, the rivers and lakes, railroads and plank roads 
affording facilities for the transportation of agricultural and horticultural products to the 
best marlLets in the world. 



40 mBTORY OF THE STATE OF MICmOAir. 



When the numerous advantages which Micliigan possesses, are considered, it seems 
strange that a large portion of her lands are still unoccupied and await the stnrdy aims of 
the foreign emigrant to develope their rich resources. This is not to be wondered at 
From an eariy date, the land speculators of other states found it to answer their purpose 
of aggrandisement to represent Michigan as a howling wilderness, her climate as insalu- 
brious, and her soil a dismal swamp, unsuited to agriculture. These delusions are being 
dispelled rapidly. The robust health of her rural population, and the unsurpassed rich- 
ness of her soU are now attracting attention, and inducing farmers and mechanics from 
neighboring states to come in and occupy the land. The construction of the Grand 
Trunk and Great Western Railways have afforded fiicilities for foreign emigrants to reach 
Michigan, and the fertility of the soil being known, it is probable that the population will 
increase rapidly. 

Emigrants will find Michigan suited to almost every kind of pursuit or culture. The 
former will find the soil of this state suited to the production of almost every cultivated 
crop, and the workers in wood or iron will find ample stores of material. The horticol- 
turist can follow his favorite pursuit with success, the climate and soil being admirably 
scrited for the growth of the choicest fruit and vegetables. The vast quantities of fish in 
the lakes and rivers which nearly surround the state, have already attracted fishennen 
from the coasts of Holland and France, and tliere is scarcely a danger that the finny tribe 
will be exhausted, or the occupation of the fisherman unprofitable. The mineml 
products of Michigan are in themselves of sufficient magnitude to attract large numbers of 
the working population from the mining districts of Europe, and they have been coming 
annually for several years. 

The civil war in America has partially discouraged European emigration to the 
United States, as it was represented that law and order were fast giving place to anarchy 
and confusion in this once happy and united laniL It would be well to make Uie real 
condition of the northern states known iu every part of Europe, that persons anxious to 
better theur condition may be informed that there never was a better time for emigrants to 
reach this country than the present The war, with all its attendant horrors, is closely 
confined within the rebellious states, and all the free states are prospering. In Michigan 
the industrious emigrant will be sure of employment, if he has sufficient capital to establish 
himself on some of the rich lands which lie in every imrt of the state. The laige number 
of mechanics and workmen of every kind who have enlisted in the federal army have 
made labor scarce and dear, and left vacancies to be filled by foreign emigration. 

Among the various causes whicli have contributed to the rapid development of the 
immense natural resources of this state, none stand more prominent than the various great 
lines of internal communication, a brief notice of wliich we give below : 

INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

MiCHiOAX Central Railroad. — This was the first railroad built in this state, 
and since its completion has been known as one of the best managed in the west Its 
beneficial effects to the region of country tlirough which it passes, are incalculable. On its 
line have sprung up a large number of beautiful towns nnd villages as if by magic, while 
many of those that had an existence prior to its construction, have grown into flourishing 
cities. Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor, Jackson, Marshall, Battle Creek, Albion, Kalamazoo, Niles, 
and other places that might properly be included, owe all their improvements and 
enterprise to the construction of the Michigan Central Railroad, while the entire coimtiy 
along the route exhibits a degree of thrift and improvement that will compare fiivorably 
with tlie most flourishing sections of the seaboard states. 



HISTORY OF THB 8TATB OF UXOmQAK. 



41 



The l^chigan Central Railroad was commenced and partially built by the state, but 
in 1844 passed into the possession of the company now owning it, who completed 
it to Chicago. A telegraph line has been in use for some years past along the entire line of 
the road, with an office at each station, by which means the exact position of each train 
may be known at each and every point. To this admirable system may be attributed, in 
a very great degree, the extraordinary exemption of this road from serious accidents, while 
its advantages respecting the general management, are very great in every point of view. 
The oaatem terminus of the road being at Detroit, it has the full advantages of the num^- 
ous connections at this point — the Great Western and Grand Trunk Railwajrs, the imp(»^ 
tant steamboat routes to Cleveland, Lake Superior and Buffalo, together with the numer- 
ous freight routes to the different lake ports, of which the city of Detroit is the nucleus. 
Freight can now be transported, via this road, from Chicago to Portland, with but one 
change of cars. An important "feeder" is the " Joliet cut-off," by means of which it 
has a direct connection with St Louis, via the Chicago, Alton and St Louis Railroad. An 
excellent arrangement is now in successful operation with the latter road, for the direct 
transmission of freight between the cities of Detroit and St Louis. Fifty cars have been 
devoted to this route, under the name of the *' Detroit and St. Louis through freight line." 
The time between the two cities is thirty-eight hours. The advantages of this line to 
sluppers is at once apparent, and will no doubt add, materially, to the rapidly increasing 
commerce of our state. 

No railroad in the United States has exhibited a more enterprising and progressive 
spirit than has the Central, and no road is more popular with shippers. Its inde&tigable 
manager, R N. Rice, Esq., has determined to leave no expedient untried to secure for the 
Central the title of the best managed and equipped railroad in the United States. The 
entire aim and object of the management has been to consult only the safety, comfort and 
convenience of the public, and no equipment or improvement that in any way tends to 
this result has been neglected. All passenger trains are now fitted with " Ruttan's patent 
ventilator and duster," an arrangement by which a constant circulation of pure air is kept 
up, while the atmosphere is entirely freed from dust. In winter a similar arrange- 
ment keeps the air within the car at a pleasant temperature, while the feet of the passen- 
gers «re kept comfortably warm by a current of heated air passing through a box on the 
floor beneath the seats. 

The following table shows the total earnings of the road for the year 1861, compiled 
from the books of the company : 



(^idtment of the earnings of (Tie Michiffan Central Bailroad^ for the year ending Dee. 31, 1861. 



MO.XTHS. 


PA88EN0ER8. 


rUIOHTB. 


MI8CKLLAXB0U8. 


TOTAL. 


January 

February . . • . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September .... 

October 

November .... 
December 


$42,277 36 
38,3a5 87 
57,820 69 
64,782 84 
58,886 63 
52,101 84 
54,685 88 
60,151 18 
71,504 17 
81,950 92 
62,175 51 
48,110 19 


$94,750 01 

76,861 74 

88,608 56 

102,538 73 

84,984 13 

76,358 88 

60,589 78 

79,588 89 

159,838 83 

218,709 78 

172,492 75 

145,636 04 


$5,306 38 
5,096 86 
5,241 29 
5,292 05 
5,679 62 
5,159 00 
8,101 69 
5,247 95 
5,502 97 
6,672 15 
7,420 87 
6,887 53 


$142,338 70 
119,763 97 
151,670 54 
172,613 62 
149,550 88 
133,619 73 
123,377 80 
144,982 52 
236,845 97 
307,382 80 
242,089 18 
200,188 76 


Total 

Tiastyear 


$692,752 58 
$811,724 67 


$1,360,452 52 
$1,148,962 29 


$71,108 31 
$64,457 18 


$2,124,818 41 
$2,025,144 04 



42 



HI8T0RT OF THE BTATB OF MICmOAH. 



The Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad.— The road was first opened its entire 
distance, one liundred and eiglity-eiglit miles, fh)m Detroit to Grand Haven, in Korembor, 
1858. It has been the means of opening up one of the best fiirming regions of the slate; 
and to the untiring eneigy and administrative ability of its efficient superintendent, W. E. 
Muir, Esq., the State of Michigan is under lasting obligations. The principal dties and 
towns upon its line are Pontiac, Fentonville, St Johns, Ionia, Grand Rapids, and Giand 
Haven, and the growth of these places has received a great impetus since its completioa; 
while numerous villages have also sprung into being, as if by magic, at numerons^pointi 
along the line. These changes are plainly visible in the improved trade of Detroit, and 
the increase from the same cause must continue to be strongly marked. In 1858, the com- 
pany completed one of the finest railroad wharves in the world ; it is fifteen hundred feet 
long by nhiety broad, the west end of which is occupied by the freight house, the dimen* 
sions of which are four hundred and fifty by (me hundred and thirty-two feet In oonneo- 
tion with this road, at its western terminus — Grand Haven — the splendid steamshipB 
** Detroit" and " Milwaukee " ply regularly between that place and the city of MUwaokee, 
having the most sumptuous accommodations for passengers, together with ample room for 
all classes of freight 

Qnnparatice SUUemeiU of the Monihiy Traffic Beceipts of (he Detroit and IUkDaukee RaOroai^ 

for the pean ending November dOth, 1800 and 1801. 



MOIITBS. 



December 

January . 

Pebruaiy 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July . 

August 

September 

October 

November 

Total 



US9-6a 



$d9,2^7 40 
23,128 00k 
27,500 5SH 
50,810 OGH 
59,213 81>i 
52,838 295^ 
48,292 03*^ 
40,500 52 
59,224 49 
89,754 50 

108,102 97 
70,899 35 



lan-u. 



$40,050 21 
88,104 42 
27,151 68 
46,801 28 
60,898 52 
55,843 78 
58,779 75 
47,079 29 
56,121 97 
84,897 78 

100,511 21 
90,758 86 



11075,083 80 $702,089 65 



The population of that section of Michigan which is directly tributary to or depend- 
ent upon the Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad as a means of outlet is at the present time 
upward of 250,000, having upward of one million acres of improved land. At Gorunna, 
in Shiawassee county, the road crosses tlie immense bituminous coal bed, which stretches 
throughout the central portion of the state, and which is undoubtedly destined, at no veiy 
distant day, to prove a source of immense business to the road and of wealth to the mine 
owners. Opening, as it does, a road through the very heart of the state, and intersecting 
for two hundred miles, some of the very best farming lands in the country, the local bua- 
ness alone is now, and is destined to be, truly immense. 

The Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana Railroad. — This is another 
of the great lines of travel and freight transportation to which the State of Michigan owes 
so much of her present prosperity. The main line of the road, which is four hundred and 
sixty-one miles in length, extending from Detroit to Chicago, was opened for travel in 
January, 1857. That portion of the road, from Detroit to Toledo, was built by the "De- 
troit, Monroe and Toledo Railroad Company," and has been leased by the M. S. <fe N. L 



mSTOBY OF THB BTATB OF MICHIOAN. 



48 



Company. It is now an important link in tlie great railway system, extending firom the 
east to the great south-west, of which system Detroit, from its favorable position, has 
become the center and soul. Since the opening of the Grand Trunk, a large amount 
of freight has passed through billed for Liverpool direct, a species of freight which 
must steadily increase. The business of the Detroit terminus has been for years under the 
superintendence of L. P. Knight, Esq., to whose liberal and obliging management the 
business men of Detroit, and shippers generally, can bear abundant interest John D. 
Campbell, Esq., the well known superintendent of the road, has adopted every appliance 
and improvement that can tend in the least degree to the comfort and convenience of pas- 
sengers, or to the expeditious transportation of freight. 

The main line of this road passes through the most productive section of Michigan, 
the prairies and famous "oak openings" of St. Joseph, Branch, HiUsdale, Lenawee, and 
Monroe, generally acknowledged to be the best farming lands in the state. The remark- 
able growth of the cities of Monroe, Adrian, Hillsdale, and Coldwater, and the numerous 
thriving villages along the line of this road, give ample testimony of the immense benefit 
that it has conferred upon the country. Beside the mam trunk road, which extends from 
Toledo, Ohio, to Chicago, Illinois, there are several branches, (most of which have proved 
of more benefit, thus fiir, to the section of country through which they pass than to the 
company) the principal one being the "Air Line*' branch, which leaves the main line at 
Elkhart, Indiana, and runs down through that state and Ohio, to Toledo, shortening the 
distance to Chicago very materially. The branch connecting the main line at Adrian 
with the Detroit, Monroe and Toledo road, at Monroe, is another important addition, as 

ore also the Adrian and Jackson, and the White Pigeon and Three Rivers branches. 

« 

Staittneni of the Monthly Earnings of the Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana Bailroad, 
for the years ending December 81, 1860, and December 81, 1861. 



ll05rTHti. 



1800. 



January . 

February 

March 

April 

3foy 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Total 



$181,466 55 
119,882 90 
166,454 08 
170,841 88 
175,481 28 
184,687 89 
127,272 55 
196,280 56 
288,851 19 
278,722 51 
208,492 45 
184,972 51 



$2,068,896 80 



18S1. 



$140,924 55 
116,987 68 
158,170 11 
170,862 10 
161,890 98 
186,951 85 
126,558 08 
178,772 91 
285,690 00 
276,181 26 
281,265 00 
189,076 60 

$2,167,280 66 



The Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad. — This road is now in successful 
operation from East Saginaw to Mt Morris, six miles north of Flint, to which place it will 
undoubtedly be completed this fell. Although entirely unconnected with any other line 
of road, it is doing a paying business, and has contributed largely toward the success of the 
towns in the Saginaw Valley. A brief history of the road may not be uninteresting to 
many of our readers. In 1856, when congress adopted a general system of donations of 
the public lands in the w^estem states to aid in the construction of railroads, lands were 
granted to this state for a similar purpose. At the session of the legislature in the winter 



44 HISTORY OF THE 8TATI OF XICmOAK. 



of 1857, these lands were conferred upon the Pere and Marquette Railroad Company, 
which surveyed the route of its road from Flint to Pere Marquette, in the county of Mmob, 
upon the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, a distance of one hundred and seventy^wo mHeii 
and located the line of it in the summer of 1857. It will he recollected that in September 
of that year, the commercial world was fearfully convulsed, and owing to the comMI 
disasters, the work of construction was not commenced until the fall of 1858. In the lit 
lowing year some thirteen miles of the road were graded, and Hve miles of track was Ud 
with Michigan iron, manu&ctured at Wyandotte. The next year, 1858, the w(M^ of grid- 
ing was continued, hut the financial difficulties of the times were such as to preclude As 
company ih)m obtaining their iron that season, so as to extend the track. In 1800 the 
time had expired wherein the company w^ere to complete the first twenty miles of the 
road, so as to entitle it to the benefit of the law of the state conferring upon the compa- 
nies the lands granted by congress to aid in its construction. In this dilemma, with the 
apprehension of a i)ossiblc forfeiture being declared by the state, the company reodved 
from the governor and other influential officers and citizens of the state, such assuninoei 
of good will, that no advantage or exception would be taken if the company would proee- 
cute the enterprise in good fiiith, that tlie contractors were induced to proceed and com- 
plete the first twenty-six and a half miles of the n>ute, as we have before stated. The 
inception of the enterprise is mainly attributed to Mr. M. L. Drake, of Oakland ooontj, 
and its execution to the good Judgment and energetic enterprise of Mr. Samuel Farwell, of 
UticA, New York. 

The Ambot, Lansing and Travbrsb Bat Railroad. — Tliis road is derigned, 
when completed, to connect the great northern luml)er region of this state with the lum- 
ber consuming*States of Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. But a small portion of the road is 
completed, about thirty miles, connecting the city of Lansing with the Detroit and Mil- 
waukee Railroad, at Owosso. 

The Qrand Trunk Railway.— This road may very properly be ranked as one of 
the most stupendous works of modem engineering, far surpassing in vastness and expense 
any mechanical work ever undertaken on this continent, and ranking with the wonderfhl 
efforts of the ancient nations of the East This great railway, the longest continuous road 
in the world, was completed to the city of Detroit in November, 1858, making, with the 
exception of the ferry across the St. Clair river, at Port Huron, an unbroken line of nil, 
upwards of one thousand miles in extent, connecting the city of Detroit, Michigan, with 
that of Portland, Maine. Being of uniform guage, no change of cars is necessary ftom 
Samia (opposite Port Huron, on the Canadian side of the St. Clair river) to Portland ; and 
being also under the management of one corporation, it affords better facilities for the pro- 
tection of passengers and the preservation of their baggage than where they are required to 
pass over lines under the control of different, and perhaps conflicting corporations. Haviog 
only one set of officers quartered upon its exchequer, it can afford to do business at lower 
proportionate rates, than a number of shorter lines, each having a different set to salary, 
wlule the delay and vexation which not unfrequently arise from short routes, being com- 
pelled to wait upon each others' movements, will all be avoided, which is certainly no 
small consideration both to passengers and shippers. If there is a dereliction of duty in 
the transmission of fKnght, shippers have their remedy. If baggage is lost, there is no 
trouble required to determine where the responsibility rests, as is the case where it passes 
over a number of different roads. The completion of this stupendous bond of connection 
between the eastern and western states, Canada and Eiux)pe, renders markets available 
which were before difficult of access, and enables far distant countries to exchange their 
products at all seasons. The Grand Trunk may be called the first section of the Pacific 
Railroad, as it already conmiunicates with the Mississippi through Michigan, Illinois and 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MICHIOAK. 45 



Wbooiufai nulroads, and we expect to see tlie line completed ih>m the MissiBsippi to Cali- 

ixida. It is not easy to form an estimate of the amount of traffic and intercourse that the 

defcn hundred miles of Grand Trunk Railway will bring to Michigan and the neighboring 

Mates. A junction has been formed with that model of western lines, the Michigan Cen- 

tnl, by which fineight and passengers reach Chicago and the numerous lines which diveige 

from that city. It is probable that another Junction will be made with the Detroit and 

XDwankee Railway, by means of a branch from Port Huron to Owosso. In this case 

there will be a direct line across Michigan connecting with the Milwaukee railroads by the 

feny across the lake, and penetrating into Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska and Oregon, by lines 

which have not yet been traced on the railway maps of the United States. The direct 

connection that ^chigan now ei^oys, by means of this road, with the Atlantic seaboard, 

It the fine liartior of Portland, is a matter of the most vital importance. Our state can 

BOW be supplied with the valuable products of the West Indies and other foreign ports, at 

a decidedly cheax)er rate than can the states nearer the seaboard, but access to which is 

restricted by imperfect modes of communication. 

The Detroit terminus of this important road, is managed by a gentleman who is 
dttervedly popular with the business and traveling community, Richard Tubman, Esq., 
to whose thorough business qualifications and gentlemanly conduct, the road is indebted 
for no small share of its American popularity. 

The Great Western Railway, of Canada. — This is one of the most substantial 
iod thorou^ly built railroads on the continent, while its management has always been 
socli as to make it a great favorite with the traveling public. It is now under the man- 
i^fnnent of Mr. Swinhard, who is said to be a most experienced and competent railroad 
manager, and who has, for many 3'cars, occupied a prominent and responsible position on 
one of the great railways of England. The receipts by this route of general merchandise 
conagned to the cities and points westward of us is immense, and it enjoys a large and 
growing local tniffic. The road extends from Windsor to Niagara Falls, a distance of two 
himdred and twenty-nine miles; one to Toronto, from Hamilton, thirty-eight miles, and 
one firom Komoka to Samia, fifly-one miles. In connection with the Michigan Central, 
Midugan Southern, and Detroit and Milwaukee Railroads, this line transports to and from 
the east, and the States of Dlinois, Indiana, Iowa and Wisconsin, the vast interchanging 
traffic, merchandise, produce and stock to their respective markets. Tl^s road has opened 
a continuous railway communication between the remote west and the Atlantic cities, 
and is inestimably appreciated by the public for the winter facilities of travel, which, 
nntil the completion of the line, in 1854, were not existing. The Great Western extends 
its pcu^^enger and freight connections by the Grand Trunk Railway, at Toronto, and by 
the several magnificent lines of steamers which navigate Lake Ontario and the St. Law- 
rence to all the cities of Lower Canada, and to the Atlantic seaboard, both in Canada and 
the United States, thus making it one of the most important and useful avenues of travel 
on the continent. The advantages of this road to the State of Michigan are immense, 
and, since its completion, trade has received an onward impulse that becomes, each year, 
more appreciable. To Robert Bell, Esq., the obliging freight agent at Detroit, and 
William Wallace, Esq., the gentlemanly passenger agent at Windsor, the shippers and 
travelers from this side of the water are especially grateful. Their management of the 
NnncDS affairs of the western terminus of this road, has been such as to secure to the 
company an immense amount of traffic, which, under different circumstances, would have 
lought some other outlet 

The St. Mary's Falls Ship Canal.— By the act of congress, appn)ve<l August 26, 
1853 9tT^n hundred and fifty thoit«bnd acres of land were granted to the State of Michigan, 
for the purpose of aiding in constructing and completing a ship canal around the Falls of 
St Mary, in said state. 



46 HI8T0RT OF THE STATE OF MICmOAN. 



The St Mary's river is a strait connecting the wat<?rs of Lake Sui>erior with Lake 
Huron. Neariy opposite tlie village of " Sault Stc. Marie," a fall or rapid occurs in the 
river, about seventeen feet in its descent and al)out one mile in length, forming a coropkle 
barrier to the water communication between tlie lakes. Tliis barrier had been overcome, 
a few years ago, in some degree, by the construction of a portage flat bar railroad around 
the rapids, over which all articles of exchange and commerce between the lower lakes aad 
Lake Superior were transported, and re-shipped in both directions. The growing inteicit 
of the Liike Superior region, the development and production of copper and iron ores, and 
the increasing population, demandeil a more easy and natiural commercial communication 
with the lower lakes ; and the State of Michigan, by an act of its l(^slature, approved 
Febniary 5, 1853, accepted the grant of land made by congress, above mentioned, and, fiw 
the purpose of carrying out the objects of the said act of congress, authorized tlic gov- 
ernor to appoint commissioners to let the building of the cimal, and agents to select the 
lands. The commissioners appointed by the governor, under authority of the act of the 
legislature of Michigan aforesaid, and an act supplementary thereto, appn>ved Febniaiy 
5, 1853, entered into contract with Joseph P. Fairbanks, Erastus Coming and others, ftff 
the building of the canal within two years from the date of the contract, for the consider- 
ation of the grant of lands above referred to. This contract was subsequently duly 
assigned, under authority of the tenth section of the first above mentioned act of \hs 
legislature of Michigan, to Tfie St. Mary's Falls Ship Can.\l Company, which had 
been incorporated under an act of the legislature of the State of New York, passed 
April 12, 1853. The organization of the company was effected on the 14th day of May, 
1853, in the city of New York, and stejw were immediately taken to proceed with the 
work of building the canal. 

The construction affairs of the company, and the selection of the mineral lands in the 
upper peninsula, were placed under ^the suj)er\'ision of Charles T. Harvey, as general 
agent ; and the selection and designation of lands in the lower peninsula, with George 8. 
Frost, as land agent at Detnat. The difficulties experienced in carrj'ing fom^^ard and 
completing such a work in the short space of two years, under the manifold and unlooked 
for embarra!*sments which had to be encountered, can now hardly be realizeil. 

A very lai^ge amount of extra work, not embraced in the contract, was i)erformed 
under the directioif, and at the request of the state engineers, with the expectation of 
obtaining compensation therefor from the general government, as hereinafter mentioned, 
and thus a large portion of the work which might othenvise have been accomplished in 
the year 1853, was thrown into the sickly season of 1854. Every article of consumption, 
machinery, working implements and materials, timber for the gates, stone for the locks, 
men and supplies, had to be transi)orted from Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, and other lake 
ports to the canal. The working force of men during the season of cholera, in 1854 par- 
ticularly, had to be constantly replenished from eastern cities, so that a continual impor- 
tation of men was kept up for months, and many of them bwame unfit for duty before 
they reached the work, and the expense of pa.ssage from New York, Albany, or Buffalo, 
was lost to the company. Suitable stone for the face of the locks could not be obtained 
nearer than Marblehead, near Sandusky City, Ohio, and Anderdon, in Canada, on the 
Detroit river, where they were all cut and prepared, and thence shipped in vessels to the 
canal. Under these embarrassments, the remoteness of the locality from the cities where 
the supplies and materials were obtained, and many other unfavorable circumstances con- 
nected with the work, the execution of the contract, with the additional work which has 
been referred to, was rendered very difficult and expensive, be^'ond any reasonable 
estimate wliich had been made. Nevertheless the company determined to complete the 
work, and having no reason to expect an extension* of time, ever)' exertion had to 



mSTORT OF THE STATE OF MICHIOAK. 47 



be en^loyed and eTeiy moment ImproTed for its completion. Tlie tenns of the contract 
were Toy broad and liberal towards the state, with stringent stipulations in regard to its 
execution on the part of the contractors. Had the season been healthy and fkyorable, and 
if there had been no necessity of changing or varying the original estimate and specifica- 
tioDB, there would have been but little difficulty in completing the work within the time 
specified In the contract, although it is now admitted on all hands that the time granted 
(two years) was, nnder any circumstai/ces, too limited for the construction of a work of 
SQCh magnitude, in a climate where the effectiye working seasons are so very short The 
adfantages resulting firom the early completion of the canal to the whole countiy, and par- 
tkahrly to the commercial interests of the lakes, and the mineral interests of the upper 
penhisala of ^cbigan, are very great, and can hardly be over estimated. Notwithstand- 
ing the difficulties in the way of finishing the work, and the risk of a failure to complete 
the contract within the time specified, the company, as contractors, did not hesitate to 
adopt and cany out every suggestion of amendment or alteration tending to the improve- 
meat and perfection of the canal, some of which, although not contemplated in the con- 
tnct, were obviously necessary to render the work convenient and complete in all its 
puts. The principal alteration (and wliich, without extraordinary exertion and expendi- 
ture of time and money, would have delayed the completion of the work for another 
Kason) was the deepening of the canal one foot ^ after the excavation (which was almost 
•n rock) was nearly completed according to the contract. This was rendered, necessary 
by the discoveiy that the waters of Lake Superior were subject to a rise and fall of several 
feet annually, in addition to the changes occasioned by storms and wind upon the lake 
during the season of navigation. The canal was therefore constructed one foot deeper 
than the contract required, being for thirteen instead of twelve feet of water Other 
mtterial and expensive alterations were made during the progress of the work ; and 
for these expenditures and delays, the commissioners and state officers recognized an 
equitable claim on the part of the company, but which they did not feel authorized 
to pay. The amount of this extra work, as estimated by tlie engineers, was upwards 
of $100,000, but flpom the manner in which it had to be done, it increased the total cost of 
the woik a much greater sum. 

In consideration of the national character of the work, its perfection and value as 
a national highway between the lakes, opening a channel of the great mineral region of 
the country, and connecting the commerce of Lake Superior with the lower lakes and the 
ocean, the commissioners and state officers deemed this extra expenditure a just demand 
upon the general government, and upon the acceptance of the canal, expressed their wil- 
Kngness to reconmiend a further allowance by the government to the company to cover 
this demand, and subsequently united with the company in a petition to congress 
mthUi behalf: 

On the completion of the canal, and its acceptance by the commissioners and state 
anthorities, in May, 1855, it was formally delivered to the state, and the lands granted as 
before mentioned were conveyed by the State of Michigan to the company, the selection 
and location of the lands having been conducted and completed during the progress of 
building the canal. The disbursements on account of constructing the canal and selecting 
the lands, showing the total cost of the work to the company of |9^,802.46, will be seen 
in detail by reference to papers herewith annexed. 
The lands of the company are as follows : 

Wood Lands near Sault Ste. Marie, 258.95 

Iron Lands near Marquette, 39,924.24 

Copper lands on the Mmeral Range, 146,292.29 

Total selected through the agency at Sault Ste. Marie, 186,480.48 



i^ r4HT<'»RV r,^ THR ^T.l FF. r,p Mil HIGA5. 



f'>i*' -ifMl** ni'i«-r ;i"niii«'Mln 7.'i.?*4)2.1rf 

fill*- iii'l t'iriii-nf/ liirii!-! Urvr p'*nin**illj|. 4^'7.717.iW 



T'.' li ^'Wv^/^MIirotiirJi iirrmv ^t r>*-frriir. . .'if{:)..)l9..13 



T'fitil -"li-/ iMfTi-* />!/ r»-j I ........ 7''>O.O0O.n0 

Jtf Wm' III'" '^'li'i!*- iirn'»iiri( '»f »li*' (^r>inl 

h I- ri'iw mImi'iu! iirMvrr<iHl)v H'linitU-r), that Th«^ Statf of MH^Inirnn po « i O « H? ff, in hcTwfl 
iifi'l lirniKr. t\i* rriMtiriiil **»urt«- of irniiifn.-"' w<-alfli. Whilo in ywir» p«u<t it has^ ben 
*\\il)i n\t Ut fiM'iin '-iri-Tn' lory ill form ;it inn '''in'iTninif th" rc-al rnnditifm and natunl 
rt^'unt'*! Iff •! |iiri'# porllon rif \Ur <iiirf>irf rif tlif U)H'#t {H^nin.^TiUi. the re-9UTV«7' of 
IK.rnniM- nf thr |rovfriifii« ni hiiifl. tlip r*x|)loriition of till- founfr\- by parties inseairhof 
film-. Mm- ill v# lfi|iiiM iii>i fini'Ir »iv liif ''Xfilorinir iinH Hiir\i*yin^' iwrties alon^r the line»of tlie 
f.iiiiil Mi'irit l{iiilMipi<1-\ Mini llir riiori' n'fcnt fxtiniiniitionH liv \hv (liffV*rpnt commijisioiis fi)r 
I'lvliif "»i* III'- *ji'v»rpil Mtfiif romlM iumNt \hv iwtn piiHMfl l»y fht* last le^rislatare. hate 
iniiiivi il • VI t V 'I'liilii III ri'riTnirc to the Miih|f(i. Tlif iiniviTHfll tf-stimonv ftnm all tlic 

•"Mill I Iiiivr nil iiiitiiiril, Mri'iii In lir Hint In hll thf nntunil rlcnx-nts of wealth the whole 

III lliK iiiiillinii piifl nf llii< |ii'iiln*«iilii iiInmhiiIh. 

'I'Ih pini* IiiihIi iif llii> Mtiiif, wliirli iin> ii n'liiililc Houn'c of firesmt and future wealth, 
lit I' •'•• liM ill I'll mill ilitiiilniiril i\*i In hritii; iilinnst rviT}' ivirtlnn nf the state, sooner or later, 
III iniini'iflnii 1^ lilt llir rnnnnri'tr nf tlir liiki'M. ^'Iir |>ini' lliiilN'r of Michigan is jj^cnerally 
luhi<i|it<i-iri| w\\\\ iiilirf- xiirlrtiiw nf linihrr, Nucli iiH In'iu'Ii, nuiplc, white ni^h, oak, oheny, 
I'll' , 'Mill III mn**! I iHi'M tlir »»nll l»j »*nHril In ii^rirnllunil purpnws. This is ]nirti(nilarly the 
i!i':i' ««ii ihr wr-ii'in Mlnpi' nf ilir prnliiMiil:!, nn llir wjitfrs nf I*njce Michipin and along the 
« I nil »l pitnliMi i»f lln« ii!iir On tin* r:i«*l iind nrnr Kiiki* ilunm.the pine diAtrictn are more 
i-M« II- hi l\ I i«\i ii>il ^xHli pi no tiinhrr. nnil ^'urmlly nnt sn drsirabU* for farming purpos6fi. 
Vl^i \^ in' •xs<«l fMntlnii IrimU. hnwrxn. iiU tdini:; thr (Ni:i<t nf T.nke Huron, and extending 
l^-x. V <iM.» \\\%* IntiMlor 

V ' *'v> pi^nlixn i»t thr pi no l:in<K nf \\w -tiUi* an' in the h.-niil* of the mnal eoinpany, 
■ "." ••. in.^\i;»-* x\h»»!»n' hoMinc ihoni ;i- .in ii\\r<iMnrnt. and ii is no detriuient to thi^ 
,.^..., •■•,n»*i i*Mi :hr x\hi»U' *!:»ti' h;»». Uvn lh?»* rxplnnM ,ind lh«' rluw'esl of the lands 
-,• ■ '.•* V-. .'i ^\V»^»i^«i'n'.'. xxhiJ' l'.:x\i' tln> Nvn :n.id»" of ;he quality and extent of 
.' »■ . V v.sx\ i:'>^^' "'.-I'Mii'.x Av.^\ t^vi'',?,v*v !»» iho Uuulvrini: iuton»*i. And 
'■ <" • ■*» « • ■■ ■■ "■,*,'. .* , ^,«^"^^r..•^■.^•. -.vva'"'. V;;; sr\- -*■',*. ::•.>»:», *n\r snd t\si<4»nal»!e term*. 
V' 1 .1 ..«. -.•......< „ •,■%«» "•»" .;■■*. V.-:*.', A •'"..■■• n ■■*. "..'^'. ■.-■*. -aVx oV"i> : to. 

m ■ 

, , .... •;,.■•, -v.. ■ '•<;• i'".vw ,-^\ X "> -.:.-.". .*■: y^*.\T i,". TV.f *"a';\ uorth of Grilr! 
•■ • ■ 1 .11 . 1 • ■» t • 1,. •,■ ■,"> "« "s'/n <,■ ■* . v. v. ;* X -:" ■.*.;Ar.y a"' :hi>j^ ^JTr^ra* 4i* 
,_>-...■ -1...; .. •■ «.» ^ • ■■•*». '-..; .* <.:-. v" ■■•.>-.% ..•; i,-'.'^::^ rr "..-#. r.i-trr.-.rrvde. Tbesp 
inii-ii . »'ii',i.i » I ■• »■. ■■■ -. .. -N. •■'.* ./.I'*.--*, "x *• 'T*','* «'"/i— .* -^.f-iv. "•*!> rs wh«> ecT^vc* is 

,lj^..i Mil'.i-.. .1,- I IS • ■■■.V - -.ASN-. ".> •■. vt"'-""''" '^" •■•;-*•<> ■■■ liw- *Sal* i!!* 
^•,« .fl'ii,^ • 11 ■ I • .l-|-, -1. »", ■ ^ ■.*.».• '"i- V*- ■ ••• 'i ■ ■ "i" *i ■ ~* '<•. T.>f!fc7>» -'•!" '4..'Wai iJ"*TM 

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I - .-I >« • I » •!» -. ."s\''jO» '.'nvw "<i«;i'« •-'il.T^'i."" TT '['.•^.'* .iSt*w 1*'ii 

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■ . ■ • » . ] . 11. :v 1." 11 :;•*., i:in •! H*»;'ti"»ty. iiH.' f ■"'••n^^'' 

• ■ ■ • *• Il «»i..i, l\ •.li:ii». II ;\iu' ^'.£"1 n. Tlif :*-"iiH' 9'. 

♦ * ^ •;. ■ ■'■ ■'■1 i***:!, is n' 1 .!••■>.. I ,ri: iiiin.i*f: niiif> ».■ ?&iakh%);*i 



« 



mSTORT OP THE STATE OF MICmOAN. 49 



river, preaentB, generally, a barren, sandy appearance, tlie sand hills of that coast almost 
tiiTariably shatting oat from the view the surrounding country. 

North of the Manistee, however, this characteristic of the coast changes, and the hard 
timber comes out to the lake and presents a line region of country, extending from Lake 
Michigan to Qrand Trayerse Bay, and beyond, embracing the headc^raters of the Manistee 
Ther. This large tract of agricultural land is one of the richest portions of the state, and 
having throughout its whole extent extensive groves of excellent pine timber interspersed, 
it is one of the meet desirable portions of the peninsula. Grand Traverse Bay, the 
Kmistee iiTer and River Aux Bees Scies are the outlets for the pine timber, and afford 
tmple means of communication between the interior and the lake for such purposes. 
The i»opoeed state roads will, if built, do much towards the settlement of this region, 
A natural harbor, which is being improved by private enterprise, is found at the mouth of 
tiM River Aux Bees Scies, and a new settlement and town has Just been started at this 
point This is a natural outlet for a considerable portion of the region just described. 
The lands here, as in other localities in the new portions of the state, are such as must 
indace a rapid settlement whenever the means of communication shall be opened. 

The valley of the Muskegon embraces every variety of soil and timber, and is one of 
tlu most attractive portions of the peninsula. The pine lands upon this river are 
Ksttered all along the valley in groups or tracts containing several thousand acres each, 
interqiersed with hard timber, and surrounded by tine agricultural lands. 

The Pere Marquette river and White river, large streams emptying into Lake Michi- 
pxk, pass through a region possessing much the same characteristics. This whole region 
IB anderlaid witii lime rock, a rich soil, w^ell watered with living springs, resembling, in 
mmy features, the Grand river valley. Beds of gypsum have been discovered on the 
had waters of the Pere Marquette. 

The unsettled counties in the northern portion of the state, the northern portion of 
Montcahn and Gratiot, Isabella, Gladwin, Clare, and a portion of Midland, are not inferior 
to toy other portion. There is a magnificent body of pine stretehing from the head ot 
fist river, in Montcalm county, to the upper waters of tlie Tittabawassee, and growing 
npon a fine bchI, well adapted to agriculture. This embraces a portion of the Saginaw 
TiUey, and covers the high groimd dividing the waters of Lakes Huron and Michigan. 

The eastern slope of the peninsula embraces a variety of soil and timber somewhat 
different, in its general features, ttom other portions of the state. The pine lands of this 
Rgion are near the coast of the lake, and lie in large tracts, but with good agricultural 
hod adjoining. 

There are in the lower peninsula, in round numbers, about twenty-four million acres 
of land. Taking Houghton lake, near the center of the state, as a point of view, the 
gcn«al surface may be comprehended as follows : Tlie Muskegon valley to the southwest, 
foUowing the Musk^[on river in its course to Lake Michigan. The western slope of the 
pauBsoIa directly west, embracing the pine and agricultural districts along the valleys of 
several large streams emptying into Lake Micliigan. The large and beautiful region to 
the north-west, embracing the valley of the Manistee and the undulating lands around 
Grand Traverse Bay. Northward, the region embraces the head waters of the Manistee 
ad Au Sauble, with the laige tracts of excellent pine in that locality, and beyond, the 
agricultural region extending to Little Traverse Bay and the Straits of Mackinaw. To the 
oofth-esst, the valley of the Au Sauble, and the pine region of Thunder Bay. To the east, 
tke pine and hard timber extending to Saginaw bay. To the south-east, the Saginaw 
TtQey; and to the south, the high lands before described in the central counties. 

Thus we have yet undeveloped over half of the surface of this peninsula, embracing 
ceitsiiily twelve to fifteen millions of acres, possessing stores of wealth in the timber upon 
4 



50 



mSTOET OF THE 8TATB OP BOCmGAV. 



its sar&ce, reserving soil for the benefit of those who, as the means of oommimicatkm ire 
opened, will come in and possess it, and thos introduce indnstiy and pro spe ri ty faito our 
waste places. We hare not the figores at hand, but it is piobable that at least one^enth 
of the area north of the Grand river is embraced in the pine it^oa. The swamp kmds 
granted to the state will probably cover neariy double the area of the ]4ne lands proper. 
The remainder, for the most part, is covered with a magnificent growth of hard titnte, 
suited to the necessities of our growing population and commerce. 

By a careftdly copied estimate, it has been ascertained that in prosperoiui times tbs 
annual product of our pineries is hard upon ten million dcdkursw I^aige as this sum Is, It 
is the opinion of those who are well qualified to form an estimate, tliat it may be enril^ 
surpassed by the product of our hard timber. Take for example the region around 8a|^ 
naw bay, which Is perhaps the most remarlcable locality in the world as respects the 
quality and variety of hard wood timber. Here, for near a hundred miles in extent, upon 
streams debouching into the bay, are dense forests of the dtoicest oak, with a pn^bsioo of 
hickory, bladi walnut, white adi, whitewood, and other desirable varieties. The manii- 
fiM^ture of agricultural implements, as well as many other aitides that affoid employmeDt 
to the toiling millions of the old worid, must receive a new impetus when it is found that 
wood admirably adapted to their OMistruction can be had direct fitmi our ibresta, at the 
moderate rate at which it will bear transportation. So of blrda^e maple, for cabinet 
ware, red elm for carriage hubs, and other varieties applicable to specific uses. We have 
designated such as abound in great plenty. The proftision of the growth Is in Ihct equalled 
<mly by its accessibility, the whole country being so permeated by streams tliat it can be 
floated off with very little trouble. 

The Saginaw district, important and extensive as it is, comprises but a small poitiOB 
of our hard-wood lumber region. In addition to numerous almost interminaUe forests of 
the north, equally accessible and almost equally valuable, thoe are extenslYe regions hi 
the interior where timber abounds of such choice quality as to abundantly warrant ndl- 
road transportation hither. Although some of the shipments last season were of the Ikr- 
fiuned Camula oak, shippers all concur in assuring us that the Michigan timber was held 
in as high estimation, if not higher, than any other offered in a foreign market A most 
significant fitct, coming right to the point, came under our observation a few months since. 
In the suDuner of 1858, five passenger cars for the Southern Michigan road were built at 
Adrian, which unprejudiced Judges pronounced the finest ever built In the United States. 
Every foot of timber in them — as well as every pound of iron — was of Michigan produc- 
tion. After being in use some twenty months, these cars were for the first time over- 
hauled for repairs, along with a number of eastern cars, which had been in use ibr a like 
period of time, when it was found that the latter, 0¥ring to the inferior quality of their 
timber, cost for repairs as many dollars as the Michigan cars did cents. ^ 

The following is a list of the steam saw mills now in operation In the Saginaw 
valley, from St Charies to the mouth of the river, with the capacity of each, per 
prepared for this work by Trucman B. Fox, Esq., of East Saginaw. 



ST. CHARLES. 

Bliss, Horton & Co., 8,000,000 feet. 



BALINA. 



Hess, Bundy & Ck>., 
€hillagher i Brother, 
J. F. Rust & Co., . 
Curtis & King, . 
Smith & Fleto, 
Howard & Bristol, 



8,500,000 
1,500,000 
8,500,000 
8,500,000 
8,500,000 
1,000,000 



i« 



ti 



ti 



ti 



iC 



ZILWAUKKK. 

Butman, Webster <& Co., 4,000,000 feet 

FOBSMOUTH. 



Watrous, Southworth & Co., 2,000,000 

H. D. Braddock, 1,500,000 

McKinney & Co., . 1,500,000 

J. Frazer, 2,000,000 

J. J. McCormick, . 1,500,000 



(i 



(( 



u 
(t 



mSTOBT OF THE STATE OF MICmOAH. 



61 



SAOniAW CITY. 

Joome & Taylor, 4,000,000 feet 

WiUuunft & Kotiier, 3,000,000 

W. A.IVdne, 10,000,000 



it 



RA8T SAOIKAW. 



F. P. SeaiB & Co., 
0. C. Warner & Co., 
PteimT & Qtuckenbosh, 
W. Y. Glasby, 
L C. Wbitine & Co., 
D. G. H^dland, 
Scth M cCaine, • . 



7,000,000 
6,000,000 
2,000,000 
8,000,000 
8,000,000 
5,000,000 
1,500,000 



t( 
ti 
it 
ti 
it 
ft 
it 



FLOBEKCK, (OFPOfllTB EAST SAGINAW.) 

Babcock A; Mason, 8,600,000 

J.H.Hm, . 8,000,000 

C. Merrill, 4,000,000 



it 



tt 



it 



CABBOLTON. 



£. C. Litchfield, 



8,500,000 



tt 



BAY CTTT. 



J. F. Rust & Co., 
N. B. Bradley, . 
William Peters, 
Angus Miller, 
H. M. Bradley, 
McEwen & Brother, 
Samuel Pitts, . 
Henry Raymond, 
Drake Mill, . 
Grant & Fay, 
Catlin & Jennison, 
Braddock & Co., 
O. A. Ballon, . 



BANOOB 



K C. Litchfield, 
OeoTtte Lord, . 
J. S. Taylor, 
Moore, Smith & Co., 



4,000,000 feet 

5,000,000 

4,500,000 

8,000,000 

8,000,000 

8,500,000 

4,500,000 

8,500,000 

8,000,000 

8,500,000 

2,000,000 

8,000,000 

6,000,000 



(I 
ft 
tt 
tt 
tt 
it 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
it 



8,000,000 
8,000,000 
8,000,000 
8,500,000 



tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 



Making a total amount of 146,000,000 feet each season, which is the eapacUy of the 
mills, and not the amount actually manufactured, although in good years it will approach 
Tery near the above figure. This, it should be remembered, is an estimate of the amount 
msnn&ctared in a ringU duiriti ovJIiy; the amounts manufuctured in other localities will be 
fixmd in the statistical tables following this review, and under the different headings of 
tlie towi» and comities where mills are located. 

The 8Ai;r Ihtebbst. — This important and immensely valuable natural production 
of the State of Micliigan is of but comparatively recent discovery, or rather, its extent 
ind value has been but recently developed, although known fix)m the earliest settlement 
of the conntry to exist in indefinite quantities. Long previous to the admission of Michi- 
gan as a state, the general government made reservations of lands supposed to contain 
nit apringa, and several individuals had attempted, though with poor success, to manufiic- 
tore the article. 

By the act of admission of this state into the union, in 1887, it will be recoUected, the 
itate aothorities were permitted to select seventy-two sections of salt spring landa A 
lUte geologist — the lamented Dr. Douglass Houghton — was appointed at the first meet- 
ing of the legislature thereafter, who, in his report to the legislature in January, 1888, says, 
lie regarded it important that the springs be selected for state purposes, at as early a day 
as posable, and most of his examinations, the season previous, were devoted to that end. 
Dr. Houghton's explorations resulted in finding many indications of saline springs, partic- 
niariy on the Grand and IKttabawassee rivers, and he refers to similar springs near the 
mouth of the Flint and Cass rivers, in Saginaw county, and also in Sanilac, St Clair, 
3hoomb, Wayne, and Oakland counties. The legislature passed an act for the improve- 
ment of the state salt springs, in 1888, and by virtue of his appointment, Dr. Houghton 
was authorized to make examinations and to institute experiments, which he did on the 
Qrand and Tittabawassee rivers, with partial success. But previous to 1859, the manu- 
bctore of salt as a staple article for home consumption and export trade, was unknown 
in Michigan. 

In the IkU of 1858, Dr. Lathrop, of East Saghia^pr, called a meethig of the citizens of 
that place, for the purpose of bringing the subject of salt manu&ctures before them. He 
procured a geolog^ to lecture upon the subject, who awakened much interest, which 
Rsohed in drawing np a petition to the legislature to pass an act to encourage the mana- 



52 maroRY of the state of michioan. 



facture by allowing a bounty of five cents per bushel. The legislature, in 1850, had the 
subject under consideration, and finally passed an act to allow a bounty of ten cents per 
bushel, and an exemption from taxation on real and personal property used in the mann- 
ihcture — the bounty to be paid when at least five thousand bushels of salt shall have been 
made by the parties applying for it. This gave an impulse to the business, and operations 
were commenced at Grand Rapids and at East Saginaw iu April of that year. Little 
success has thus far attended the experiments at Grand Rapids. But cm the Saginaw 
river numerous explorations have been made, and a basin of brine lias been developed, 
which for extent, purity and strength, is scarcely excelled in the world. The law allow- 
ing a boimty was amended by the legislature of 1800, greatly reducing the amount, pro- 
viding that all companies which commenced manu&ctiuing previous to the first of August, 
1861, should be allowed five cents per barrel, until they received $1,000, and after that all 
bounties ceased, but the property is exempt from taxation for five years. AU companies 
formed since then receive no bounty. 

The first salt company under this act was organized in April, 1859, and is known as 
the " East Saginaw Salt Manufacturing Company.'* It commenced the manufacture of 
salt in July, 1860, starting with a block of fifty kettles, since which time it has- been in 
constant operation, and has increased to four blocks of kettles, and added fire hundred 
vats for solar evaporation. There are now in operation, in the Saginaw valley, thirty-three 
blocks, (mostly containing sixty kettles) about two thousand five hundred solar vats, and 
several vats where the evaporation is carried on by heating tlie water by means of steam. 
Each kettle will make about one barrel of salt per day, worth, at the works, $1.35 per 
barrel. Each block requires seven cords of wood per day, worth $1.25 per cord, and the 
services of from three to five men, at from $1 to $3.50 per day. The salt works are 
increasing with such astonishing rapidity Uiat it is impossible to give an^'thing like a 
correct list Under the headings of " East Saginaw," " Sagmaw City," "Salina," "Zil- 
waukee," "Bay City," and "Portsmouth," will be found further reference to the salt 
manufacture, in each locality. (See actompanying map of " S(tgi/uitc Valley^) 

The Copper Interest. — This great interest of Michigan was first brought into 
public notice by the enormous speculations and the mad fever of 1845. The large spur of 
country which projects far out into Lake Superior, having its base resting on a line drawn 
across from L'Anse bay to Ontonagon, and the Porcupine mountains for its spine, became 
the El Donido for all copperdom of that day. In this year the first active operations were 
commenced at the Cliff mine, just back of Eagle river harbor. Three years later, in 1848, 
work was undertaken at the Minnesota, some fifteen miles back firom the lake at 
Ontonagon. 

The history of the copper mines on Lake Superior shows tliat even the best mines 
disappointed tlie owners at the beginning. We give the facts relative to the three mines 
at present in the Lake Superior region to illustrate this. The Cliff mine was discovered 
in 1845, and worked three years without much sign of success ; it changed hands at the 
very moment when the vein was opened, which proved, afterwards, to be so exceedingly 
rich in copper and silver, producing now, on an average, fifteen hundred tons of stamp, 
barrel, and mass copper, per annum. 

The Minnesota mine was discovered in 1848, and for tlie first three years gave no very 
encouraging results. The first large mass of native copper, of about seven tons, was 
found in a pit made by an ancient race. After that discovery much money was spent 
before any further indications of copper were found. This mine yields now about two 
thousand tons of copper per annum. 

The same has been experienced at the Pewabic mine. That mine commenced opera- 
tions in the year 1855, with an expenditure of $26,357, which produced $1,080 worth of 



mSTORT OF THB STATE OF lOCHIOAK. 58 



copper; the second jear it expended |40,820, and produced $81,492 of copper; in 1867, 
$54,484 of expenses produced $44,058 worth of copper ; in 1858, the amount expended 
was $109,152, and the receipts for copper $76,538. 

It is scarcely twelve years that mining lias been properly commenced in that remote 
region. At that time it was difficult, on accoxmt of the rapids of St Mary's river, to 
approach it by water with large craft. Being more than a thousand miles fix)m the center 
of the union, destitute of all the requirements for the developement of mines ; eveiy UxA, 
every part of machinery, every mouthftil of provisions, had to be hauled over the rapids, 
boated along the shores for hundreds of miles to the copper region, and th€te often carried 
on the back of man and beast to the place where copper was supposed to exist. Eveiy 
stroke of the pick cost tenfold more than in populated districts ; every disaster delayed 
the operations for weeks and months. 

The opening of the Sault canal has changed all this, and added a wonderfhl Impetus 
to the business, the mining interests, and the developement of the Lake Superior country. 
Nearly one hundred different vessels, steam and sail, have been engaged the past season 
in its trade, and the number of these destined largely to increase year by year, is an indi- 
cation of the growth of business and the opening up of the country. For the growth in 
the copper interests we have only to refer to the shipments from that region, year by year. 
These, in gross, are as follows : 



1858 

1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 



2,585 tons. 


1858 . 


8,500 " 


1859 


4,544 " 


1860 . 


5,857 " 


1861, est. 


6,094 " 





6,025 tons. 
6,245 " 
8,593 " 
8,408 " 



The facts of developement would hold generally true with regard to the other indus- 
trial interests of that vast country. 

Marquette, Portage Lake, Ontonagon, Copper Harbor, Eagle River, and Eagle 
Harbor, and the mines adjacent, are almost the only places where the primeval forests 
have been cleared to affonl a field for the enterprise of men. Judging from the events of 
the past ten years, it is impossible to conjecture what the country may become in the 
future. It is already ascertained beyond cavil that it possesses agricultural capacities of 
no mean character, contrary to the generally received opinion that obtained until compar- 
atively a recent date, an opinion that was assented to without due inquiry into the real 
state of the case. In a good ^are of the country, including many localities contiguous to 
the mines, farming can be profitably conducted. Within the last two or three years 
several settlements of farmers have been formed a few miles south of Marquette, whose 
success has exceeded their anticipations. Here there is a large tract of very desirable 
country, the soil being a rich loom, the timber mostly good sized maple, the face of the 
land comparatively even, with springs of the best water on almost every quarter section. 
The land is for the most part subject to private entry, or pre-emption. When we bear in 
mind the important consideration that there is close at hand a market at high prices for 
all that can be grown, the inducements to settlers certainly assume a peculiarly inviting 
character. The locality we have described is not an exceptional case ; there is a very 
extensive region south of the mines, possessing an exuberant soil, and every requisite for 
successfhl farming. All that is wanting is good roads, which we doubt not our legislature 
will make provision for at no far distant day. 

The copper region is divided into three districts, viz. : The Ontonagon, the most 
western, the Keweenaw Point, the most eastern, and the Portage Lake, lying mostly 
below, and partially between the range of the two. In the first are situated the Minne- 



64 



HI8T0RY OF THB STATS OF MIOmOAV. 



Bota, the Rockland, the National, and a multitude of other mines, of lesser note, profit or 
promise. In the second are the Cliff, the Copper Falls, and others. In the last are te 
Pewabic, Quincy, Isle Royale, Portage, Franklin, and numerous others. Each district hss 
some peculiarities oi product, the first developing more masses, while the latter are more 
prolific in vein-rock, the copper being scattered throughout the rock. 

There have been, since 1845, no less than about one hundred and twenty copper 
mining companies oi^ganized imder the general law of our state. The amount of capital 
invested and now in use, or which has been paid out in explorations and improvements, 
and lost, is estiftiated by good Judges at $6,000,000. The nominal amount of capital stock 
invested in all the companies which have charters would reach an indflnite number of 
millions. As an offset to this, it may be stated that the Cliff and Minnesota mines have 
returned over |2,000,000 in dividends fh)m the beginning of their operations, and the 
value of these two mines will more than cover the whole amount qpent in ndning, and for 
all the extravagant undertakings which have been entered upon and abandoned. While 
success has been the exception, and failure the rule, in copper speculations, yet it must be 
admitted that these exceptions are remaiiiably tempting ones. Doubtless there is enor- 
mous wealth still to be developed in these enterprises, and this element of wealth, in the 
Lake Superior region, is yet to assume a magnitude now unthought of The immense 
beds of ore that border the Michigan shore of Lake Superior, may be looked upon ss 
untouched, yet the following table, reported for this woi^, by Messrs. Dupee, Beck A 
Sayles, of Boston, will indicate the immense value of this yet imdeveloped resource 
of our fiourishing state : 



Ealimale of production of Ingot or Beftned Copper^ in tons of two tkoutand pounds^ from (he 
mines of Lake Superior^ from 1845 to the dUm of namgaUon in 1861 .* 



Tom. 

From 1845 to 1854, inclusively, (firom J. D. 

Whitney's figures), 7,642 

From 1855 to 1857, inclusively, . 11,812 

^ 18,954 

Shipments of 1858, 4,100 tons, less 600 tons, 

included in 1857, 8,500 

Shipments of 1859, 4,200 

Shipments of 1860, .... 6,000 
Shipments of 1861, . 7,400 



Total, 



40,054 



Avcrace 
par ton. 



Valaed. 



t500 99,477,000 

460 1,610,000 

460 1,982,000 

420 2,520,000 

420 8,180,000 

$18,719,000 



Statement of cash prices of Lake Superior Ingot Copper, in each month^firom Janvarjf, 1857, to 
December, 1861. The prices are substantial^ the aterage of each mionth, 

isn. 

19>^ 
19>4 

19H 

n^ 

19 

18Ji 

17>,8 

17J^ 
20 

20^ 
25 





18S7. 185S. 1880. I860. 


January, 


. 28>^ 19^ 24 24^ 


February, 


29 ' 24 25 25 


March, 


27% 24 24 24 


April, 
May, 


273i 22><C 28>^ 28H' 


. 27 21>$ 28 22^ 


June, 


25>^ 22>^ 21 >^ 21>^ 


July, 


. 25 »^ 22 22>i 2V4 


August, 


24>'« 21>^ 24 20>^ 


September, . 


. 24 2S^ 2Shi 21 


October, 


24 2SH 22^ 21^ 


November, . 


21>^ 28 22 20)^ 


December, 


20 2Q}4 28 20 



BISTORT OF THE 8TATB OF MIGHIOAV. 



56 



OmptarOke taNe of tkipmenta nf Bough Copper from Laks Superior^ during the $e(uons of 
1850, 1800 and 1801. The toeighU of the barreU have been deducted and the rewUs are gwen 
in Um (d,00D Of.) and the tenthi, 

KEWEENAW DISTRICT. 

1809. I860. 

Amygdftlcdd, late Connecticot, 
Centnl, .... 



Clark, 

Connecticat, 

CoTO>er Falls, . 

Eagle River, 

Garden City, 

North American, 

North-West, 

Phoenix, 

Pittsburgh and Boston, 

Summit, 



172.8 
5.6 
24.0 
829.4 



PORTAGE LAKE DISTRICT. 



Albany and Boston, 

C. C. Douglass, 

Isle Rovale, 

Fnnklin, 

Hancock, 

Huron, 

Mesnard, 

Pewabic, 

Portage, 

Qmncy, 



Adventure, 

Ajciec, 

Bohemian, 

Evergreen Bluff, 

Flint Steel River, 

Hamilton, . 

Knowlton, 

Mass, 

Minnesota, 

National, 

Nebraska, 

Norwich, 

Orima, 

Ridce, 

Roddand, 

Superior, 

Toltec, 



1,588.1 

OKTONAGON DISTRICT. 

18SQ. 

180.4 
15.8 

8.0 
27.0 



7.0 

12.8 

1,628.6 

828.2 

0.8 

22.0 

85.4 

27.8 

847.0 

1.7 

9.4 



78.6 
7.2 
5.8 
828.0 



I860. 

29.7 
49 

41.9 

7.9 



2,188.4 

727.8 

26.4 



22.0 

552.7 

140 



1861. 

68.0 
162.0 



272.0 



D.U 




10.8 


8.7 




88.9 


78.8 


108.5 


62.8 


82.0 


81.2 


46.9 


1,2545 


1,857.0 


1,496.5 


40 






1,910.8 


1,910.8 


2,151.9 


ICT. 
1800. 


1800L 

240 


1861. 

42 


241.3 


458.6 


726.0 


2047 


267.0 


855.0 




7.2 


56.0 


7.4 


7.8 


105.0 


6.0 






7844 


1,868.8 


1,129.0 


8.7 




42.0 


866.0 


866.0 


1,791.4 



8,0646 4,706.6 



1861. 

8.8 

7.6 

70.6 

1.5 

11.4 

1,880.4 

948.0 

7.8 



9.7 

81.0 

469.0 

89.7 

2.2 



2,597.6 8,610.7 8,476.7 



Keweenaw District, 
Portage 
Ontonacon *' 
Porcupme Mountain, 
Sundry mines, 

Total, 



I860. 

1,910.8 
1,588.1 
2,597.6 



1860L 

1,910.8 

8,0646 

8,610.7 

20.5 

7.6 



1861. 

2,151.9 
4,706.6 
8,476.7 



6,041.0 8,6142 10,887.2 



mBTOKY or THB BTATI OF HOHiaA*. 



J 
■* 



ill 



rt 



BI8T0RT OF THE STATE OF MICHIOAH. 



67 



The Ibon Ihterbbt.— Our state is gradually but surely taking the rank to which 
she is entitled as regards both the manufiicture and production of Iron. The first ship- 
ment of pig iron of any ccmsequence, was made by the '* Pioneer Iron Company/* in the 
fall of ia58. 

The Lake Superior iron has been proclaimed the best in the world, a proposition that 
none can successfully refute. Its qualities are becoming known in quarters where it 
would naturally be exi)ected its superiority would be admitted reluctantly, if at all. It is 
now sent to New York and Ohio, and even to Pennsylvania — an agency for its sale hav- 
ing been established in Pittsburgh. For gearing, shafting, cranks, flanges, and, we ought by 
aH means to add, car-wheels, no other should be used, provided it can be obtained. 
Important as the subject is, money-wise, when life is at stake, the fbrmer consideration 
shrinks into comparative insignificance. The cause of the breaking of the machinery of 
the steamers plying upon our neighboring waters, has been in nearly, or quite every 
instance, traced to some defect in Uie iron, and would have been avoided if Lake Supe- 
rior iron had been used. 

Marquette is the only point on Lake Superior where the iron ore deposits have been 
woi^ed. There are deposits of iron in the mountains back of L*Anse, but this wonderftil 
region leaves nothing more to be desired for the present At a distance of eighteen miles 
from the lake, are to be found iron mountains named the Sharon, Burt, Lake Superior, 
Cleveland, Collins and Barlow, while eight miles further back lie the Ely and St. CUdr 
mountains. Three of these mountains are at present worked, the Sharon, the Cleveland, 
and the Lake Superior, and contain enough ore to supply the world for generations to 
come. The mountains fhrther back embrace tracts of hundreds of acres, rising to a 
height of from four to six hundred feet, which theie is every reason to believe, from the 
explorations made, are solid iron ore. The extent of the deposits is perfectly fiibulous, in 
&ct, so enormous as to baffle computation. The ore, too, is remarkably rich, yielding 
about seventy per cent, of pure metal. There are now in operation at Marquette, 
three iron mining companies, and two blast furnaces for making charcoal pig iron, the 
Pioneer and Collins. The Pioneer has two stacks and a capacity of twenty tons pig iron 
per day ; the Collins, one stack, oapable of turning out about eleven tons. The Northern 
Iron Company has recently built a large bituminous coal furnace at the mouth of the 
Chocolate river, three miles south of Marquette. 

Each of the mining companies, the Jackson, Cleveland and Lake Superior, have 
docks at the harbor for shipment, eictending out into the spacious and beautiful bay which 
lies in fh>nt of Marquette to a sufficient length to enable vessels of the largest dimensions 
to lie by their side and to be loaded directly from the cars, which are run over the vessels 
and " dumped " into shutes, which are made to empty directly into the holds. The pro- 
cess of loading is, therefore, very expeditious and easy. 

The quality of the iron of Lake Superior is conceded by all to be the best in the 
world, as the analysis of Prof Johnson, which we reproduce, shows. The table shows 
the relative strength per square inch in pounds : 



Salisbury, Conn., iron, 

Swedish (best) 

English cable. 

Centre county, Penn., 

Essex county, New York, 

Lancaster county, Pa., 

Russia (best) 

Common English and American, 

Lake Superior, 



58,000 
58,184 
69,106 
59,400 
50,962 
58,661 
76,069 
80,000 
89,582 



f. 



■ 
58 mSTORY OF THB BTATS OF MICHIOAjr. 



The manti&ctare of pig iron at Marquette will probablj be cairied on era moR 
exten^yely as the attention of capitaliatB ia directed to it. Tlie Allowing maj be oooiA- 
ered a fkir statement of the cost of producing one ton of pig iron at the FlooMr Inn 
Company's woriu : 



1^ tons iron ore, at $1.50 per ton, 

135 Dushels charcoal, at 7 cents per bushel, 

Fluxing, 

Labor, .... 

Incidental expenses. 



$850 


875 


50 


850 


1 00 


15 00 


1 87 



Cost at the works, ..... 

Freight on railroad and dockage, .... 

Cost on board vessel, ..... $16 87 

The quantity of wood required for charcoal for both furnaces is immense. The Pio- 
neer ftimace requires 2,500 bushels of coal in twenty-four hours ; and in blast, aa they ire, 
day and night, for six months, and at a yield of forty bushels of coal to a cord of wood, 
it would require 15,000 cords of wood to keep them going. The company has bad 
120,000 cords chopped this season. This vast consumption of wood will soon canw 
the countiy to be completely stripped of its timber. Coal will then come into use. The 
business of manu&cturing pig iron may be extended indefinitely, as the material la with- 
out limit 

These fiu;ts exhibit the untold wealth of ItDchigan hi iron alone, and point with oo^ 
tainty to an extent of business that will add millions to our invested capital, dot our state 
with iron manufiictories of all kinds, and fumiBh regular employment to tens of thousands 
of our citizens, while our raw material and our wares shall be found in all the principal 
markets of the world. 

But few interests last year suffered in an equal degree with that of iron. The 
shipments of ore, which had rapidly increased to 120,000 tons in 1860, fell off last season 
to about 80,000 tons. The establishments on Lake Superior weathered this great and 
unlooked for depression, and kept at work, though on a somewhat reduced scale. At 
Marquette, mining has been prosecuted with great vigor since the breaking out of the 
present war, the d^nand for iron being &r greater than the supply, notwithstanding the 
feet that a much huger number of hands are employed. 

The Fisheries. — The superior fish, found in such profti^on in our noble lakes and 
rivers, while they afford a highly prized luxury for immediate consumption, form one of 
our leading articles of export, and are very Justly r^arded as constituting one of our 
greatest interests. 

It is estimated by men of intelligence that the value of our yearly catch of fish is 
greater than that of all taken in fipesh waters in the thirty-two remaining states of the 
union. This may at first blush seem like a broad assertion, but it is no doubt stricUy 
within bounds. If the claim be not too much of the nature of a truism, we may add that 
so far as quality is concerned, the superiority of our finny tribes is even more strongly 
marked than in regard to quantity. In the sluggish streams that abound in '*ten degrees 
of more effulgent clime," the fish partake of the slimy properties of their native element ; 
it is only in the limpid waters of the north that they are found of fiavor so unexception- 
able as to please an epicurean taste, or exalt them to the dignity of a staple of commerce. 
Fish possess peculiar qualities to cOmmend them as an arUde of food, independent of the 
arbitrary preference of the epicure. They are universally esteemed as a wholesome and 
nutritious diet In that pleasant work, Irving's *' Astoria," a tribe of Indians are described 



HUTORT OP TBB STAIS OF MIOmOAH. 69 



bo sQbfliflled entirely on fish, whose rotund appearance contrasted strongly with the phy«- 
[oe of their brethren of the forest The proftision with which the finny tribes propagate 
icir specdes is a pecoliarity said to be imparted to those who partake freely and regalariy 
^ them Ibr fixxl, a supposition, which would seem to be strongly supported by fiK^ 
Ishermen are proverbial for the number of their descendants. One of the tribe who 
ries his nets in Samia, is the happy &ther of nineteen children, and we can dte 
ameroua proofr inmost equally striking in support of this theoiy. 

The fisheries have always been a leading subject in the governmental policy of sea- 
KMurd nationsw They are a prime source of revenue, and have been the cause of numerous 
rarsw The serious controversy between the United States and Qreat Britain concerning 
he Newfoundland fisheries, is still fresh in the memory of our readers. Recently the 
iarnest attention of the French government has been directed to proposidons for the arti- 
fidal propagation of fish, as a means of afibrding good and cheap food for the people, at -a 
neiely nominal cost The gradual diminution of the species, as well as Uie ultimate 
extinction of the large birds and quadrupeds is everywhere a condition of advanced 
drifization and the increase and spread of an industrial population. To provide a remedy 
(br the evil, the science of pisciculture has latterly attracted no small degree of attention, 
md St this time gentlemen prominentiy identified with our fishing interest have it in con- 
templation to stock lakes in the interior of Michigan, with a view to the prosecution of 
the science. 

Most of the fish packed on Lake Huron, and Rivers St CUdr and Detroit, find thehr 
iray Into the Ohio market The trade with that state has rapidly increased, but in its 
aariy stages it had some difilculties to contend with, to one of whidi we will briefiy allude. 
3oaie twelve or fourteen years ago, a large quantity of fish, not less than 8,000 to 10,000 
barrels, which had been caught in Lake Superior, were in the possession of a single 
kaler, who had stored them in the large warehouse recently torn down at the Detroit 
fend Milwankee Railroad depot He had opportunities to dispose of them at eight dollars 
per barrel, but refused to sell them for less than ten dollars, and the result was that they 
irere kept so long that many of them spoiled. They were complained of as a nuisance, 
ind 1^500 barrels were turned into the river at one time. Part of the lot was, however, 
Knt to Ohio, and the effisct was, for a time, extremely prejudicial to our trade, requiring a 
ireat deal of explanation, before the Cincinnati dealers could be again induced to stand 
in the porition of customers. But when confidence once more became folly restored, the 
:lrcnmstanoes seemed to have the effect to precipitate the trade between the two cities. 
M least, it grew rapidly flrom that day, our neighbors purchasing freely of our staple 
iftlcles, and sending us sugar and molasses in return. Thus, as in « Samson's time, honey 
ras gathered from the carcass of the dead lion. Ohio has become a very large consumer 
)f oar fish, and her infiuence is being extended rapidly into Indiana. 

The liabits of fish are as interesting as anything in the animal economy, constituting 
I beautifhl study of nature, but this branch does not come within the scope of our article, 
md we must content ourselves with a brief description of the principal varieties, par- 
icularty such as are held in highest repute for pacing, with such statistics as we have 
wen able to procure. 

White .MM.— These are more highly prized than any other kind found in our 
raters, bdng deddedly the most delicious in a fr-esh state, and, when packed, command 
i higher price than any other, by $1 per bbl. They are found in the straits and all the 
akea They spawn in the fiEkll, in the straits, and in shoals and on reefk about the lakes. 
nbey are caught in seines, gill nets, trap nets, and with spears ; never with hooks. Those 
9oiid in the Detroit river come up flrom Lake Erie regulariy, in the fiill, to deposit theb: 
pawn. Tliey were found in our hikes and rivers in vast quantities when the white man 



60 mSTOBT OF THB STATS OF MICmOAK. 



first yisited their shores. They constituted, with other kinds, the principal food of the 
white and Indian voyagewn as they coasted aronnd the lakes, and were invaluable to the 
first settlers of the country, who, peiiiaps, in some cases, but for the assistance they 
afforded, would have been compelled to relinquish their settlements. They could catch a 
supply at any Ume, and they then had an unfailing resort when their crops failed. White 
fish were a great fkvorite with the Indians. They would give many times their weight in 
trout, or 'any other species, in exchange for them. It is said that a person can subsist 
longer upon them than any other kind. 

Their ordinaiy wei^t is from three to five pounds, length fifteen inches, though some 
have been caught weighing eighteen pounds. They are beautiflil fish, and, when first 
taken out of the water, and struggle and flounder in the sun, they exhibit all the colors of 
the rainbow, but they soon expire, and when dead they are of a delicate white color. The 
trout, pike, and muscalonge devour them without mercy. Some of these vonudous kinds 
have been caught with the remains of dx white fish in them. 

The Detroit river white fish are more juicy and better flavored than those cau^t in 
the upper lakes, probably fix>m the fact that they feed on more delicate food, but those 
found in Lake Superior surpass all other in size. They were once so numerous that 
eight thousand were taken at a single haul. At present a haul of one or two thousand is 
thought a very good one. In all the rivers they are growing scarce very gradually, but 
surely. The ratio of decrease cannot be arrived at with any degree of precision. A few 
jrears ago they were mostly taken with gill nets, and when they fell off in one place, a 
corresponding increase would be found m another. Now they are taken with trap nets 
along the shore. The trap nets are a decided advantage over giU nets. They aUow the 
fish to be kept alive, and they are taken out at leisure ; they are, therefore, of better 
quality. 

Jfefcerrf.— This variety is also held in high esteem. They are good, either fi^h or 
salted and dried, and for packing rank next in value to white, although held nominally at 
the same price as trout when packed. They generally run up the rivers and lakes in the 
spring to spawn, where they are caught in con^derable numbers. Average weight, two 
pounds ; large, ten pounds ; common length, fifteen inches. 

Lak» or Mackinaw Trout. — This species are as voracious as pickereL They are chiefly 
caught in Lake Huron with gill nets and hooks. Saginaw bay appears to be a favorite 
resort with them. Some winters large quantities are caught in the bay through the ice, 
with a decoy fish and spear. They spawn in the fall, generally in the bays and inlets. 
Average weight, five pounds ; large, seventy-five pounds. 

SCsexnoit. — These are mostly found in Lake Superior, and are preferred by some to any 
other kind. They are of the trout &mily, and for fat are unequaled ; they are mostly 
taken in gill nets. They spawn in the &11, and are very superior for packing. They are 
also of some value for their oil. Common weight, four pounds ; length, sixteen inches. 

Large Herring. — These are very good fish, found only in the straits and large lakes. 
They spawn in the fall ; but few are caught Average weight, one pound and thrce-quar- 
tore; common length, ten inches. 

In addition to the above, the muscalonge — a large and delicious variety — black and 
white bass, rock bass, perch, sturgeon, and at least twenty other kinds, abound in our 
waters, a minute description of which we are compelled to forego. 

White fish are taken both spring and fall, chiefly the latter ; spring is the season for 
pickerel ; trout is taken at all seasons. 

Something over a year since, some excitement was occasioned by a mode of fishing 
adopted by a party of fishermen on the Detroit river, who stationed nets over a mile and a 
half in extent across the mouth of the stream, a proceeding that was not only calculated 



HI8T0RT OF THE STATK.pF lOOmOjUr. 61 



to destroy the value of the seine fisheries above, but which would ultimately have driven 
the fbh out of the river altogether. A fonnidable opposition was, of course, arrayed 
against this unusual and unwarrantable proceeding, and tlic party found it expedient to 
desist, but the legialature, which met shortly after, failed to pass an inhibitive measure. 
This action, or rather want of action, would have been considered extraordinary in a state 
ksB (avored by nature. 

We have fortunately been able to procure estimates of the amount of the catch at all 
the fisheries, together with other leading statistics ; and with the view of imparting to the 
subject a mor^ general interest, we include two or three points beyond the limits of the 
liUte. The estimates are ftumished by a gentleman of intelligence and experience, and 
may be relied on as substantially correct: 

Sandusky fisheries, catch mostly sold : White fish, valuation, $50,000; pickerel, bass, 
etc, $40,000 ; value of sdnes and fixtures, $16,000; paid for wages, $37,00. 

Maumce river, pickerel, white bass, etc., etc., mostly sold fresh: Valuation, $50,000; 
seines and fixtures, $15,000; paid for wages, $12,000. 

Maumee Bay and Monroe county, Michigan, white fish and pickerel : Valuation, 
ttt.000 ; grounds, seines and fixtures, $9,000 ; paid for wages, $10,000. 

Detroit river, nearly all white: Valuation, $75,000; seines, fishing grounds and 
fixtnres, $40,000; paid for wages, $20,000. 

St Clair river and rapids, mostly pickerel: Valuation, $11,000; cost of fixtures, 
t2/)00; paid for wages, $1,200. 

Port Huron to Point aux Barque, 2,'000 bbls., mostly white : Valuation, $25,000. 

Aq Sauble, 6,000 bbls., three quarters white, the rest trout : Valuation, $50,000 ; boats, 
nets, etc, 18,000 ; paid for wages, $7,000. 

Thunder Bay and vicinity, above Sauble river, 6,000 bbls., mostly white : Valuation 
(50,000. 

Saginaw bay and river, 2,000 bbls. pickerel, and 1,500 white and trout: Valuation 

tas.ooo. 

Mawas, 600 bbls., mostly white : Valuation, $5,000. 

Between Thunder Bay and Mackinaw, 500 bbls., mostly white: Valuation, $4,500. 

Mackinaw, including all brought there, 7,500 bbls., three quarters or seven eighths 
white : Valuation, $62,000. 

Beaver islands and neighborhood, 7,000 bbls., nearly all white: Valuation, $20,000. 

Green Bay in Michigan, 8,000 bbls., all white : Valuation, $25,500. 

Lsland between De Tour and Sault, 1,000 bbls., two thirds white, the rest trout: 
Valuation $8,000. 

Green Bay in Wisconsin, 2,500 bbls. white, and 500 bbls. all pickerel, packed: 
Valuation, $25,000. 

Of the catch of lake Huron, only an inconsiderable amotmt are sold fresh. On 
Detmit river, about 4,000 bbls. were packed last year. 

Having secured specific information of the cost of outfit and amount paid for wages 
It the Sauble fisheries, we have taken such expenditures as the basis for those of all the 
upper lake fineries in proportion to the catch, which, in the main, will doubtless prove 
SQbstantially correct. At Au Sauble, last season, there were sixteen boats employed for 
two months, and eight for the rest of the season. The value of the boats was $200 each, 
lad the nets, etc.f cost an additional siun of $600 for each, making the aggregate value of 
the boats and their outfit about $18,000. About forty men were employed on an average 
during the season, receiving a probable aggregate of $7,000 for wages. Taking these oat- 
iajs, etc., as a fiur average, and we have the following result : 



62 mSTORT OF TBI 8TAT« OF MIOHIOAV. 



From Port Hnion to the Beayen, incla^ve, together wHh Green Bay, in Ifidiigan, 
and the Sanlt islands: Cost of outfit, |88«S0O; amount paid for wages, (45,000; arenige 
number of men, 800. 

The amount shipped from Lake Superior, as appears from the report of tiie super- 
intendent of the Sault canal, is 4,000 bbls. This is probably not a tithe of what mig^t be 
done. The mouth of almost every stream in that region afibrds good fishing gromidi» 
which is also true of most of the islands, particularly Isle Royale, where the sisoowit Is 
yeiy abundant 

The fisheries of the east coast of Lake Michigan hare, for about sfx years pest, 
increased veiy rapidly in importance, some years gaining one hundred percent on theyesr 
preceding. A few years since a party of Norwegians came on and embaiked in the 
business, which they have prosecuted ever since, with advantage and profit Trained in 
the severe school of their rugged northern home, they exhibit the greatest daring, gouig 
out in their tiny craft during the heaviest gales. They frequently venture out twenty-five 
miles from shore, almost meeting their countiymen from the Wisconsin side of the like, 
who are engaged in the same hazardous calling. We have the following returns: 
« Little Traverse, 000 barrels: ValuaUon, $4,000; 800 nets and 6 boats, worth $1,800; 
paid for wages, $575. 

Big Pohit Sauble, 1,500 barrels: Valuation, $12,000; 000 nets and 8 boats, $8,670; 
paid for wages, $1,700. 

Little Point Sauble, 2,000 barrels ; Valuation, $16,500 ; 750 nets and 10 boats, $4,500; 
paid for wages, $2,000. 

White Lake, 1,500 barrels: Valuation, $12,000; 500 nets and 5 boats, $8,000; paid 
for wages, $1,600. 

Grand Haven, 4,000 barrels : Valuation $82,800 ; 800 nets and 8 boats, $4,000 ; paid 
for wages, $5,000. 

Saugatuck, 2,000 barrels; Valuation, $16,000; 600 nets and 6 boats, 8,600; paid for 
wages, 2,500. 

South Haven, 2,100 barrels: Valuation, $16,800; 400 nets and 5 boats, $1,200; paid 
for wages, $2,000. 

St. Joseph, 8,500 barrels : Valuation, $28,000 ; 1,200 nets and boats, $7,500. 

New Bufialo, 800 barrels : Valuation, $8,000 ; 400 nets and 5 boats, $2,600 ; paid for 
wages, $450. 

Michigan City, 8,000 barrels: Valuation, $80,000; 1,020 nets and 18 boats, $8,000; 
paid for wages, $4,400; showing an aggregate of 21,000 baiTel8,of which 18,000 barrels 
are salted; valuation, $169,800 ; value of fixtures, $48,600; estimated amount paid for 
wages, $24,625. 

The fishing grounds of Michigan City are almost entirely within our state. The 
number of barrels include those sold fresh as well as salted, there behig a considerable 
quantity of the former, in some of the fisheries last named, Michigan City and New 
Buffiulo especially, from whence they are sent packed in ice to the different towns in Mch- 
igan ; also, to Lafayette and Indianapolis, Ind. ; to Louisville, Ky. ; to Cincinnati, and also 
Chiciigo, where they are repacked in ice, and some of them find their way to St Louis, 
Cairo, etc. From St Joseph and Grand Haven there are lai^ quantities sent (nah to 
Chicago and Milwaukee, where they are repacked in ice. 

At a fiiir estimate for the few small fisheries on this coast, from which we have 
no returns, together with those on the west coast of Lake Michigan, they are worth 
at least $60,000, but we have no data by which to form an estimate of the proportion 
packed. 



mSTORY OF THB 8TATB OF XIOmOAV. 68 



The number of men employed, and the consequent expense, yaries according to the 
method employed. With seines, the occupation is very laborious, and requires a much 
stronger force than pound nets. One set of hands can manage a number of the latter. 
Some of the fisheries on Detroit and Bt. Clair rivers use seines altogether, to draw which, 
horse power is brought into requisition in some cases. A double set of men are employed, 
working alternately day and night, and the exposure is a most disagreeable feature of the 
business, particularly in bad weather. The great bulk of the aggregate catch continues to 
be taken with seines or gill-nets, but pound (or trap) nets are on the increase. They have 
been in use below Lake Huron more or less for the past four or five years, but it is only 
about two years since their introduction in tlie upper lakes. With these nets 100 barrels 
of white fi]^ have been taken at a single haul. Of course, their general use must produce 
a material dimunition in the supply. 

The barrels for packing constitute no inconsiderable item of this yast and important 
trade. Their manu&cture is a regular branch in Port Huron, but most of them are made 
by the fishermen when not engaged in their regular vocation. They are made at all the 
villages and fishing stations on Lake Huron, pine being generally easy of access. The bar- 
rels are worth sixty-two and a half cents each ; half-barrels, fifty cents. Over two-thirda 
of the packages used are halves, but our estimated totals of the catch represent whmes. 

Formerly, the nets used also were made almost entirely by the fishermen, who usually 
procured the twine firom Detroit. Latterly, many of them have been brought from Boston 
already made. 

Salt is also another large item. For packing and repacking, about one-fourth of 
a barrel is used to each barrel of fish. For the amount packed, therefore, in the fisheries 
we have described, about 30,000 barrels are used. 



RECAPITULATION. 

Total proceeds of Michigan fisheries, .... $020,000 

Total proceeds of all enumerated, .... 900,000 

Total capital invested, ... ... 25d,000 

Paid for wages, ...... 171,000 

Aggregate of barrels salted, say, ..... 80,000 

Cost of packages, ...... 70,000 

Cost of salt, 22,000 

The catch at the Sauble and Thunder Bay showed a falling off last season, owing not 
to the want of fish, but to .the weather. At those points they congregate not only fiiom 
October to the close, and the weather being rough last fall, the catch was comparatively 
light 

Mackinaw has been &mous as the greatest fishing point on the lakes. Gill nets are 
mostly in vogue. The work in that locality is mostly done by half-breeds in the employ 
of the merchants, the latter fiimishing the salt, and paying them in trade, of which 
the outfit generally constitutes a part. But, with the late general depression, prices 
declined some thirty or forty per cent, and consequently, the business, previously quite 
lucrative, lost its attraction for the time being. The merchants advanced the means 
in the summer, and could not realize until the ensuing year. Small holders were obliged 
to sell, some of the time by forcing the market, and this added to the difficulty expe- 
rienced by large holders in obtaining returns. 



64 



BISTORT OF THB 8TATB OF lOCHXeAK. 



THE INDIANS OF MICHIGAN. 

The Indians of Michigan are more numerous than is generally supposed. The 
following table shows the number of bands, over each of which there is a chief, also the 
number of men, women and children in each tribe : 



Chippewas of Lake Superior 

Ottawas and Chippewas 

Chippewas of Saginaw 

Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottowatomies 

Pottowatomies of Huron . 

Total 



BAITDS 

7 


MBH. 


▼OMBSr. 


CHXU>*N. 


214 


278 


517 


49 


1,068 


1,299 


2,464 


18 


860 


898 


874 


2 


58 


58 


124 


1 
72 


18 


18 


25 


1,708 


2,041 


4,004 



TOTAL. 
1,004 

4,826 

1,682 

285 

51 

7,748 



There are among these Indians twenty-eight schools, supported by the federal gov- 
emm^t. The whole number of children attending the schools during the year 1861, was 
849. There are also among them six blacksmiths, paid by the government. There are 
finom fifteen to eighteen missionaries laboring among these Indians. They belong to the 
Methodist, Presbyterian, and Catholic denominations, by whom they are supported. 

The goyemment pays to these Indians annually, in cash annuities, about $40,000, and 
in goods, $8,000. It also pays for the support of schools, for smiths and smith-shop sup- 
plies, and for agricultural and mechanical purposes, some $20,000, and for agency expenses, 
including salary of agent and assistant, pay of interpreters, etc., nearly $8,000. Thus, the 
annual disbursments for Indian purposes in the state amount to something oyer seventy 
thousand dollars. 

Tlie Chippewas of Lake Superior mostly reside in Houghton county, near the head of 
Keweenaw bay. The Ottawas and Chippewas are principally in the counties of Oceana, 
Mason, Grand Traverse, Emmet, Cheboygan, Mackinaw, and Chippewa. The Chippewas 
of Saginaw, Swan creek, and Black river, are mostly in the counties of Isabella and 
Bay. The Chippewas, Ottawas and Pottawatomies are in Cass and Van Buren, and the 
Pottawatomies of Huron are in Calhoun. 

The early history of the state is replete with accounts of the labors of the old French 
missions. Many were the lives sacrificed and privations encountered by these lioly men 
in their endeavors to win the native tribes to the standard of the cross. So long as the 
missionary was in their midst and superintended their labors, they yielded to his guidance 
and adopted his recommendations, so far, at least, as conduced to their comfort ; but when 
he withdrew, with equal facility they glided into their former habits. The superstnicture 
raised with so much care fell to the ground the moment the sustaining hand was with- 
drawn. At present, with the exception of a few points in the upper i)enin8ula, there are 
to be found few traces of the Catholic religion among the Indians of our state. 

As a general thing, it is impossible to induce him to conform to the usages of civilized 
life, and, except in the manufacture of a few baskets and the supply of a few furs, we see 
no evidences of his industry. 

The efffect of the contact of the two races has been to afford the Indian additional 
incentives to vice, while his intellectual and moral elevation ha^ been little advanced ; 
and at this day, it cannot be said that he stands higher in the scale of civilization than 
when first known by the white ihan. It would be of immense advantage to us, if not to 
themselves, if the negro and Indian could both be removed to some more genial clime. 



HI8T0BY OF THB 8TATB OF MIOmOAK. 68 



The number of men employed, and the consequent expense, varies according to the 
method employed. With seines, the occupation is Yeiy laborious, and requires a much 
stronger force than pound nets. One set of hands can manage a number of the latter. 
Some of the fisheries on Detroit and Bt Clair rivers use seines altogether, to draw which, 
hone power is brought into requisition in some cases. A double set of men are employed, 
wofking aHemately day and night, and the exposure is a most disagreeable feature of the 
boslneaa, particolariy in bad weather. The great bulk of the aggregate catch continues to 
be taken with sdnes or gill-nets, but pound (or trap) nets are on the increase. They have 
been in use below Lake Huron more or less for the past four or five years, but it is only 
ibout two years since their introduction in the upper lakes. With these nets 100 barrels 
of white fidi have been taken at a single haul. Of course, their general use must produce 
. iMterial dimimition in the supply. ^ 

The barrels for packing constitute no inconsiderable item of this vast and important 
tnde. Their mannfiicture is a regular branch in Port Huron, but most of them are made 
br the fishermen when not engaged in their regular vocation. They are made at all the 
Tillages and fishing stations on Lake Huron, pine being generally easy of access. The bar- 
ids are worth sixty-two and a half cents each ; half-barrels, fifty cents. Over two-thirds 
of the packages used are halves, but our estimated totals of the catch represent whmes. 

Fonneriy, the nets used also were made almost entirely by the fishermen, who usually 
procured the twine Grom Detroit. Latterly, many of them have been brought from Boston 
abetdymade. 

Salt is also another large item. For packing and repacking, about one-fourth of 
a barrel is used to each barrel of fish. For the amount packed, therefore, in the fisheries 
we bave described, about 20,000 barrels are used. 



RECAPrrULATION. 

Total proceeds of Michigan fisheries, .... $620,000 

Total proceeds of all enumerated, .... 900,000 

Total capital invested, ... ... 252,000 

Paid for wages, ...... 171,000 

Aggr^ate of barrels salted, say, ..... 80,000 

Coat of packages, ...... 70,000 

Cost of salt, 22,000 

The catch at the Sauble and Thunder Bay showed a falling off last season, owing not 
to the want of fish, but to .the weather. At those points they congregate not only fix>m 
October to the dose, and the weather being rough last fall, the catch was comparatively 
^%bt 

Mackinaw has been fiunous as the greatest fishing point on the lakes. Gill nets are 
BKMtly in vogue. The work in that locality is mostly done by half-breeds in the employ 
of the merchants, the latter fiimishing the salt, and paying them in trade, of which 
the outfit generally constitutes a part. But, with the late general depression, prices 
dedbed some thirty or forty per cent, and consequently, the business, previously quite 
lucrative, lost its attraction for the time being. The merchants advanced the means 
in the summer, and could not realize until the ensuing year. Small holders were obliged 
U> BeQ, some of the time by forcing the market, and this added to the difficulty expe- 
fieiioed by laige holders in obtaining returns. 



66 msTORT or thb state of locmoAir. 



then abandoned it as too laborious an undertaking. The vein was wrou^t in the fonn 
of an open trench, and where the copper was most abundant, the excayation extended 
deepest" The rubbish taken from the mine is thrown out in mounds, which can easOy 
be distinguished from the contour of the surrounding ground, and upon which laige trees 
are now growing. In various other localities of the northern peninsula, the nuMt oan- 
yincing traces are discoyered, that go to proye that the mines were extmsiyelj woiiwd hf 
an inteUigent race — at least tar more intelligent than the present Indians. Hie woildiip 
appear to haye been effected by the use of stone hammers and wedgea, specimens of 
which are to be found in the greatest abundance in the yidnity of the mines. In some 
instances there are traces of fire, and pieces of charcoal haye been discoyered, showing 
that fire was used as an agent to destroy the cohesion of the copper with the snnoondiBg 
stone. In some instances, metallic hammers and kniyes haye been discoyered in the 
mines, though the instances are yery rare, the copper being evidently carried to a distance, 
where it was fiishioncd into the rings and ornaments frequently found in the tumuli of the 
Ohio. The immense labor required, in most instances, to sink these ancient mines— 
frequently through several feet of solid rock — is another evidence that the present nee of 
Indians, or any race of men possessing their characteristics, could not have perlbnned 
the work, for no amount of personal benefit could induce the Indian to undeigo such 
physical exertion. 

The ancient mounds are generally diminutive, vaiying in hi^t from six to ten ftet, 
and in rare instances reaching a height of twenty feet Some of the most remaifcable 
that have been noticed are in Girard township, Branch county, and in Baisln township, 
in the county of Lenawee. One of the latter was opened, many years since, and firand to 
contain a mass of human bones. On the north side of Grand river, ten miles fttxn its 
mouth, there is an ancient mound about ten feet high, with an immense pine tree, neatly 
one hunc'red feet high, growing from its apex. A mound in the vicinity was opened, and 
nothing found until the ground below was penetrated to the distance of about three feet 
below the original level, where was discovered a quantity of human bones, several i^eoes 
of iron three or four inches long, several arrow heads, some pieces of brass, and the rem- 
nant of a brazen vessel, much mutilated. In the south-west comer of the county of 
Callioun, on the north side of the St. Joseph river, is a semicircular fort, two hundred fbet 
in diameter, and another in the south-east comer of the county, of the same dimensions, 
with an embankment fh>m one to three feet high. In the county of Wayne, in Spring- 
wells township, on the north bank of the Detroit river, is a fort of the circular or elliptical 
kind, with an embankment two or three feet in height, and encompassing, perhaps, an 
acre, situated on firm land, and surrounded by a swamp. On the east side, in approaching 
the fort, there are two parallel embankments of earth, within a few feet of each other, 
rising four or five feet, and crossing the swamp in a direct line towards the fbrt Forts of 
the square, or the rectangular kind, are sometimes found. There is said to be one two 
miles below tlie village of Marshall, one in the township of Prairie Ronde, several on the 
Kalamazoo, and in some other places. In Bruce township, in the county of Macomb, on 
the north fork of the Clinton, are several. The latter consist mostly of an irT^;ular 
embankment, with a ditch on the outside, and including firom two to ten acres, with 
entrances, which were evidently gate-ways, and a mound on the inside opposite each 
entrance. In the vicinity there are a number of mounds. Several small mounds have 
been found on a bluff of the Clinton river, eight miles fh>m I^ake St Clair. In sinking 
the cellar of a building for a missionary, sixteen baskets full of human bones were found, 
of a remarkable size. Near the mouth of tliis river, on the cast bank, are ancient works, 
representing a fortress, with walls of earth thrown up, similar to those in Ohio and 
Indiana. 



BISTOBT OF THB STATS OF MIOmOAK. 67 



In SpringweUs township, (BeUe FmUaine^ three miles below Detroit, exists a group of 
moondi on the ri|^t bank (^ the river. Several years ago, one of these was opened and 
fMmd to rontnin bones, arrow heads, stone axes, etc, in abundance. 

Under the beading of ** ^SK. Jcmiph CourUy^ will be found a brief description of an 
sndent gaiden bed, which exists in that county, near the village of Three Rivers. In no 
Bthwr slate are there remains found in a more distinct state of preservation. The agricul- 
turs of the Indians is as nide as they are uncivilized and indolent ; so that, between these 
Rgolarily Ibrmed garden beds, and tiieir rude attempts, there is not the slightest analogy, 
lliese ancient garden beds are found only in the southern part of the state, principally on 
the Kalamazoo and St Joseph rivers, in Case, St. Joseph, Kalamazoo, and Calhoun coun- 
ties; bat the most numerous in the three former. They exist in some of the prairies and 
huiroak plains, in some of the richest soil, and, without exaggeration, it may be said, a soil 
u fertile aa any in the United States. It is a very fine loam, of a ocAot peritoctly blaciL, and 
a ooheaive quality, even when dry, which is unknown to any other soil. The 
of this tenadoQS property is not to be satis&ctorily accounted for, as the amount oi 
tigile, if any, entering into its composition, is so trifling as not to be eaidly discerned. 
Whatever the cause may be, neither time nor the inclemencies of weather, have effiBM»d 
the tiaoes of antiquity — the impression of ages, which it possesses the quality of retaining 
IS legible, ahnost, as rock itself These beds are occasionally found in soils of so little 
consistency aa to be less easily discerned, while in other places, their delineations are as 
perifect aa the work of yesterday. One of the most siugular circumstances is, their won- 
doital extent Tliey cover from twenty to one hundred acres, and it is said upon credible 
iolliority, that some extend over a stqierfices of three hundred acres in one field or garden. 
Were there ianything which they resemble, with which they might be compared, it mi^t 
be supposed that th^ were used fi>r other piuposes than cultivation. They appear in 
Tarlons fiuidftil shapes, but order and symmetiy of proportion seem to govern, i Some are 
laid off in lectUinod and curvilineal figures, either distinct or combined in a fimtastic 
Banner, in parterres and scolloped work, with alleys between, and apparently ample 
walks or avenues leading in different directions, displaying a taste that would not discredit 
a modem pleasure garden. {9ee ''8t, JoMipk Ocmniy") 

EDUCATION. 

If there is any one thing regarding which the residents of Michigan exhibit a univer- 
■1 pride, it is, that the advantages of education offered within her limits are unsurpassed 
in any other state of the union. The constitution of our state enjoins upon the legislature 
the "encouragement of learning, and the general diflVision of knowledge among the 
peoples" Our legislators have recognized the principle that " Republican government Is 
based upon the intelligence as well as the virtue of its members,** and have rightly deemed 
it an imperative duty to promote in every possible way the interests of education. 

Hie compilers of our constitution, therefore, inserted in it articles authorizing the 
sppofailment ot a ** Superintendent of Public Instruction,** ex^oining the application of the 
interest arising from the proceeds of land sales, granted to the state for the purposes of 
primary instruction, exclusively to that purpose— a general system of common school 
orgutlmtiaKk — the establishment of at least'one library in each township, and the appli- 
cstion of all penal and military fines to the support of these libraries, when established — 
ddbing the disposition of the university lands and the investment of their proceeds in a 
permanent ftmd, and the application of the interest accruing thereon to the support of a 
''State Universf^ and its several branches." Under this act the ** State University of 
Michigan " has been permanently located at the beautiful city of Ann Arbor, and a ftdl 
docription of Its oi^ganization and present flourishing condition will be found embodied 



68 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MICHIOAIT. 

i in the sket^^h of that place, accompanied by a beautifVil and oosUy ttetH engnrfng. %»• 

eral branches were established soon after its oi^inization, but thoy hATe been my tnM 
I by our union schools. The following will give a general idea of the (Kganintianof Iki 

I Primary Schools: 

I *' Every organized township in the state is separated into a saitable namber of 



I districts, in each of which a school is to be establislied for the education of youth 

> the ages of five and seventeen years. Schools so established are sapported by the 

I arising fh)m the ])rimary school Aind, and an equal amount raised by tax upon the 

ship, as apportioned by the county commissioners, and by yoluntaiy tax by the k^ 
voters of the school district. 
i The officers consist, first, of three school inspectors, who are choaen by the peopled 

the townsliip at the annual townsliip meetings, to act in the capacity of inspeclon d 
schools for the township. It is their duty to divide the to^iiship into suitable diilrieli^ 
receive and apportion all school mone>'s arising firom school fhnd or townal^ tu, nd 
money to be applied to the support of librariiv. Those districts that neglect to provide t 
school kept three months in the year, by a qunlifiiHl teacher, forfeit their propoitiai of 
school money, and likewise the money to l^e apportioned for libraries, when pro v l rioi Iff 
Uieir support according to law is neglected. Tlie board are required to report to tfel 
county clerk, annually, the number of districts in the township, and to transmlt'the MfSil 
reports of school directors in the same, under a penalty of fifty dollars, together with tte 
fhll amount lost by their failure. 

** It becomes the duty of this board to examine all candidates fbr teaching primiiT 
schools, as to moral character and ability to teach school, and if satisfied with the qodtt- 
cations of such (^^ndidates, to give certificate of the same, signed by the members of the 
board, which certificate shall Im^ in forci* one year. Tlie board have power to re-ezainiBe 
any teacher at any future time, and annul his certificate. It is the duty of the board to 
vhnt all primary schools twice in a year, inquire into their condition, examine seholini 
and give proper advice to both teacher and scholars, and to fill any vacancy that niy 
occur fVom whatever cause. School inspectors receive one dolUir and fifty cents per dij 
for their services, and a refusal to serve in tlie office, forfeits fVom the person refhsiiigtto 
the use of the township school fund, twenty-five dollars. Tlie township clerk is, ex tfa^^ 
clerk of the board, and ])erforms the various duties incident to the office. 

" The district officers are a moderator, director, and assessor, elected annually, and 
obliged to serve or to forfeit, by reflisal, to the use of the district libraiy, ten dollars. Thi 
moderator presides at all meetings of the district, signs warrants for the collection of taxei 
and orders for the payment of money disbursed by the district, and countersigns warrant 
of the director upon the boanl of msi)ector8 for money apportioned to the districL Tb 
assessor is bound to make out an assessment roll of the district, which is transcribed ii 
part fn)m the township assessment roll, with the additi(m of the property of resident an 
non-resident persons, purchased since the township assessment roll was last made ; to giv 
notice when a tax shall liave been assessed ; call a meeting of the board for the equalin 
tion of taxes ; collect taxes and pay them on the warrant of the moderator; distrain ao 
sell gooils for non-payment^ afier publisliing the same for ten days, etc Non-payment ( 
school tax subjects lands and tenements to be sold by the county treasurer, in the san 
manner as is prescribed for the collection of county taxes. 

'*■ It is the duty of the director to reconl all proceedings of the district, in a lKX)k ke\ 

for the purpose, and preserve copies of all reports made to the board of school inspecton 

to employ and pay a teacher — payment to Ive made by a draft on the board of scho 

inspectors ; to call meetings of tlie district boaixl ; to levy an additional tax when tl 

! former apportionment shall be insufficient to pay the teacher, the amount, however, not i 

I exceed the sum voted by the district ; and, in case all prescribed resources Call, to 



HIBTOBY OF THE 8TATB OF MICmOAK. 69 



the deficit upon parents and guardians in proportion to the time tlieir cliildren have 
attended school ; to take a census of the children of his district, and register their names, 
and ftimish a copy thereof to the teacher ; to keep the school house in repair, and ftimish 
proper appendages; keep and present an account of expenses to district board, and to give 
notice of annual and special district meetings. It is his duty to report to the board of 
school inspectors, at the end of the year, the census of the children of the district, the 
number attending school, the time a school has been taught by a qualified teacher, the 
amount of money receiyed iVom the board of school inspectors, amount for libraiy, 
amount of money raised in the district, the purposes for which it was raised, and the 
books used in the school. 

** The moderator, director, and assessor, form the district board, and have power to 
levy and assess all moneys voted by the district; equalize assessment rolls; procure a 
school house ; purchase for the district, or dispose of, district property, as directed by the 
district at proper district meetings ; to divide district money into not more than two por- 
tions, and apply one of such portions to each term in the pa3rment of a qualified teacher; 
to require the assessor to give bonds for the faithful discharge of his duties ; to make 
report to the annual district meeting of the receipts and disbursements of the past year. 
The board receive their appointment at the annual district meetings, and such compensa- 
tion for their services as is voted by the district 

" The qualified voters, when assembled at any legal district meetmg, have power to 
designate or change the site for a school house, and purchase or lease the same; to 
buDd, purchase, or lease a school house, and impose a tax for the purpose, not 
exceeding five hundred dollars in a year, and such other taxes, from time to time, as may 
be neceseaiy for the support of a school ; to determine the length of time (not less than 
throe months,) a school shall be kept, and to fix the amount of money in addition to the 
apportionment which may be raised for the support of a school the ensuing year, which 
simi is not to exceed ninety dollars. 

" Those districts procuring a library case and imposing a tax not exceeding ten dollars 
a year for tlie support of a library, are entitled to their proportion of all the clear proceeds 
of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal laws ; and also 
their proportion of the equivalent for the exemption from military duty, for the support of 
the district library." • 

To the superintendent of public instruction is committed the care of the public lands 
and the proceeds arising fix)m their sales. He is also required to prepare an annual report 
of his department. 

The above are a few of the main principles upon which our school system was based, 
and though for a long time it has been considered equal to that of any other state, it is 
being continually improved in its various details. And now, when the tempest of civil 
war is sweeping over the country, threatening to wreck the ** ship of state," and destroy 
the principles of constitutional liberty, we behold the invaluable benefits derived by our 
youth from that system which has made education free to aU. By thousands our noble 
heroes are pouring forth, clearly comprehending the nature of the crisis and the desperate 
energy required to preserve our vested rights. One of our generals has remarked that he 
could only account for the wonderful shrewdness and valor displayed by the Michigan 
troops in the many " bushwhacking" fights of this war, on the supposition that they came 
from a locality abounding in forests and woods, and were more accustomed to Indian 
war&re; but had he refiected, he would have seen that the "Michigan boys" have always 
been first in the strife, and that their shrewdness arose from the blessings bestowed by a 
good educadon. " Give me such men," says the gallant hero Scott ; " send back your 
rowdy Zouaves, who require a whole regiment of intelligent Michiganders to guard them." 



70 HI8TOBT OF THE 0TATB OF MICHIOAir. 



A vagt impovement upon our prlmaiy school system hss been of lato yean made hf 
the establishment of the so called ** Union '* or *' Graded Scho<ha'* 

These schools have acquired popularity, especially in the more popokyoa ABdrict& 
The name '* Union School" is the common appellation for any public school sepanted 
into several departments, taught by different teachers in separate roomt, either in the stme 
or in several buildings. These schools combine the high school or academic grade of 
instruction with the common school, thus affording Ikdlities under the same roof te 
acquiring the rudiments of education and the higher branches requisite to enter the nai- 
Tersity, or fordgn colleges. The advantages of this new system are maidfeaL The tioie 
of the teacher is economized, and being employed upon one branch, he neceBsarily 
becomes more skiUftil in imparting information connected with it Tliere are accompany- 
ing the instruction of very young scholars many details inappropriate to the class rooin 
of the older student, yet of vast importance to the young pupil Singing and oonoot 
exercises have been introduced, affording relaxation to the inftmt mind, which, if com* 
pelled to the strict attention required fh)m the older scholars, would soon loee its vigor. 

The time of the pupil is economized, for, with a more experienced teacher and better 
arrangement of studies, the pupil will be ordinarily as fiur advanced at twelve jean of age 
as in the common schools at sixteen. Thus, the pupU is enabled to pnrsiie the higher 
branches without increasing his stay in school. The advantages of an education piepar 
ing the graduate to enter with honor the first colleges, are thus offered to every diQd in 
Michigan without regard to parentage or wealth. In this respect the union hi^ adidol 
is vastiy more in harmony with the genius of our political institutions than Is the old 
&8hioned academy, which is necessarily exclusive and aristocratic. With Its innmnenfale 
advantages, it cannot be doubted that the union school, in all the cities and popakxn 
towns, will supersede the old district school, but of course in the thinly settled portions of 
the state, they cannot as yet be organized. 

The following financial statement exhibits the revenues and expenditures for the 
year, for educational purposes : 

REVENUES. 

Primary school interest fond, apportioned . $108,457 80 
Received for tuition of scholars non-resident in the 

districts 11,861 78 

Raised by district taxes 829,468 81 

Raised by two-mill tax . . 278,850 68 

Recciv^from fines, etc, library fund . . 7,598 90 

Received fix>m rate bills 66,469 29 

Amount paid from township fUnds to inspectors 8,452 58 

Total $795,149 84 

EXFENDrrURES. 

Pwd to male teachers . . $248,797 11 

Paid to female teachers . 251,256 55 

500,058 66 

Paid for building and repairing school houses . . 122,715 52 

Paid on past indebtedness 61,488 79 

Paid for inspectors' services 8,452 80 

Paid for books for libraries 10,651 94 

Paid for contingent expenses, payment of district 

officers, foel, etc 91,787 18 

Total r95.14» 84 



HUTOXT OF THE BTATS OF MICHklUr. 



The fidlowiiig tatde exUUls the pfogr e w of tbe public ictkools dnce If 



I respecting the variouB public BcboolB will be fhund under tbe heada of 
d towns. Mid in toroe cases viewi of the school buildings ore given. 

The 9rA.TB Rkfobm School, establiebed at Lansing in 1866, 1b an insUtution 
Mgaed to KfiiMd to homeleas boys of a tender age, an opportunity of escape from tht 
tvecr ot criBM which would otherwise awut tbem, and to Instruct them in such a man- 
Mr that (hex nuy be enabled to g^n an bone«t and honoisble livelihood. 

"Thk Isrge and ccoBtantly increasiog group of neglected and vicious boys — vicious 
rnaOj bccaoK neglected— may well awaken the solicitude of every philanthropic citizen. 
Sundiag tai Ote tbresbhold of life, their little feet having already taken the first steps in 
crime — deprived, in most cases, of all gnaidianshlp of parents, and all sweet infiuences of 
borne, thrown ont as wai& on the mde shores of U(e, it will depend upon the wisdom and 
(ffldaicy of the eflbrls made by tbe state Ibr their reform, wheUier they shall be redeemed 
hn the disadvantages of their neglected childhood, and raised to the rank of vinnoDS 
monbera of aocieQr, or shall go uldmately downward to in&my and ruin, scattering 
dotruction along Uieir path and dragging others to a rimllar fkte." 

A description of this school and of its mode of operation, together with a beautifbl 
ognving, will be fiiond under tbe head ot^'Laimng." 

The NottiuL School, established 185^; and designed for the education of Uath^t of 
both lexea, is k>cated In the dty of Yp^autl. 

On entering this iduKd all stodents dgn a declaration of intention to teach in the 
Kboola of this stale and to attend the school two terms before becoming teachers. Can- 
<iidilee tot admisaion are examined la reading, penmanship, spelling, elementary gram- 
mr, local geography, and arithmetic throu^ compound numbers, and may enter any 
•druced claM by pasdng an examination in all preceding studies Id the course. 
Thete examlnatioos are held on the Monday previous to the opening of each term, and 
Aodents desiring admlsrfon must be present on that day unless detained by rickness or 
ictuai tervlcea as teacher*. The tenm of the Normal School commence respectively on 
ihe first Tuesdays of April and October. The former continues sixteen and the latter 
Iven^-fonr weeks. 

An experimental department Is connected with the school In order to furnish the 
«dnoced danea an cq^raitmiitj of leaching under the superviwon of the principal. K 
M coorae of grmnaatlca li also given, atlbrding relaxation to the body, and imparting 



72 HIBTORT OF THE 8TATB OF MICHIOAH. 



The State Agricut^tural Colijeoe, oi^ganized in 1867, is.k>cated in the town^pof 
Meridian, near the city of Lansing. It is designed to afford thoroagh instruction in agh- 
culture and the natural sciences connected therewith. To effect this ob|ect, the instruction 
combines physical as well as intellectual education. A fiirm containing 67G acres is 
attached to the college, on which the student is obliged to illustrate, by manual labor, the 
principles of science taught in the lecture room. All the vaiious mc^ods of culture are 
here tested, the value of farm and garden products is determined, the adaptation of cer- 
tain soils to desirable plants, the fertilizing properties of various manures, and innumerable 
other questions of practical importance are subjected to methodical and carefiil investiga-. 
tion. Any number of students from the state may enter. Reports and details of all 
results of experiments are made and published for the benefit of the ikrmers of our state. 
Reference to the college is made under the head of ^^Lafmng,^* 

The "Michigan Asylum for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind,*' is located at Flint 
This institution began operations in 1854, and has between one and two hundred 
inmates. To teach the deaf to hear, the dumb to speak, and the blind to see, would have 
been deemed a miracle but a few years ago, but who that has visited our modem a^ums 
doubts that all this has practically been accomplished by the exertions of philanthropic 
men. 

Through this public beneficence, the unfortunate inmate of our asylum is in many 
respects more fortunate than many in less favored lands who enjoy every senae in perfto- 
tion. He is taught to manufacture wagons, paper boxes, etc., to weave mata and carpeii, 
and to manufiicture a variety of useful articles. Above all, he is enabled to acquire a lib- 
eral education, and is thereby placed in a higher sphere than those who, in yean paal, 
looked on him with pity and contempt. Self-reliant, fully competent to obtain by thehr 
own hands an honest livelihood, the inmates of tliis institution go forth into the woiid. 
And who, but those families possessing an unfortunate member, bereft of the sense of 
speech and hearing, can appreciate the joyful emotions felt by his fHends when the deaf 
and dumb pupil is first enabled to communicate with them in an intelligent nuumer. 

The asylum i$ free to all the deaf and dumb, and the blind, in Michigan, between the 
ages of ten and thirty years. All are entitled to an education without charge for board cxr 
tuition. The time for admission is about the first of October. Under the head of ^^Fkni^ 
will be found an engraving, with information concerning the asylum. 

Thus we see, tliat in little more than twenty years, Michigan has adopted a system of 
education unexceled in older communities ; i^r is the hand of progress to cease its lealoos 
efforts. An improvement in our school law is now being agitated, by which all children 
shall be compelled to attend school for a certain length of time, unless parents shall ade- 
quately provide for their education elsewhere. The state imposes a heavy tax on its citi- 
zens for the support of the public schools, and is it not bound to secure to society the flill 
benefit of these schools ? The child has a sacred and indefeasible right to so much edu- 
cation as society can provide. Society embraces all men in its bosom, and its safety and 
well-being are essential to the safety and w^ell-being of all. If there be any parent who 
interferes with the education of his child, his views must be sacrificed to the greater inter- 
ests of the multitude. 

But admirable as is our system of public education, we are not behind in the fiftdlities 
offered for a liberal education by our private schools and colleges. 

At Adrian, Albion, Kalamazoo, Hillsdale, Lansing, and Olivet, are colleges for yonng 
ladies and gentlemen, and various schools of a high order will be found mentioned in the 
descriptions of towns. In Detroit during the past year the " Ladies of the Sacred Heart" 
have erected a building at a cost of over |50,000 for educational purposes. It is one of 
the best schools in the state for the acquisition of the French language. The other schools 
of the city are mentioned in the sketch of Detroit. 



mBTOsi or THE iTATK or taoBiaiM. 



Cekstb STAimics. — From the compendium of the Uniled Slates census of 1800, 
published by order of the State of Michigan, we eitnct tlie following important and vala- 
*ble tablefl.wliich show moat conclusiTelj the astonishing development of our natural m- 
sources and the remarfcable progreae of our state : 

VSnSf 8TATS' CBKSUS Ot THE STATE OP WCHIOAH. 



msTcmT OF Tm stati of wcrmaAir. 



76 



fUS.017 



■—■■■■■■• 



iia.iM 



SMMB 
1MJ7B 






SJOO 
11«BM 

4K0 



IdTM 8I00K, Jon Ut, IMOl 



iflrj« 



A.77I 



lOftSQS 
1MJ87 
S.U6 



U5 



1.U0 
MIS 



710 

a,iis 
iM.n4 

14,088 

7jm 



7,400 
f8,48l 

14419 
SMM 



94A.i71 

18J0B 

lll.4n 

4l7,7tt 

uijm 

9Mm,74t 



ijm 



•••••*••••• 



■•••■■••a 

ajn 



6M1 

4.asi 



SUM 



40 .M 



91 
4,481 

49 
188 



•7 
Tl 
9^7tt 
«,179 



»■■*—■•• •••••••• ••• 



18. 
8,007 

888S 



9,MI 
4,199 

» 
8379 



IS 

80. 

8: 

48 

8,141 

809 



18,881 

88 

98 

9 

1,180 



■«•«••»•••••••••*• 



7U 



I 

! 



18 



•••••••«• 



!■••••••• 



•*••••••« 



IS 

s 



s 
s 



8| 
11 

88 



14 

17 

S 

6 

16 

8 

8 

• •• 



■•••••••• 



••••••••• 



41 

f 



••••••••• 



1,7981 
8.488( 



411 
S|178 
9481 
VMl 

1S74S1 



1 
11 

2 

5 



8S0 




■HTOBT or TBI HATB Ot WCHUUV. 



HI a TORT OF THK STATE OF HCmOAX. 



HIBTORr OF THE BTATB OF mCHUliJi. 



■UTOBT OF THB BTATS OF UCHiaAJI. 



79 






-h 



i 
I 

UBUm 
SAllMti 



fcfllUW 



uui««rt 



iMuguu 



■••••• ■•«•» 



3.14UB 



MMMU 
3IUMUJ 



flUUWJ 



*JUU4«I 



«.HUU0U 

iinTimOTVf 






p ALL Kxni or 

MlLU 



■MWAru TlLCt '^ kSAL 
4JI» ITBMSAL JEOTATI. 



11 



1IU.7» 



nuM 



•rrr 



te-p* 









f 



J4 141 
' JM 






• !«-.•■ 



) 



Ll 

B 

U> 

23 isi' 

(.5 - 

i» 

a r 

■ 






.*»i 



CJtK. 



II&M 






Uf 



7P 



1...^ 



-.j^ 



I" _ 



SfLM-J 






m 






C.4M 



♦-*.-r- 



♦*f 'r 






r^^ 



r,.-* 



J-J'- 



80 



mSTOKT OF THE 8TATB OF MICmOAK. 



POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATKS. 



StITKS and TSBBITOUn. 



Maine 

New Hampehire 

Vermont 

MaaMchusetU 

Rhode IslaDd 

CoDDectieut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Penneylyania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Vlrgioia 

Nomi Carolina 

Soath Carolina 

Georgia 

Alabama 

Miasiasippi 

Louisiana 

Tennessee 

Keatocky 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois , 

Missouri 

District of Columbia. 

Michigan , 

Arkansas , 

Florida 

Wisconsin 

Iowa 

Texas 

California 

Oregon 

New Mexico 

UUh 

Minnesota 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

Daootah 

Washington 



Census of 
1820. 



ToUl. 



298^35 
244.161 
235,764 
5234287 
83,059 
275.202 

1,392.812 
277,575 

1,04«),45H 

72.749 

407350 

1,065379 
638329 
502.741 
340387 
127,901 
75,448 
153,407 
422313 
565 317 
581,434 
147,178 

55311 
66386 
33.039 
8.896 
14373 



CkN8V8 of 

1830. 



9,638,131 



399,455 

269328 

280,652 

610,408 

97.199 

297.675 

1318.608 

320,823 

1348333 

76,748 

447,040 

1,211.405 

737,987 

581,185 

516323 

309.527 

136321 

215.739 

681304 

687317 

937303 

343331 

157,445 

140,445 

39,834 

31,639 

30388 

34.730 



Census of 
1840. 



12,866,020 



501,793 
284374 
291,948 
737,699 
108330 
309.978 

2,428,921 
373,306 

1,724333 

78385 

420319 

1339,797 
753,419 
594398 
691392 
590,756 
375,651 
352,411 
899310 
779328 

1319.467 

685,866 

476,183 

383,702 

43,712 

212,267 

97374 

54.477 

30.045 

434 12 



17,069,453 



CXKSUS OF 

185(1. 



583,169 

317376 

314320 

994,499 

147341 

370,794 

3,097394 

489355 

2,311,786 

91332 

583,034 

1,421,661 

868303 

668307 

905,999 

771371 

606,555 

517,739 

1,002,625 

:i82,405 

1,980,408 

988.416 

851.470 

682,043 

51,687 

397354 

209,(i39 

87,401 

305.191 

192.214 

212392 

92378 

13,293 

61347 

11380 

6,077 



23,191,074 



Census of 
ld60.^ 



619,958 

326372 

315,827 

l,l2;i,494 

174,621 

460370 

3,851.563 

676384 

2316318 

112353 

731365 

1393,199 

1,008,342 

715,371 

1,082,797 

955317 

887,158 

666,431 

1,146,140 

1,145,567 

2377.917 

1350.802 

1,691338 

1,201309 

75,321 

754.291 

440,775 

145.694 

768.485 

682.002 

600,955 

384.770 

52.566 

92,024 

5i),000 

#72,793 

143,645 

28393 

4.839 

l],b24 



31,646.490 



* At reported by Saperlntendent Keiuied7i of the U. 8. Cennu Bareavu 



mSTOBT OF THE STATE OF MICHIGAN COUKTIBS. 81 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE COUNTIES OF MICHIGAN. 



Alcona County. 

Borders on Lake Huron, and U situated in the north-eastern part of the lower penin- 
■da, and boonded on the north by Alpena county, east by Lake Huron, south by Iosco 
eoiiDly, west by Osceola county, and contains 680 square miles. This county is repre- 
sented to be somewhat un&vorable to agriculture, being low and swampy, and liable to 
late and eaiiy frosts on the east, with sandy ridges and intervening swales, rising gradn- 
iOy towards the west Organized since 1850. In 1860 it contained a population of 181, 
township of Black River containmg 50, and Harrisville 131. Value of real estate, $55,100. 
Tliere are two saw mills at Harrisville, that produce six hundred thousand feet of lumber, 
TBhied at $4,050. The whole number of children between the ages of five and twenty, is 
fnty, of whom thirty-four attend school The population is mostly engaged in lumber- 
ing. 



Allegan County. 

Borders on Lake Michigan ; is situated in the western part of the state ; bounded 

on the north by Ottawa and Kent, east by Barry, south by Kalamazoo and Van Buren, 

and west by Lake Michigan. The country is generally rolling, and in some parts of it, 

nay be said to be hilly. It possesses almost every variety of soil found in the state, and 

on the Kalamazoo and other streams, it is a deep, black alluvian. In some portions of 

the ooon^, especially the coast bordering on the lake, and even in some parts bordering 

the river banks, it is sandy ; in other sections, clay abounds, or a mixture of clay and loam. 

It contains twenty-five organized towns, viz. : Allegan, Allegan Village, Casco, Cheshire, 

Clyde, Dorr, Fillmore, Granger, Gun Plains, Heath, Hopkins, Laketown, Lee, Leighton, 

Mantioa, Martin, Monterey, Newark, Otsego, Overisel, Pine Plains, Salem, Trowbridge, 

Wstson, Wayland. The principal rivers are the Kalamazoo, the Black, and Rabbit. The 

oonntiy is also well watered by numerous creek& Productions : Wheat, 150,000 bushels ; 

rye, 13,154 ; com, 800,000 ; oats, 50,000 ; potatoes, 107,405 ; wool, 26,162 lbs. Population, 

1<(,091 ; dwelling houses, 3,890. 62,000 acres of land under cultivation. Value of real 

€«Ute, $4,624,156. The manu&cture of lumber is canied on to a great extent, there being 

thiity-five saw mills, (eighteen water power and seventeen steam power) with a capital of 

1250,000 invested in real and personal estate. The annual products of these mills are 

>boiit twenty-nine mDlion feet, valued at $250,890. Tliere are also nine flouring mills, 

with sixteen runs of stone, with a capital of $55,000, and yielding annually 5,500 barrels 

6 



82 HIBTOBT OF THS STATE OF MICmOAV COUITTIBB. 



of flour. The public lands were first brought mto market m 1832, bat fix)m its distant 
local position, and the quantity of unsold land east of it, together with other causes, veiy 
few settlements were made until 1835, since which time it has settled rapidly, and its pop- 
ulation still continues to increase. The county contains seyend flourishing villagea, the 
mo«t important of which are Allegan, the county seat, Otsego, and Gun Plains. The 
whole numl)er of children that attend school is 4487. Whole amount of money raised hj 
rate bill, $1,045.10; amount raised by two-mill tax, $5,263.21 ; total amount of district 
taxes, $6,004.28. Number of qualified male teachers, 63 ; female teachers, 156. AmooDt 
of wages paid to male teachers, $4,785.77 ; paid to female teachers, $5,278.58. Number of 
Tolumes in the district libraries, 2,675 ; in township libraries, 1,996. 



Antrim County. 

Situated on Lake Michigan, on tlie north-western extremity of the lower peninsula; 
is bounded north by Emmet county, east by Otsego, south by Ealcasca, and west by 
Grand Traverse Bay, containing about 648 square miles. The countiy is rolling, and in 
some parts may be said to be hilly, and some parts are represented to be well adapted to 
agriailtural purposes, the principal ingredient of tlie soil being sand, loam, and lima 
gravel. Observation demonstrates that the climate is mild, owing to the modifying infln- 
ence of the vast body of water over which the cold winds of Wisconsin and the northern 
peninsula pass before reaching the coast. Hence it is well adapted to fhdt growing. The 
country is watered by various small streams. The town of Meegezee, the only one in the 
county, is attached to Grand Traverse county for judicial purposes. It contains a popula- 
tion of 179 ; total value of real estate owned, $45,850. It contains two saw mills, with a 
capital invested of $55,000, producing annually, 3,200,000 feet of lumber, valued at $26,000. 
Elk Rapids, at the confluence of Elk lake with Thunder Bay, is the principal settlement, 
ivhcre there is a post-office. 



Alpena County. 

Alpena was originally called Anamickce, and organized since 1850. It is ^toated in 
the nortli-eastem extremity of the lower peninsula, and bounded north by Prcsque Isle 
county, east by Lake Huron and Thunder Bay, south by Alcona county, west by Mont- 
morency, and contains an estimated area of nearly 700 square miles. It is well watered 
by the Thunder Bay river, and its tributaries. The surface of the county is somewhat 
undulating, and the northern part of it, from Thunder Bay west, is covered with a heavy 
growth of timber, and believed to be well ailapted to agricultural purposes. Fremont is 
the only organized town. It is situated on the Thunder Bay river, at the head of Thun- 
der Bay, and contains a population of two hundred and ninety-one. Value of real estate 
owned, $44,600. It has four saw mills, three by steam, and one by water, with a capital 
invested of $38,000, producing 2,000,000 feet of lumber, valued at ^,300. The aggregate 
of all kinds of manufactures, mills included, is $47,500. Value of annual products of all 
kinds, $40,437. The county contains eighty-three children between the ages of five and 
twenty years, forty-two of whom annually attend school. Amount raised by rate bill, 
840. Amount raised by two mill tax, $76.00. Total amount of district taxes, $225.00. 
One male teacher. 



HX8T0RT OF THE 8TATB OF MICmOAN COUNTIEB. 88 



Barry County. 

This ooimty is situated in the southern central portion of the state, and is bounded on 
the north by Ionia and Kent counties, on the east by Eaton, on the south by Calhoun and 
Kalamazoo, and on the west by Allegan county. It contains five hundred and seventy-six 
square miles, and is traversed by the Thorn Apple river, by Little Pork, Muddy, and Fall 
creeks. The county is dotted by numerous small lakes, among them are Thorn Apple, 
Clear, fine, Pine, Gun, and Crooked lakes, with a large number of smaller ones in the 
south-western part of the county. The face of the country is gently undulating, in some 
parts considerably broken and cut up by small water courses. The soil is excellent for 
filming purposes, and embraces all the varieties, from heavy clay to light sandy loam. 
In the eastern and northern portions are found belts of heavily timbered land, consisting 
of beech, sugar maple, whitewood, ash, and the other usual forest trees of the peninsula. 
The county has sixteen oi*ganized townships, viz. : Assyria, Barry, Baltimore, Carlton, 
Castleton, Hastings, Hope, Irving, Johnstown, Maple Grove, Orangeville, Prarieville, Rut- 
land, Thorn Apple, Woodland, and Yankee Springs, also the incorporated village of Hast- 
ings, having a total population, in 1860, of 14,041. The whole number of children attend- 
ing school was 4,554 This county produced, in that year, 203,200 bushels of wheat, 9,871 
bushels of rye, and 224,826 bushels of com. There are 74,179 acres of improved land, 
and 91,412 of unimproved. The first settlements in the county were made in 1884-5. 
Mr. Orville Barnes and A. S. Parker came into the south part of the county in 1884. O. 
G. Hill, Esq., came to Middleville, October 24th, 1835 ; at that time his nearest neighbors 
were two or three families at Ada, in Kent county, Orville Barnes and A. 8. Parker, 
except Mr. Moran, an Indian trader, and about a dozen Indian families. Henry Leonard 
came in soon after, when the settlement numbered fifteen. Albert E. Bull, Esq., com- 
menced operations in Rutland and Irving, in 1886. That year he put in about eighty 
teres of wheat He brought in his seed wheat from Kalamazoo county, which cost him 
there about two dollars per bushel. He had a fine crop the next year, requiring nearly 
the whole effective force of the county to harvest it. Isaac Messer and Henry Brown 
were in Orangeville, near Pine Lake, in 1836. 

This same year, Levi Chase, Thomas J. Bunker, Slocum Bunker and wife, came to 
Hastings. The same year, J. A. Galway, and two brothers by the name of Haight, were in 
Woodland — the three kept bachelors* hall for some time. Huam and William Lewis were 
in Yankee Springs ; Wm. P. Walkinson, Oliver Racy, Henry J. Racy, and Jonah B. Racy, 
were in Castleton. In 1886, the county of Barry was in one town, called Barry, and 
attached to Kalamazoo county until the spring of 1839. 



Bay County. 

This Is a county formed three years since, from portions of Saginaw and Midland, 
and embracing the whole of what was formerly known as Arenac county. It is 
boonded on the north by Iosco and Ogemaw counties, on the east by Saginaw bay and 
Tuscola county, on the south by Saginaw county, and on the west by Midland and Glad- 
win counties. The Saginaw river fiows for a short distance through the southern part of 
the county, and the Ooq-a-lane, Potatoe, White Feather, Sagenin, Rifle and Aux Grais 
rireTB flow easterly through the northern and central portions, into Saginaw bay. The 
genenil surikce of the country is level, heavily wooded, and in some parts swampy. The 
soO is in most parts a deep rich loam, which produces abundantly all the crops known in 
central New ToiIl There are but six oiganized townships in the county — Arenac, 



84 BISTORT OF THE STATS OF IflCHiaAN OOUVTIIS. 



Bangor, Bay City, Hampton, Portsmouth and Williams. In Bangor, Bay City and Poits- 
moutli, lying on the Saginaw river, there are extensive salt works now in active operation, 
and several others in process of erection, also large manufactories of lumber. (See **JSqf 
C%.") Owing to the importance and value of the salt, lumber and fishing interests, 
in which a majority of the inhabitants are engaged, but little attention has been paid to 
agriculture, and for many years to come the county will be celebrated for its manuiko- 
tures rather than its agricultural productions. Bay City, the county seat, has a fine 
harbor, and is a place of considerable importance. The present population of the county 
is about 4,000, — the census of 1800 shows 8,169. There were in 1860 twenty steam saw- 
mills in operation, cutting 44,850,000 feet of lumber per season. The number of mills and 
amount of lumber sawed is now greatly increased. For a country but recently opened, 
the educational facilities are veiy good, and the improvement in this respect is very 
marked. The whole number of pupils attending school in 1860 was 568. 



Berrien County. 

This county is situated in the extreme south-western comer of the state, and is 
bounded on the north by Lake Michigan and Van Buren county, east by Van Burcn and 
Cass counties, south by the State of Indiana, and west by Lake Michigan. The county 
contains nineteen organized towns — Bainbridge, Berrien, Benton, Bertrand, Buchanan, 
Chickaming, Galen, Hagar, Lake, New Buffalo, Niles, Oronoco, Pipestone, Royalton, 
Sodus, St Joseph, Three Oaks, Watervlict, Weesaw, together with the incorporated city of 
NUes and the village of Buchanan. The total population, in 1860, was 22,274, which has 
probably increased at the present time, to about 25,000. Niles, St Joseph, New Buffiilo, 
Buchanan and Berrien are all flourishing places, and are the centers of considerable trade. 
The county is traversed by the St Joseph river and its numerous tributaries, and in the 
south-western part by the Galien river. The soil along the valley of tlie St. Joseph river is 
a deep, black sandy loam, producing abundantly all kinds of cereal and root crops known 
in Southern Michigan. In other porUons of the county the soil varies lh)m a heavy black 
and blue clay to a light sandy loam, in all parts well adapted to agriculture. The general 
surface is rolling, with occasional smaU prairies and stretches of arable, mcady land. Oak 
openings abound, though some portions of the county are very heavily timbered with 
oak, ash, hickory, beech, elm, linden, walnut and pine, in the manufacture of which into 
lumber, fifty-one saw-mills are employed within the limits of the county, in which is 
invested a capital of $350,000, and which produce annually 38,000,000 feet of sawed lum- 
ber. The water power of the coimty is well worth the attention of capitalists. At the 
city of Niles, on the St Joseph river, especially, this power is immense, and, as yet, unim- 
proved. The Paw Paw and Galien rivers, and Dowagiac, McCoy*s, Pipestone, Hickoiy, 
Yellow and Blue creeks, taken together, make up an aggregate of tliis power of an extent 
and value almost unequaled, and yet in a great degree unimproved. Its climate, owing 
to the influence of the lake winds, is mild and salubrious to an extent quite unusual in this 
latitude. Its seasons of vegetation are prolonged ; in winter its wheat and fliiits are pro- 
tected from frosts, and it escapes those long droughts tliat sometimes afflict other portions 
of the country. There are 75,000 acres of land improved in the county, producing of the 
staple articles as follows: Wheat, 260,000 bushels; rj'e, 20,000; com, 45o,666; o^^ 
75,000. The first settlement in this county was made in 1880, and had attained a popula- 
tion of 5,000 in 1840. Fruit of all kinds c^n be produced in this county in great abun- 
dance, especially peaches, from the sale of which upwards of $80,000 is realized annually. 



BISTORT OF THB STATE OF MIOmOAK COUNTIES. 86 



The fruit grown in St Joseph is shipped mostly to Chicago and Milwaukee, though laige 
qoantitles are disposed of in Detroit and the eastern cities. The educational advantages 
of the ooonty are excellent, there being several private academies in addition to the 
nrioos union and district schools. The whole number of pupils attending school in 1860, 
wss6;820. 



Sleeker County. 

A new county, organized in 1861 from a portion of Marquette, to which it is attached 
for judicial purposes. (See article at end of " Cauntksy) 



Brancli County. 

The county of Branch is situated in about the centre of the southern tier of counties, 
adjouung the Indiana state line, and is bounded on the north by Calhoun county, on the 
east by Hilladale, south by the State of Indiana, and west by St. Joseph. It was organized 
in 1883, being previous to that date a portion of St. Joseph county, and contains an area 
of 828 square miles, of which 107,853 acres were improved in 1860. The St. Joseph river 
flows through the northern part of the county, while the remainder is well watered by the 
Big Swan and little Swan creeks, the Prairie and Cold Water rivers, and their tributaries. 
Pleasant, Stone, and Deadwood lakes are the principal ones in the county, though there 
are numerous small lakes and ponds in the central and southern portions. The surfoce is 
ge&erslly level, in the eastern part somewhat broken. The soil is diversified, consisting, 
upon the level or prairie portions, of a dry, black, rich loam, and in the timbered openings 
of ydlow sandy loam, which although not so rich as that of the prairies, produces abun- 
dant crops. Two thirds of the county is in oak openings and prairie, the remainder well 
timbered. The water courses furnish an excellent water power, which has as yet, been 
but little improved. There are sixteen organized townships in the county, viz. : Algansee, 
Batavia, Bethel, Bronson, Butler, California, Coldwater, Qirard, Gilead, Kinderhook, 
Matteson, Noble, Quincy, Sherwood, and Union, together with the incorporated city of 
C(Mwater, and village of Quincy, containing an aggregate population of 25,000. In 1860, 
there were 6,441 children attending the public schools. There is no county in the state 
that will r ink before Branch in the fertility of its soil, or the amount produced for the 
number of acres under cultivation. The United States census of 1860 shows a product of 
288,176 bushels of wheat, 11,219 bushels of rye, 545,132 bushels of com, 211,282 bushels of 
potatoes, 101,873 pounds of wool, 389,892 pounds of butter, 21,996 tons of hay, and 110,480 
pounds of maple sugar. The estimated value of real and personal estate was $5,601,385. 
Tiie county seat, Coldwater, is a city of considerable importance, and the center of a 
tiiriving trade. The Michigan Southern Railroad passes through the county, and has 
oootributed laigely toward the development of its vast agricultural resources. 

We give the following facts m relation to the early history of Branch county from 
CrippaiCM MmMjf Joumei, a newspaper formerly published in Coldwater. "When 
this county constituted a part of St. Joseph, it was known as the township of Qreen. 
Afterwards the towns of Coldwater and Prairie River were organized ; the former embrac- 
ing the eastern, and the latter the western part of the county. From time to time other 
towns were organized ; the names of some have been changed, and now we have sixteen. 



86 mSTORT OF THE STATE OF MICmOAK — COWSTttEB. 



The county seat was first located, in 1831, at Mason vUle, on the east branch of tiie 
Coldwater river, by commissioners appointed for that purpose. But their location not 
being confirmed, it was removed, in October of the same year, to Branch, a few mikfl 
south west of there, within the township of Coldwater. A building was erected in the 
years 1837 and 1838 which served the double purpose of being used as a court house and 
jail. The sum of $383 was paid to the contractor for its construction. But in 1888, the 
sum of |250 additional was raisecl to put the jail in a condition for use. This building 
was burned down a few years afterwards. In 1842 the county seat was removed by an act 
of the state legislature to the lillage (now dty) of Coldwater. 

The settlements in this county were commenced as early as 1828. The trials and 
difilculties which the pioneers had to endure and contend with were many, among which, 
not the least, was the want of mills. There was no mill for grinding grain, nearer than 
Constantine, thirty-five miles west, or Tecumseh, fifty-five miles east, and it was a 
journey of several days to and from cither of those places, traveling by marked trees 
through the woods. 

The first mill for grinding grain in tliis county was built by Dr. Hill, on the west 
branch of the Coldwater river, in 1831 or 1832. The stones were made of rock stone, 
(so called) and the bolt was of book muslin. It was afterwards owned by Dunham & 
Toole. In 1840 it passed into the hands of R. J. Champion, by whom it was repaired, 
and has been commonly designated as the " Black Hawk Mill." It has since been re- 
built 

In 1829 Messrs. Foster and Le Bonge had an Indian trading house west of the Cold- 
water river, on the north side of the Chicago road. Mr. €k)dfix)y had a trading house at 
the east end of Coldwater prairie ; and afterwards Lorin Marsh, who is well known to 
our citizens, established a trading house on the west bank of the river, on the south side 
of the Chicago road. Mr. Bonner, a Welchman, was the first white man who came with 
his family to the township of Coldwater. He was fit)m Log City, Madison county, N. T., 
and subsequently moved to Bcrtrand, in Berrien county, Michigan. Mr. A. F. Bolton 
erected a double log house in tlie summer of 1831, at the east end of Coldwat^ pndrie, 
about twenty rods south of the Chicago road. It was the first dwelling house built in 
Coldwater, and was used as a public house. John Morse was the landlord. Messrs. 
Bolton and Morse came firom Scipio, Cayuga county, N. Y. Mr. Morse continued to 
reside here for many yeara, and for a long time was the proprietor of the Ph^x hotd. 
He died here, and his family removed to other places. His daughter, Jane Eliza, now 
Mrs. Wm. H. Johnson, of Hudson, Lenawee county, Michigan, was the first white penon 
bom in the township of Coldwater. Her birth occurred April 15, 1832. Harvey Warner, 
who is well known to nearly all of our citizens, and who now resides here with his 
family, was one of the pioneers. He came in the spring of 1831, fit)m Clinton, Lenawee 
county. Silas A. Holbrook came here, in 1831, from Tecumseh, Michigan, and entered 
into mercantile business in company with Boliver Hibbard. Wm. H. Cross and Robert 
J. Cross came here at an early day, and took an active part in laying the foundation of 
society. The former is now living with his family at Lconidas, St Joseph county. 
Robert J. Cross was one of the first justices of the peace in this county. Rev. E. H. 
Pilcher preached the first sermon on Coldwater prairie, and also conducted the first 
fUneral exercises, on the occasion of the dcAtli of a child of Allen Tibbits. Rev. Allen 
Tibbits was the first resident preacher of the gospel. He emigrated to this county in 
1831, and delivered his first discourse in July of that year. Wales Adams came finom 
Massachusetts, and located in the western part of the county, in the year 1880, where he 
erected one of the first saw mills built in the county, on a stream called Prairie river. 
In October, 1833, Messrs. Silas A. Holbrook, supervisor of Coldwater, and Jeremiah 



BISTORT OF THB BTATB OF MICHIOAH COXTNTIBS. 87 



UDoIboii, soperyiflor of Prairie River, met and organized the first board of superyisors, by 
^^Mintiiii^ Mr. Tlllotson president, and Seth Dunham derk. Mr. McCarty was the first 
ilMnff of tbis coiinty. It was in the year 1884 that Messrs. J. D. Crippen and David 
Haynes came there, from Monroe county, K Y. Previous to this time, the people had 
come hither from no single locality, to any considerable extent. The year 1885 marked 
the advent d many fit>m that part of the state of New York ; and a large emigration 
horn that r^on continued to add to our population, which, in 1837, had increased to the 
Dumber of 4016.'* 



Callioun County. 

Tms is one of the southern central counties of Michigan, on the line of the Michigan 
Central Railroad, bounded on the north by Barry and Eaton counties, on the cast by Jack- 
son, on the south by Branch and Hillsdale, and on tlie west by Kalamazoo. It contains 
720 square miles, and is divided into twenty townships, tw^o incorporated cities, and three 
incorporated villages, viz. : Albion, Athens, Battle Creek, Bedford, Burlington, Clarence, 
Convis, Eckford, Emmctt, Fredonia, Homer, Lee, LeRoy, Marengo, Marshall, Newton, 
P^nfield, Sheridan, and Tekonsha townships; Battle Creek and Marshall cities; and 
Albion, Burlington, and Tekonsha villages, having a total population, in 1860, of 29,808. 
The county is watered by the Kalamazoo and St. Joseph rivers, and by Battle, Seven-mile, 
Ten-mile, Rice, Pine, Bear, Beaver, and Nottawasepu creeks. The surface of the county 
isgeneraUy undulating, and in some portions hilly. The soil is mostly a rich sand loam, 
Taried by a black and rich alluvial loam, in the river bottoms. In the western part there 
ire several beauUftil and valuable praries, though most of the county is in burr oak open- 
ings. The soil is admirably adapted to the production of grasses and grains, and also to 
lU the varieties of root crops. The last census report shows the annual product of wheat 
to be 092,804 bushels; of rye, 12,197 bushels; of com, 612,109; oats, 187,216; barley, 
18,455; potatoes, 217,656; wool, 299,905 lbs; and of hay, 42,861 tons. The number of 
acres of improved land was 195,032, leaving 144,800 unimproved. The whole number of 
chfldren attending school in this county, in 1860, was 7,968 ; the amount of money raised 
by rate bill, was $3,144.30; the total amount of district taxes w^as $21,178.53; number of 
qualified male teachers, 116 ; number of female teachers, 212 ; total amount of wages paid 
to teachers, $22;258.40. (See ''Battle Greek'' and '' MarsIiaUr) 



Cass County. 

Tms is one of the southern tier of counties, near the south-western comer of the 
state. It is boonded on the north by Van Buren county, east by St. Joseph, south by the 
Slate of Indiana, and west by Berrien. It was organized in 1829, and contains an area of 
528 sqaare miles. The St Joseph river crosses the south-east comer of the county, and 
the Bhine, Christiana, Dowagiac, and Putnam's rivers flow through other portions. There 
arc several good water-powers on these rivers, which have been generally improved. 
The snr&ce of the country is mostly level, or gently undulating prairie, with occasional 
timbered opoiings, and belts of heavy timber, the eastern part slightly broken. The soil 
Taries from alight sandy loam to black and very rich alluvial, and in all parts produces 
Toy heavy crops. The climate is tempered by the vicinity of Lake Michigan, and is 



88 mSTORY OF THE 8TATB OF MICmOAN COUKTIBS. 



much milder than in the same latitude in central New York. The products of the comity 
are wheat, com, oats, sweet and Iriali potatoes, fhiit, wool, cattle, etc. The forests abound 
in black walnut, hickory, elm, oak, ash, cherr>% basswood, sugar maple, and beach. In 1800 
the county had 1,789 occupied farms, with 114,418 acres of improved land, and 109,294 of 
unimproved, tlie cash value of wliich was estimated at $5,773,850 — 28,058 sheep and 
17,815 swine were also owned here. In that year there were raised 424,029 boshdacf 
wheat, 3,140 of lye, 080,828 of com, 125,936 of oats, 2,848 of barley, 5,807 of buckwheat, 
142,979 of potatoes, G3,781 lbs. of wool, $70,724 of orchard products, 835,867 lbs. of batter, 
27,041 of cheese, 16,177 tons of hay, and 70,891 Iba of maple sugar. There were also, 
eight flouring mills, producing 26,566 bbls. of flour, valued at $156,189 ; also, 27 saw milla, 
cuttmg 6,470,000 feet of lumber, valued at $70,820. The total estimated value of real and 
personal estate was $4,939,357. The number of townships is sixteen, viz: Calvin, 
Howard, Jefferson, IjiQrange, Mason, Marcellus, Milton, Newbui;g, Ontwa, Penn, Porter, 
Pokagon, Silver Creek, Volima, and Wayne, including the five incorporated villages of 
Adamsville, Dowagiac, Edwardsburg, Pokagon, and Summerville. The total population, 
in 1860, was 17,895, which has probably increased to about 20,000 at the present tune. 
The number of children attending school was 5,430 ; the amount raised by rate bill was 
$1,961.45; the total amoimt of district taxes was $7,258.50; the number of qualified 
male teachers was ninety ; number of female teachers, 126. This county was named in 
honor of General Lewis Cass. 



Cheboygan County. 

Situated in the northem extremity of the southern peninsula, and bounded on the 
north by the Straits of Mackinaw, east by Presque Isle county, south by Otsego, and west 
by Emmet. Estimated area, 500 square miles. The Cheboygan and Black rivers run 
through the county, and its surface is dotted with several beautiful lakes; among them are 
Millett's, Burt's, Douglas', and Cheboygan lakes. The face of the country is gently rolling, 
and heavily timbered with beech, maple, and other trees common to this part of Michigan. 
The soil is said to be fully equal, in productiveness, to that of any portion of the state, and 
the climate, owing to tlie proximity of the lakes, comparatively mild. The county con- 
tains three organized townships, viz.: Burt, Duncan, and Inverness, having a population, 
in 1860, of 599, with 30 occupied farms, and 573 acres of improved land. Whole number 
of pupils attending school, 74. Number of qualified teachers, 1. {See ^^ Duncan'') 



Chippewa County. 

This is the extreme eastern county of the upper peninsula, and is bounded on the 
north by I^ke Superior, (or other the boundary line between Canada and the United 
States, in the center of said lake,) east by the channel of Sault de Ste. Marie strait, and 
south by Lake Huron and Michillimackinac county. It was organized in 1826, and at 
that time, included nearly the entire northem peninsula, embracing an area of 7,200 
square miles. Since that year several new counties have been made from portions of 
Chippewa, leaving, at present, an estimated area of 500 square miles. The county 
embraces NebLsh, Dmmmonds' and Sugar islands, together with numerous others, mostly 
small and uninhabited, on its southern and eastern shores, on which are sereral good har- 



mSTOBT OF THB STATE OF MIOHIOAH — COUimiB. 89 



hon. The northern shore of, the county is bordered by irregular sand hills and blufb, 
from toi to one hundred feet high. The Two-Hearted, Tah-qua-ne-naw, Waske, Moniska, 
Fine and Carp riyers flow through the county. The surface is undulating, and in some 
parU hiUy. The soil is a sandy loam, in some parts alluvial, and quite good, though but 
little attention has been paid to fiuming. The whole county is heavily timbered with 
pine, beech, maple, etc. In I860, there were forty-three occupied farms in the county, 
mostly along the shores and upon the islands in the Straits of Sault Ste. Marie. The 
whde number of acres of improved land was 1,479, valued at $9,221, and producing fifty 
boshels of wheat, 240 of rye, 8,555 of oats, 200 of bariey, 9,760 of potatoes, 8,110 lbs. of 
better, 565 tons of hay, and 2,750 lbs. of maple sugar. There are but two organized town- 
ships in the county, Sault Ste. Marie, and Sugar Island, having a total population of 1,544. 
The whole number of children attending school, according to the census of 1860, was 
104, the total amount of district tax, $200. (See " SanU 8te. Marten) 



Clare County. 

Clabe is situated in northern central Michigan, and is bounded on the north by Mis- 
nukee and Roscommon counties, east by Gladwin, south by Isabella, and west by Osceola ; 
area 576 square miles. The Assemoqua river flows eastwardly through the southern por- 
tion of the county. Sur&ce gently undulating, and covered with a dense forest of pine, 
beech, maple, oak, walnut, ash, etc. {See article at end of " OounHesJ^) 



Clinton County. 

Thib is one of the central counties of Michigan, situated on the line of the Detroit 
and Milwankee Bailway. It is bounded on the north by Gratiot county, on the east by 
Shiawassee, south by Ingham and Eaton, and west by Ionia. The first settlements were 
made in 1836, and the county was organized in 1888. The county embraces an area of. 
576 square miles, and has sixteen organized townships, viz.: Bath, Bengal, Bingham, 
(which includes the incorporated village of St. Johns, the county seat,) Dallas, DeWitt, 
Doplain, Eagle, Essex, Greenbush, Lebanon, Olive, Ovid, Riley, Victor, Watertown, and 
Westphalia, having a total population, in 1860, of 18,923. This county has been rapidly 
improved within the past ten years, and is still attracting lai^e numbers of settlers. The 
nrlhce is generally level or slightly undulating. In the south-eastern part there is consid- 
erable swamp land, though the majority is capable of cultivation, and produces, when 
aobdued, the most abundant crops. The Grand, Looking-Glass, and Maple rivers, and 
Sumy, Prairie, and Lost creeks flow through the county, and furnish excellent hydraulic 
paver, which has been slightly improved. In the valleys of these streams there is some 
of the finest fiirming land to be found in the state. A large portion of Clinton county is 
hearily timbered with oak, elm, hickory, beech, maple, ash and walnut. The number of 
occcupied fomis, according to the United States census of 1860, was 2,074, having 78,425 
acres of improved land, and 112,932 unimproved, the total cash value of which was 
13^78,380. The. product of wheat was 149,182 bushels; of com, 161,106 ; oats, 90,123; 
potaloea, 89,780; wool, 60,865 lbs.; butter, 459,271 ; cheese, 82,463; maple sugar, 339,278; 
haj, 16/S63 tcMia There were nine flouring mills, manufacturing 50,100 bbls. per year, 
nOued at |296,40a Also, ei^^teen saw mills, cutting 4,966,000 feet of lumber, valued at 



90 HIBTOBT OF THB BTATB OF lOCHIOAH COmmS. 



$292,000. The whole number of children attending school was 4,052. The number of 
qualified male teachers, 66 ; female teachers, 147. The total amount of diBtrict taies, 
$8,885.58. The principal village, and capital of Clinton county, is St Johns, a ftall 
description of which will be found in the alphabetical list of towns. There is probabfy no 
county in the state, with the exception of Saginaw, that has shown such a rapid incretae 
within the past ten years, as Clinton, and there are none that offer stronger inducements to 
the industrious cultiyator of the soil (See " 8L Johnt:') 



Crawford County. 

This is an unorganized county, situated in the northern central portion of the state; 
bounded on the north by Otsego, east by Oscoda, south by Roscommon, and west by Kal 
casca. It occupies the center of the ridge ttom which the waters flow east and west, into 
Lakes Huron and Michigan. The whole country is an unbroken forest The north and 
south branches of the Au Sauble and the Manistee rivers flow through the county, and 
flimish considerable water power. The timber is mostly pine, beech, maple, ash and 
wahiut Area, 576 square miles. (See arUde €U end of *^0(mnUe$y) 



Delta County. 

Delta is one of the new counties, formed since 1850, situated in tlie southem 
extremity of the northern peninsula, and bounded on the north by Marquette and School- 
craft counties, on the east and south by Lake Michigan and Green Bay, and on the west 
by the Menomonee river, which separates it from the State of Wisconsin. It contains an 
area of 2,160 square miles, and has, as yet, no organized township. The county is watered 
by the Menomonee, Cedar, Bark, Esconawba, Rapid, and White Ilsh rivers, all flowing 
into Green bay. The sur&ce of the county is rolling, in the western part hilly and 
rugged, and covered with a dense forest of pine, beech, maple, etc. It has a population of 
about twelve hundred, with sixteen occupied farms and 457 acres of improved land. 
There are seven saw mills, cutting thirty and a half million feet of lumber per season, 
valued at one hundred and seventy thousand dollars, and giving employment to three 
hundred and thirty men. Menomonee City, on the river of the same name, in the south 
part of the county, has a considerable lumber trade, and, in the summer season, ships a 
large quantity of fish. The Menomonee river has several extensive falls and rapids which 
fhmish an excellent water power, as yet unimproved. Copper and iron are known to 
exist, but, as yet, no mines have been worked. 



Eaton County. 

This is one of the central counties of the state, bounded on the north by Ionia and 
Clinton counties, east by Ingham, south by Jackson and Calhoun, and west by Bany. It 
was organized in 1887, and contains 576 square miles. It has fifteen organized townships, 
viz. : Bellevue, Benton, Brookfield, Carmel, Chester, Delta, Eaton, Eaton Rapids, Ealamo, 
Oneida, Roxand, Simfield, Yermontville, Walton, and Windsor, also the incorporated 



HI8T0BT OF THE STATE OF MICHIOAV — COUNTIBB. 91 



Tillages of Eaton Baplds and Charlotte, (the county seat) having an aggregate population 
of 16^574. The connty is watered by Grand river, Big Fork of Thorn Apple, Grind- 
fUme, Sebewa, and Ba^e creeks. The surface of the county is gently undulating, and 
the Bcril mostly a deep calcarious and sandy loam, with a thick covering of vegetable 
mould. Belts of heavy timber are found, with occasional timbered openings and small 
pialriea. The soil produces all the crops known to this region, in great abundance, and is 
considered fully equal in point of fertility to any in the state. On the Grand river, in the 
north-eastern part, is a valuable quarry of sandstone, and on Battle creek, in the south- 
west corner, a quarry of limestone, fiom which large quantities of lime have been manu- 
fiictured. In 1860, the total value of real estate owned in this county was $4,546,192 ; the 
number of occupied farms, 1,606, having 71,913 acres of improved land, and 92,966 unim- 
proved. 26,923 sheep were owned in this county, in that year, producing 90,134 pounds 
of wooL The amount of wheat was 79,598 bushels ; com, 166,312 ; oats, 84,208 ; pota- 
toes, 62,702; butter, 428,350 pounds; cheese, 74,519 ; maple sugar, 460,645; hay, 16,085 
Una. There are eight flouring mills, having nineteen runs of stone and producing 24,416 
barrels of flour annually. Also, nineteen saw mills, cutting 6,172,500 feet of lumber each 
year. Estimated value of real and personal estate, $6,222,156. The whole number of 
children attending school was 5,870; the amount of money raised by rate-bill was $1,527.- 
S5 ; the total amount of district taxes, $3,104.75. {See " Eaton Rapide " and " ChaHoUer) 



Emmet County. 

Situated in the extreme north-western comer of the lower peninsula, and bounded 
on the north and west by Lake Michigan, east by Cheboygan county, and south by Otsego 
md Antrim. Little Traverse bay divides the county nearly in the center. It con- 
tarns five oiiganized townships, viz. : Bear Creek, Charlevoix, La Croix, Little Traverse, 
and Old Fort Mackinaw, containing a total population of 1,155. The surfece is undulat- 
ing, and covered with pine forests. The soil a sandy loam, but little adapted to agricul- 
ture, except in the river bottoms. County seat, Little Traverse. (See article at end qf 
""OfwUiei:^ 



Oenesee County. 

Is orruATED in the east central part of the state, and is bounded north by Saginaw 
and Tuscola counties, east by Lapeer, south by Oakland and Livingston, and west by 
9uawasBee, containing 648 square miles. The sur&ce is rolling, and the soil adapted to 
grass and various kinds of grain. The county is well watered by the Flint river and its 
nnmerons tributaries, and also by Thread river and Shiawassee east branch ; and an abun- 
dance of pine timber is found in various parts. There are nineteen towns in the county, 
to wit: Aigentine, Atlas, Burton, Clayton, Davison, Fenton, Flint, Forest, Flushing, 
Gaines, Oenesee, Grand Blanc, Montrose, Mount Morris, Mundy, Richfield, Thetford, 
Vienna, and Fentonville village. Flint is the capital of the county. (See "Flint:') Beside 
wWch, there are the villages of LeRoy, Grand Blanc, and Fentonville. Population, in 1860, 
22,607; value of real estate owned, $8,451,720; number of acres improved land, 99,098; 
mmber of acres unimproved, 87,859 ; total bushels of wheat raised, 166,808 ; rye, 12,514 ; 
hidian com, 284,969; oats, 159,480; potatoes, 105,809 ; wool, 148,648 pounds. There are 



92 mSTORY OF THB STATE OF MICmOAH — CO01ITR8. 



eight flouring mills by water and ten by steam power, employing an inyestment of ctpbal 
of $55, 000, manu&cturing 38,267 barrels of flour annually; twenty-six saw mills, thiilMi 
by water and fourteen by steam, employing a capital of $280,280, manufiictoring 20,7M|M 
feet of lumber, valued at $165,953. Aggregate of capital invested in all kinds of min- 
factures, mills included, $891,980, the annual product valued at $450,880. Number d 
children between the ages of five and twenty, 8,060; attending school, 6,886; amount of 
money raised by rate-bill, $1,562.17 ; amount by two-mill tax, $6,967.68 ; total amonnttf 
district taxes, $11,885.01 ; number of qualified male teachers, 87 ; female teachers, 208. 

Genesee county was organized in 1886. The Flint and Pere Marquette Raihoid ii 
completed fix>m Mount Morris to Saginaw, and will soon be opened to Flint. 



1 



Gladwin Oounty. 

BouKDED on the north by Roscommon and Ogemaw oountios, east by Bay, south b]r 
llkOdland, and west by Clare. Area, 576 square miles. The Assaymaquasebee river, t 
branch of the Tittabawassee, flows through the south-western part, and the Bawaoee 
through the eastern part Several large wind&lls and swamps exist in this ooun^. No 
actual settlements arc made, and almost the entire county is covered with heavy timber. 
(See artide at end of "Ownto.") 



Grand Traversa County. 

Grakd Traverse borders on Lake Michigan, and is situated in the north-western 
part of the lower peninsula. It is bounded by Lake Michigan and Qrand Traverse bij 
on the north, on the east by Ealcasca county, south by Wexford and Manistee oountiea,on 
the west by Lake Michigan; containing 576 square miles. The oiganized limits of the 
county contain four towns, to wit : Milton, Peninsula, Traverse, Wliitewater, and the 
town of Megezee in the unorganized county of Antrim. It contains 1,288 inhaUtant& 
Value of real estate owned, $148,180 ; acres of land improved, 2,102 ; acres unimproved, 
7,704 ; cost value of occupied farms, $67,280. But little progress, as yet, has been made 
in agriculture in this new county. The statistical returns of 1860 show the following 
result: Wheat, 5,528; Indian com, 8,400; oats, 4,870; potatoes, 7,015; maple sugar, 
16,440 pounds. There is one flouring mill in the town of Traverse ; four saw mills, with a 
capital invested of $55,000, manufacturing annually, 8,700,000 feet of lumber, valued at 
$29,000. The aggregate of all kinds of manufiictures, mills included, is annually, $55,500, 
valued at $80,458. Number of children between Ave and twenty, 789 ; of which 408 
attend school; amount of money raised by rate-bill, $568.88; by the two-mill tax, 
56484; male teachers, 6; female 19; total amount of district taxes, 586.82. Grand 
Traverse City, at the head of the west arm of Grand Traverse bay, is the principal town, 
and the capital of the county. 



Gratiot County. 

Gratiot is situated in the central part of the State, and is bounded on the north by 
Midland and Isabella, on the east by Saginaw, south by Clinton, west by Montcalm, and 



HI8T0RT OF THE STATE OF MICHiaAN — COUNTIES. 98 



coiit:uns 576 square miles. The surface is undulating, well timbered with pine and other 

timber^ and the soil is fertile and well adapted to grass and grain. The county is watered 

\qf the Maple and Pine rivers, and their tributaries. It contained in 1860 a population of 

4i)27. The following is a list of towns, to wit : Arcadia, Bcllany, Elba, Emerson, 

Fnhon, Hamilton, Lafayette, Newark, New Haven, Shode, North Star, Pine River, 

Berille, Sumner, Washington. The total value of real estate, estimated at $560,560; 

whole number of farms occupied, 888 ; acres improved, 7,858 ; acres unimproved, 88,427 ; 

bodiels of wheat, 14,472; rye, 822; Indian com, 17,671; oats, 9,202; potatoes, 8,122; 

maple sogar, 03,150 pounds. Milling and manufacturing has engaged public attention to 

some extent, but we have no reliable data at hand to furnish under this head. 



Hillsdale County. 

Orb of the southern tier of counties bordering upon Ohio. It is bounded on the 

BOfth by the counties of Calhoun and Jackson, east by Lenawee, south by the State of 

Ohio, and west by the State of Indiana and the county of Branch. It was organized in 

18S5, and contains 576 square miles, embracing eighteen oiganized townships and two 

incoiporated villages, the aggregate population of which was, in 1860, 26,801. The fol- 

loving are the townships : Adams, Allen, Amboy, Camden, Cambria, Fayette, Hillsdale, 

Jefieraon, Jonesyille, Litchfield, Moscow, Rttsford, Ransom, Reading, Scipio, Somerset, 

Wheatland, Woodbridge, and Wright, also the villages of Hillsdale and Joncsville. The 

county is situated on the ridge dividing the waters of Lake Eric from the waters of 

Like Michigan, and is traversed by the St. Joseph river of the Maumee, St Joseph of 

Lake 3fichigan, and the Little St Joseph ; also by the south branch of the Kalamazoo, by 

Hog river, and by Goose, Bean and Sandy creeks. The surface of the country is generally 

rolBng, and in some parts might be called hilly, and is interspersed occasionally with 

manhea. It is emphatically a county of " hills " and " dales,'' (from which circumstance 

it derives its name,) and cont-iins some of the highest land in the peninsula. The soil is 

Tariooa, firom a rich, black, alluvial loam, to a light dry sand, and in all parts produces 

heavily all kinds of grain, grass, and root crops. About one-half of the county (the 

northern part,) is in oak openings, the balance is, or rather was, heavily timbered with 

oak, whitewood, black walnut, sugar maple and hickory. The St Joseph and Kalamazoo 

rivets fturnish an abimdance of water power, which has been but partially improved. 

Sereral quarries of fine sandstone exist here, and are considerably worked for building 

poipoees. Bog lime and iron ore have also been discovered, though not worked to any 

profit The census of 1860 gives for the county of Hillsdale 8,162 occupied farms, having 

16SJ2i8 acres of improved land, and 140,705 of unimproved, the total cash value of which 

WIS $7^2984^0. There are 68,168 sheep owned here, which produce annually 220,801 

poonds of wooL In that year there were harvested 878,416 bushels of wheat, 22,488 of 

rye, 813.994 of com, 107,075 of oats, 41,270 of buckwheat, 264,047 of potatoes, and 88,054 

tons of hay. The value of orchard products was $64,280. The number of pounds of 

butter was 903,517 ; of cheese, 110,819 ; of maple sugar, 122,014. There were 15 flouring 

mills m the county, manufacturing 14,900 barrels of flour per year. Also 48 saw mills, 

(34 of which are run by steam power,) which saw 11,005 feet of lumber per season, valued 

>t t88,430. The estimated value of real and personal estate in this county is $5,106,467. 

Hiimiiip A flourishing incorporated village, on the Michigan Southern Railroad, near 

tike center of the county, is the seat of Justice. (See ''EiBMJak:') 



94 mSTOBT OF THB BTATE OF MXCmOAN COUHmS. 



Hoaghton Oounty. 

This county is situated in tlie northern part of tlie upper peninsula, and fonotAf 
embraced the peninsula of Keweenaw, but since the formation of Keweenaw coontj, 
Houghton is bounded as follows : On the north by Keweenaw county and Lake Superior, 
east by Keweenaw bay and Lake Superior, soutli by Marquette and Ontonagon countiei, 
and west by Ontonagon and Lake Superior. Salmon Trout, Elm, Misery, Sleeping, and 
Sturgeon rivers flow tlirough the county, and Portage lake, a navigable sheet of water, 
extends nearly across the northern part of the county, to within a mUe of the north*w«it 
coast, over which the Indians and hunters carry their canoes — hence the name. Tlie 
agricultural resources of the county have been but litle developed as yet It has much 
good timber, consisting of pine, hemlock, maple, birch, ash, and beech, connderable 
swamp land, and excellent hydraulic power; but its cliief w^ealth is in its minenda, 
principally copper, though iron is found in considerable quantities, and even sQver 
has been discovered. There is not in this county a flour mill, an apple tree, or an 
acre of wheat or com. Here, in immense masses, the best and purest of copper is 
found. The mines are of indefinite extent, and of surprising richness, and the 
amount shipped annually is immense, though comparatively but a small portion is 
wrought. The county was named in honor of Professor Douglas Houghton, the late 
lamented state geologist of Michigan. In the year 1859 the following named companies 
associated together and commenced the improvement of the Portage river (the outlet of 
Portage lake into Keweenaw Bay) viz. : Quincy, Hancock, Pewabic, Franklin, Mesnaw, 
Pontiac, Albany and Boston, South Side, Isle Royale, and Huron mining companies, and 
the Arm of R Shelden & Co. — which work w^as immediately entered upon, and completed 
the following year. An entrance was cut from Keweenaw Bay into Portage river, 1,400 
feet long, 100 feet wide, and 12 feet deep, being large enough to admit the heaviest 
steamers navigating the lakes. The channel of tlie river was dredged so as to give, in the 
shallowest places, a depth of twelve feet A sum amounting to nearly $55,000, was 
expended in this work. The flrst vessel to pass through the channel was the propeller 
Qeneral Taylor, (drawing eight and a half feet of water,) on the 17th of May, 1860. {See 
" List of Mining Companies " on page 56.) 

Portage Lake District. — This district, which is embraced within the limits of 
Houghton county, is rapidly taking the lead of the other mineral districts in the country, 
having increased more than thirty per cent since 1859. Both the Ontonagon and 
Keweenaw districts produced a larger amount of rough copper, in that year, than this 
district; but in 1861, two years aften\'ard, the product of the Portage lake district fell but 
little short of the united products of both the other districts. The principal item of 
mineral in the Portage lake district is stamp work ; for the crushing of wliich the most 
extensive machinery in the country, and perhaps in the world, has been erected^ and b 
now in daily operation. At present, there are six mines in active operation, producing an 
aggregate of over 500 tons mineral per month. Two of these mines are yet in their 
infancy, but will rank with the leading mines in the country in the next two years. 

The Quincy Mine — Is the leading mine on Portage lake, producing an average of 
150 tons (78 per cent) mineral per month in 1861. The mine is well opened in advance of 
stopings, and can easily supply all the rock the mill Is capable of crushing. About 4,000 
tons of rock are stamped monthly in the mill by 64 heads of Gates* stamps, and the purity 
of the mineral has been increased from 73 to 83 per cx'ut. The average monthly product 
during the present year, 1862, will be about 120 tons. 

Officers.— Thos. F. Mason, President; John Simpkins, Secretary and Treasurer; 
S. 8. Robinson, SuperintendeiU. Oifice, 3 Hanover Street, New York. 



* HIBTOBT OP THB BTATB OF MIOHiaAK C0X7NTIEB. 95 



Pewabic Minb. — The discovery of the famous **Pewabic lode*' on this property, 
and its subsequent profitable working, has done much toward making this district the 
eabjecl of marked attention and lively interest among eastern capitalists. The average 
mcmtbly product of the Pewabic is about 100 tons of 82 per cent, mineral, the greater part 
of which is stamp copper. The stamp-mill contains four heads of BaU's stamps, which 
inlreriie about 140 tons of rock per diem. The hoisting machineiy at the mine is the 
most complete in the country, and embraces many new improvements not in use else- 
where. The openings in the mine are in an advanced condition, and the show of mineral 
bas never been better than it is this season. 

Officers. — Wm. Hayward, President; E. T. Laring, Treasurer; Chas. Emort, 
Setretary; J. H. Foster, Superintendent, Office, Boston. 

Frankuk Mike. — Although it is but little over three years since work was com- 
menced on this location, it now ranks third in the list of mines in this district, and is 
npidly extending its woxkings and increa^g its product It is also working the Pewabic 
lode, and its appearance on this property is particularly good, carrying considerable 
burd work, small masses, and a rich quality of stamp rock. Preparations are now being 
made to hoist the rock in cars loaded in all parts of the mine, and run on railways laid in 
every levd, to the main hoisting shaft, which will have an inclined railway to the bottom 
of the mine. Oars can then be filled with rock in the lowest part of the mine, and trans- 
ported direct to the kiln house without rehandling, effecting a considerable saving in 
expenK. The average monthly product, this year, will be a trifle more than 90 tons of 
8i per cent, mineral The stamping machinery is the same as that of the Pewabic. 

Officers. — Jajb. Merritt, President; E. J. Lorino, Treasurer; Chas. Emory, 
Seeretary; J. H. Foster, Superintendent, 

Isle Royals Mine. — As yet, this is the only important mine on the south side of 
Pbrtage Lftke. Although explorations and slight workings have been made on at least 
fife other locations, but two of whom, the Huron and Portage, are doing anything at 
present writing. The lode being worked on this property is very rich, and promises 
exceedingly welL In many places it is extremely wide, and heavily charged with stamp 
and barrel copper. The arrangements for the underground transportation and hoisting of 
rock to the surface are the same as at the Franklin, and in about the same state of for- 
waidneaa. The average monthly product this year is 50 tons of about 67 per cent 
mineraL This amount could be easily increased, but it is deemed, by the management, 
OMMne expedient to well open the mine this season, than to make large products. The 
etamp mill is hardly of sufficient capacity to crush all the rock taken out of the mine, and 
wiD have to be enlarged before long. Thirty-six heads of Cornish stamps, and 4 heads of 
Hodge^s patent, are in present use. 

OFFICBB& — T. H. Perkins, President; H. W. Nelson, Secretary .arid Treasurer; 
C. F. EscHWEiLER, Superintendent. Office, Boston. 

The Huron Mine — Is working on the Isle Royale lode, and up to the present 
season the work has been prosecuted with more care than vigor. An assessment of 
|fiO,000 has been made on the capital stock, and it is evidently the intention of the com- 
pany to posh forward the workings as rapidly as possible and make the Huron a largely 
pmductive mine. The show of copper in the mine is exceedingly good, and as soon as 
the mine is well opened, will ^ve a good product. Average monthly product, about nine 
tons, most of barrel work, and small masses. The company have no stamp mill, and the 
iUmp lock lies at the mine, untouched. A mill will probably be erected within another 
Jttr, and the product considerably augmented thereby. 

Office^ William Heywood, President; Horatio Bigblow, Secretary and 

Trmurer/ JoBJX Coixom, Superintendent. Office, Boston. 



96 mSTOBT OF THE STATE OF MICmOAH COUVTIBS. 



Hancock Mine. — The principal work being done in this mine Ib that of opening. 
An adit is driving into the second level, from which the tramway will nm direct to the 
mill. This will be the only mine on the lake sending rock finom the mine, through n 
adit to the mill. The mill wiU have 12 heads of Gktes* stamps put in this &U in place of 
the old ones now in use. Average monthly product, 6 tons. 

OPFICBR& — Thos. F. Mason, Prendent; John Simpkins, Seerekurif; Horatio 
BiGELOW, Trecuurtr; Jonathan Ck>x, SuperinUnderU. Office, Boston. 

Portage Mine. — No work has been done on this property, this season, but acttfe 
operations will undoubtedly be resumed this fall, by the new company. Heretc^re the 
wo^ings have been prosecuted on private account 

There are quite a number of locations, on which explorations and partial woridngi 
have been made, but which are now discontinued, although the veins opened have all 
been of a promising character, and will yield well, whenever extensively worked. Among 
these mines, are the Columbian, Montezuma, Dacotah, South 6ide, Mesnard, Pontiac, 
Albany and Boston. A mass vein is said to exist on the Mesnard property, a Qontinuotn 
string of masses having been discovered near the surfiu^ by a gentleman who has care- 
ftilly explored the property during the past year. 

A dividend of three dollars per share has this season been declared by the QuhM^ 
company, which is the first dividend paid by any mine in the district Other dividends 
will probably be decUred in the ensuing two years, the Pewabic, Franklin, and Ide 
RoyaJe mines, each having a surplus last year of from $40,000 to $70,000, which will be 
increased about the same amount this year. The Quincy will probably declare another 
dividend at the close of the year. 

The product of mineral for the first half of the present year, as compiled by the 
JRning OamUy is as follows: 

Quincy, ...... 670 tons, 1053 lbs. 

Pewabic 

Franklin, ...... 

Isle Royale, ...... 

Huron, ...... 

Hancock, ...... 

Albany and Boston, .... 

Total, 2034 tons, 1449 lbs. 

With the exception of the Quincy product, all the mineral raised in the district is 
smelted at smelting works on the lake. During the year 1861, 5,109,138 lbs., or 2^554 tons 
and 1,383 lbs. of refined copper were produced at these works, and a laiger amount will 
be treated the present year. 

About 2,000 men find employment in the mines and stamp houses of this district, 
whose average monthly wages amount to about $60,000, or $30 per man, making a total 
of $720,000 yearly disbursed to employees. 



502 


li 


1076 


it 


454 


ti 


1646 


it 


803 


« 


590 


<{ 


65 


t( 


1900 


f< 


«36 


ti 


1248 


u 




it 


1500 


u 



Huron County. 

This countjr is situated at the extremity of the peninsula formed by Saginaw bay and 
Lake Huron, and is bounded on the north and east by that lake, south by Sanilac and 
Tuscola counties, and west by Tuscola county and Saginaw bay. It contains an area 
of 859 square miles, has nine organized townships, and an aggregate population of 4,000. 

• PartlaOy etUauited. 



HI8T0RT OF THS STATE OF MICmGAH — OOUNTIBfl. 97 



The Borfiice of the comity is level, the soil rich and of great fertility, when properly sub- 
dued. It is heayily timbered with beech, maple, pine and tamaradc, the last two being 
extensively used for vessel spars. The inhaMtants are mostly employed in fishing and 
Inmbering, and but little attention has been paid to agriculture thus &r. A large number 
of small rivers traverse the county in all dy^tion's, the principal being the Zappapoic and 
Willow rivers, and Allen's and Beny credu. The townships of the county are Bingham, 
Oaasville, Dwight, Huron, Hume, Rubicon, Sand Beach, Sebawaing, and White Rock. 
In 1860 there were 148 &rms in the county, having 8,471 acres of improved land, and 
16,8S4 unimproved. 5,143 bushels of wheat were produced, 2,766 of com, 6,944 of oats, 
and 14,460 of potatoes. There are 14 saw mills, (13 of which are propelled by steam,) 
which manufiicture annually 26,160,000 feet of sawed lumber. 806 scholars attend the 
public schools, and the total district tax is |S66.06. 



Ingham County. 

« 

Ikoham is situated in the south central part of the state, and is bounded on the north 
by Clinton and Shiawassee, east by Livingston, south by Jackson, west by Eaton, and 
contains 664 square miles. The surface is gently undulating in the southern part of the 
county, but in the northern part it is level, and there are extensive marshes. No county 
in the state contains a greater variety of soil, and it is to this circumstance, added to its 
central position, that it was selected as a &vorable locality for the agricultural college at 
Lansing. The soil is exceedingly productive. The county Ib intersected hpr the Grand 
and Red Cedar rivers, and their tributaries. The following is a list of the towns: Alaie- 
don, Aurelius, Bunker Hill, Delhi, Ingham, Einneyville, Lansing, Lansing city, 
Le Roy, Leslie, Locke, Mason village. Meridian, Okemos village, Onondaga, Stockbridge, 
Vevay, Wheatfield, White Oak, Williamstown. The population in 1860 was 17,466. The 
value of real estate owned is $6,106,798; the whole number of occupied ferms, 1,676; 
acres improved, 81,296 ; acres unimproved, 93,161 ; total wheat in 1860, 140,043 bushels; 
rye, 7,683; Indian com, 233,426; oats 103,757; potatoes, 85,007; wool, 89,803 lbs.; 
butter, 400,055 lbs.; maple sugar, 190,514 lbs. There are four water and four steam 
flouring mills; capital invested in them, of |50,500, manufacturing 31,324 bbls. flour; 
annual product estimated at $182,625. There are four water and twenty-one steam saw- 
mills, with a capital invested of $67,600, producing annually 11,418,000 feet of lumber, 
estimated to be worth $87,717. Aggregate of capital invested in all kinds of manufacturea, 
mills included, $215,165, yielding an annual product of $521,325. The whole number of 
children, between the ages of five and twenty, is 6,388, of whom 6,569 regularly attend 
school. Amount raised by rate bill, $1,299.51 ; amount raised by two mill tax, $5,933.89; 
qualified male teachers, 65 ; female teachers, 183. Mason is the county seat The Amboy, 
Lansing, and Traverse Bay Railroad is completed from Lansing to Owosso, in Shiawassee 
county. 



Ionia County. 

Ionia is situated near the center of the southern part of the lower peninsula, and is 

bounded on the north by Montcalm county, east by Clinton, south by Eaton and Barry, 

west by Kent, and contains 576 square miles. The sur&ce is gently undulating, and the 

soil highly productive. The north half of the county is occupied by openings, having a 

7 



98 mSTORT OF THB STATE OF MICmGAK COUHCTM. 



sparse growth of oak and hickory. The south half comprises heavy timbered land. In 
proportion to the number of acres under cultivation, it produces more wheat than any 
other county in the state. The county is intersected by Grand river, which flows in a veiy 
crooked channel, northerly through the towns of Danby, Portland and Lyons, in which 
latter town, near the town line between Lyons and Ionia, it forms a confluence with the 
Maple river, flowing from the north-east, and then its course is generally west through the 
county. Grand river is navigable for small steamboats from Grand Ra^nds up as Ikr n 
Lyons. Flat and Looking Glass rivers are also both tributaries of Grand river. The 
streams, with their tributaries, permit an abandance of water power. The population, in 1880, 
was 16,665. The following are the towns in Ionia: Berlin, Boston, Campbell, Danby, 
Easton, Ionia, Keene, Lyons, North Plains, Odessa, Orange, Orieans, Otisco, Portland, 
Ronald, and Sebewa. Besides Ionia, which is the county seat, and which contains 1,170 
inhabitants, the county contains the following villages: Lyons, population, 689: Saranac, 
468; Portland, 440; Muir, 216. The value of real estate owned is estimated at $5,274,184; 
the whole number of occupied farms, 2,072 ; acres improved, 79,712; acres unimproved, 
97,478. In 1860, there were raised as follows: 227,906 bushels wheat, 18,048 lye, 
156,829 Indian com, 105,597 oats, 69,876 potatoes, 66,908 pounds wool, 408,248 butter, 
815,823 maple sugar. There are thirteen flouring mills, eleven by water and two by steam, 
employing a capital of $94,000, and manu&cturing annually 58,824 bbls. flour, valued at 
$808,227; sixteen saw mills, ten by water, six by steam, which manufacture annually 
6,190,000 feet of lumber, valued at $55,010. Aggregate of capital invested in all kinds of 
manufkctures, mills included, $241,600; value of annual products, $449,677. There are in 
Ionia 6,287 children between the ages of five and twenty years, of whom 3,098 attend 
school. Amfunt raised by rate bill, $1,616.82; amount raised by two mill tax, $6,456.57. 
85 qualified male teachers, 158 qualified female teachers. 

Ionia county was first settled at the present site of the village of Ionia, by Samuel 
Dexter, and a party of about sixty persons, chiefly from western New York, in the month 
of May, 1888. After a tedious Journey through the wilderness, they arrived at Ionia on 
the 27th of May, and with the exception of a few scattered huts of Indian traders, there 
was not a house of a civilized inhabitant within a hundred miles of the spot They found 
an Indian planting ground, partly planted with com, beans, potatoes, pumpkins, eta, for 
which they succeeded in negotiating a purchase, and they afterwards purchased the huts 
and wigwams of the Indians, planted five acres more of land, and then commenced build- 
ing houses. In 1884, Mr. Dexter, aided by others, built a saw miU, on a small creek, 
about two miles and a half west of the settlement; and a year after, he procured a pair of 
twenty-inch mill-stones, which he fitted with a wheel under his saw mill, which ground 
the necessary fiour, etc. for the settlement. Stated preaching was first enjoyed by the 
people in the summer of 1885, the first minister being a methodist circuit preacher, named 
Monnette. The progress of the settlement of Ionia continued slow in its movements, but 
permanent in character, up to the summer of 1886, when, the Kalamazoo land district 
being divided, a new land office was opened at Ionia, in July, and immediately thereafter 
the settlement was thronged to overfiowing with speculators, and the county begun to receive 
large accessions, immigrants coming in from every quarter. During the winter of 1886-87 
Ionia, which before that time had been attached to Kalamazoo, for judicial purposes, was 
organized into a separate county, and in the fall of 1887, the first circuit court was held at 
Ionia. The first newspaper was issued in the month of February, 1848, called the Ionia 
Journal, and was published by John H. Cliild. Since 1844, the county has continued to 
increase in population rapidly, and is now ranked among the most prosperous counties in 
the state. In 1854, the population was 10,727; in 1860, 16,665; the acres of improved land 
in 1854 were 47,296; hi 1860, 79,912. 



BM10RT OF THE STATE OF MICmOAH — C0UNTIS8. 99 



losoo Oounty. 

IO0OO canoitj Is situated in the eastern part of the state, and borders on Lake Hnron. 
It is bounded on the north bj Alcona county, east by Li^e Huron, south by Saginaw 
bay and Bay oonntjr, west by Ogemaw, and contains 649 square miles. It is traversed 
north by the Riyer An Bauble, and south by Au Grais river. The surfkce is broken, and in 
many pttita swampy. Timber of all kinds is abundant The county is sparsely settled, 
and but Utile attention has yet been devoted to agriculture. It contains but two towns, 
Au Sanble and Tawas City. Population in 1860, 175. Value of real estate, |12,950. 
There istme saw mill at Tawas City, the annual product of which is 60,000 feet, valued 
It $10,000. (ifibs '^TbtMM (%.") 



Isabella Oounty 

Is SITUATED in the central part of the state, and is bounded on the north by Clare 
county, on the east by Midland,-south by Montcalm and Gratiot, and on the west^by 
Xecosta, and contains 676 square miles. It is drained by the Chippewa, Salt and Pine 
lirers, tributaries of the Saginaw. A large portion of the county is adapted to agricul- 
ture, and when it becomes accessible by means of suitable thoroughfares, will doubtless 
become a rich and prosperous county. It contains three organized townships, to wit : 
Chippewa, Coe, and Isabella, the latter being the capital In 1860 it contained a popula- 
tion of 1,446; value of real estate owned, $94,000; occupied &rms, 99; acres improved, 
tffib ; acres unimproved, 12,016. There are 274 children between the ages of five and 
twenty, and 177 attending school ; amount raised by rate bill, $106.09 ; by two-mill 
tix, ^)06^>^. There are three male teachers and ten female teachers. 



Jackson Oounty. 

This county is ritnated south centrally, on the line of the Michigan Central RaHroad, 
and is bounded on the north by Eaton and Ingham counties, east by Washtenaw, south by 
Lenawee and Hillsdale, and west by Calhoun. It occupies the center lands between Lakes 
Michigan and Erie, and gives rise to the Grand and Kalamazoo rivers flowing west, and 
the Raisfai and Huron flowing east There are several small lakes in the county, but none 
deserving of espedal attention. The surfiice is undulating, and soil excellent, being a 
rich sandy loam, producing heavy crops of grain and grass. It has a number of excellent 
water powers, several of which have been improved. Fine building stone, coal, iron, fire 
ciay, mari and limestone abound in unknown quantities. The coal mines have been and 
are still worked to a conriderable extent, and the coal has the reputation of being the best in 
Qse for generating heat (See " Jaekmm^* eUy.) There are twenty organized townships in 
the county, viz. : Blackman, Brooklyn, Columbia, Concord, Grass Lake, Hanover, Henri- 
etta, Jackson, Leoni, Liberty, Napoleon, Parma, Pulaski, Rives, Sandstone, Spring Arbor, 
Springfort, Summit, Tompkins and Waterloo, together with the incorporated villages of 
Onus Lake and Brooklyn, and the city of Jackson, the aggregate population of which, in 
1860, was 26,664 The whole number of occupied farms, 2,696; acres of unproved land, 
209,028 ; nnhnprored, 168,604 ; number of sheep, 107,981 ; swhie, 12,649 ; value of live 
stock, of aU kinds, 91,279,818. Whole number of bushels of wheat produced, for year 
ending, June 1st, 1860, 667,691 ; rye, 19,691 ; com, 600,268 ; oats, 146,641 ; barley, 17,487 ; 
buckwheat, 28,822 ; potatoes, 216,162 ; pounds of wool, 862,804 ; butter, 662,669 ; cheese. 



100 mSTORT OF THB STATE OF XICHIOAH — COUKTCn. 



58^79 ; number of flouring mills, 14, manu&cturing 64,700 barrels of flour per year ; and 
nine saw mills, cutting 1,654,000 feet of lumber per season. Whole number cf diildren 
attending school, 7,229 ; amount raised by rate bill, |2,128.78 ; total amount of disliiGt 
taxes, $18,446.25. This is regarded as one of the most flourishing counties in the state, 
having probably as many advantages, natural and artificial, as any county in southern 
Michigan. The City of Jackson, (a fUll account of which will be found under the proper 
heading,) is the county seat, and is one of the most important cities of Michigan. The 
coal bed which is worked in the neighborhood of Jackson, is said to underiie the entire 
county, and will undoubtedly prove to be a source of great wealth. Kidney 4ron ore 
and fire clay are also found in connection with the coal, and although not as yet woiked 
to advantage, will undoubtedly prove of great value in the futui^. 

The first settlement in the county was made in 1829, where the city of Jackson now 
is, and the first settlers were Samuel Blackman and his two sons, fh>m Tioga county, New 
York. After selecting and entering a quarter section of land they returned to the east 
In the following spring they came back with W. R De Land, still living in Jackson, his 
wife and two children, one of whom is Capt C. Y. De Land, and the other a daughter, 
now dead ; two other sons and two daughters, one of the latter of whom is Mrs. J. T. 
Durand, and the other, Mrs. E. B. Chapman, of Jackson. The same spring a company 
came from Ann Arbor, who entered another quarter section of land adjoining theirs. 
During the fall of that year — 18S0 — the first manufactory, a tannery, and the first diy 
goods store in the county were established ; Rev. J. D. Pierce, now of Ypsilanti, and after- 
wards superintendent of public instruction, preached the first sermon ; the first post oflioe 
was established in 1831 ; W. R De Land was the first justice of the peace, and was com- 
missioned by Gen. Cass, who was governor of the territory, and in 1888 the county was 
organized by the legislature, and divided into four townships. But we will not pursue 
these details further. In 1850 the population of the county had increased to 19,500, to 
about 22,000 in 1854, and to about 28,000 in 1860. The population of the counfy is now 
probably not less than 80,000, and it will undoubtedly continue to increase in an equal, if 
not a greater ratio, as it is capable of containing a much larger population, owing to the 
large portion of arable land, its great productiveness, and mineral resources, especially of 
coal and limestone. The population of this, like most of the old counties of this state, is 
composed largely of emigrants from New York and New England, and their descend- 
ants. The people are intelligent, moral and enterprising, and evidences of these qualities 
are everywhere visible, in the universal thrift and prosperity throughout the county. 
These, and the equal or general distribution of the comforts of life, of intelligence, of the 
blessings and benefits of education, bespeak the character of the people. Thus has Jack- 
son county, in less than a single generation, been transformed from a dense wilderness, 
with not one white inhabitant within its limits, and indeed, with but one or two small 
settlements west of it, into a populous, wealthy, enterprising, intelligent and happy com- 
munity of thirty thousand inhabitants ; and such has been the wonderfril, almoet miracu- 
lous, march of the stream of humanity to the great west 



Kalamazoo County. 

This is one of the south-western central counties of the state, on the line of the 
Michigan Central Railroad, and is bounded on the north by Allegan and Barry counties, 
east by Calhoun, south by St Joseph, and west by Yan Buren. It is watered by the Kal- 
amazoo and Portage rivers, and by Gull, Four-Mile, and Bay creeks. It has, also, several 



mSTCttT OF THB 8TATB OF MIOHIOAK C0UHTIX8. 101 



snudl lakes scattered throaghout the coonty. The sui&ce is generally lerel, in the north- 
em part subtly undulating, but by &r the largest portion being timbered openings and 
prairie. It has considerable timber, consisting principally of beech, maple, ash, basswood, 
whitewood, butternut, and black walnut There are eight distinct prairies, known as 
Prairie Roiide, Grand Neck, Dry, Genesee, Grand, Tolland's, Gull, and Climax prairies, 
anbrsdng, together, more than one-eighth of the entire county. Every portion, of the 
county is susceptible of cultiyation, and will produce, in the greatest profusion, all kinds of 
ceresl and root crops, together with all descriptions of fruit known to this section of the 
country. The soil is in most parts a rich black loam, with occasional patches of warm 
and light sandy loam — the latter kind produces sweet potatoes and Indian com in aston- 
ishing perfection. There are numerous mill sites in different parts of the county, with a 
hydraulic power sufficient to support the most extensive manufactures. The principal mill 
streams are the Portage river of the Kalamazoo, and the Portage of the St. Joseph. The 
Kalamazoo liver runs through the county near its geographical center, and is skirted with 
heavfly timbered and open lands of the first quality. Kalamazoo village, the county seat, 
is cme of tlie most beautiftd towns in the western states, and is noted as a center of 
wealth and refinement The county contains sixteen oiganized townships, viz. : Alamo, 
Brady, Charieston, Climax, Comstock, Cooper, Kalamazoo, Oshtemo, Pavillion, Portage, 
Pkairie Rcmde, Richland, Ross, Schoolcraft, Texas, and Waukeshma, having an aggregate 
popnlati(m of 34,668, in 1860. It had, also, m that year, 1,940 occupied &rms, having 
187,668 acres of improved hind, and 129,276 unimproved. There were owned, in the 
county, 54,976 sheep, and 18,697 swine ; $85,285 bushels of wheat were produced, 548,691 
of com, 147,539 of oats, 138,088 of potatoes, and 141,490 lbs. of maple sugar ; also, 187,160 
lbs. oi wool, 496,158 of butter, and 68,287 of cheese. Number of flouring mills nine, man- 
Q&ctoring 157yd50 bbls. of flour per year ; number of saw mills thirty, (twenty-two of 
which are propelled by water, and eight by steam,) which manufisu^ure 7,590,825 feet of 
sawed lumber per year. Whole number of children attending public schools, 7,078. 
Total amount of district taxes, $14,888.17. (See ''Kcdaincaoor) 



Kalcasca County. 

Kaix!&0CA is a new county, situated in the north-eastern portion of the state, and is, 
as yet, unoiganized. It Is bounded on the north by Antrim, east by Crawford, south by 
Missaukee, and west by Grand Traverse. The Manistee, Grand Traverse, and Lost rivers 
flow through the county. The surface is gently rolling, and is covered with a heavy 
growth of pine, beech, maple, etc. Area 576 square miles. {See detcriptive sketch of Hie 
vpper ha^ of the 9(nUhern peninsula^ at dose of alphabetical deecriptum of counties.) 



Kent County. 

The County of Kent is situated in the western part of the state, and is one of the 
central tier of counties, through which the Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad passes, 
bounded north by Newaygo and Mecosta counties, east by Montcalm and Ionia, south by 
Bany and Allegan, west by Ottawa, and contams 760 square miles. The surface in the 
eastern half of the county is rolling, and upon the Grand river hilly, and the soil gener- 
ally conaists of a rich vegetable loam, with a substratum of clay, equally adapted to grain 
tod grass, and produces excellent crops. Limestone and Gypsum of a superior quality 



102 msTORT OF THB STATE OF MicmoAH — commn. 



abound, and salt springs have been discovered in yariotis parts of the county. The 
county is intersected by Grand river, and is also drained by the FUt, Ronge and Thon- 
apple, which streams afford an immense hydraulic powor, and large forests of hidioiy, 
black walnut, beech, sugar maple, and whitewood, are found in various parts. In the 
northern part of the county, especially upon the Rouge, heavy pine timber has been cat 
for many years. Grand Rapids is the county seat, and the principal town fai western 
Michigan. Lowell and Ada, on the Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad, Laphamville, Plaiii- 
fleld, Goodville, Cedar Springs, Canonsbui^, and Eelloggsville, are tiuiving villsgefr 
There are S8 organized towns in the county, viz.: Ada, Algoma, Alpine, Bowne, 
Byron, Cannon, Caledonia, Cascade, Courtland, Gaines, Gratton, Grand Rapids, Lowell^ 
Nelson, Oakfield, Paris, Plainfield, Sparta, Solon, Tyrone, Yergennes, Walker, and 
Wyoming. A plank road connects Grand Rapids with Kalamazoo, and there is good 
steamboat navigation finom Grand Rapids to the mouth of Grand river. In 1888,. that 
portion of the county lying east and south of Grand river was ceded to the United States 
government by a treaty made at Chicago, by General Cass. The country north of the 
Grand river was ceded to the government in 1886, and the treaty ratified in 1888, when 
the lands were surveyed, and brought into market The county was organized in 188((, 
previous to which, it was attached to Kalamazoo for judicial purposes. The population, 
hi 1840, was 2,587; in 1860, 18,017; and in 1880, 80,748. The statistics of 1860 present 
the following &ct8 : Value of real estate owned, $11,400,486 ; whole number of occupied 
fisirms, 2,684; acres improved, 111,558; acres unimproved, 148,866; wheat produced, 
287,121 bushels; rye, 84,456; Indian com, 227,682; oats, 184,774; poUtoes, 181,684'; wool, 
69,102 lbs. ; maple sugar, 282,878. There are seventeen flouring mills, rixteen by water 
and one by steam, utith a capital invested in them of $168,500, producing annually 65,541 
bbls. of flour ; forty-four saw-mills, thirty-seven by water, and seven by steam, valued at 
$170,950, which manufacture annually 25,750,000 feet of lumber, valued at $145,484. The 
aggregate capital invested in all kinds of manufactures, including mills, is estimated at 
$1,183,930, and the annual value of the products, $l,®d0,164. The whole number of 
children between five and twenty years, is 10,341 ; attending school, 8,965. Amount of 
money raised by rate bill, $2,217 ; amount of money raised by two mill tax, $12,783.37; 
total amount of district taxes, $13,937.06 ; qualified male teachers, 112 ; female teachers, 
264. 

The histoiy of Kent county has some interest As early as in 1815, or 1816, a half- 
breed (French and Indian,) woman, known to the old traders as Madame La Fraumbois, 
was engaged by John Jacob Astor, in behalf of the American Fur Company, as agent for 
said company. Her trading post was established on the west side of Grand river, at the 
rapids. She was succeeded by Rix Robinson, in 1826. By the treaty of 1822, Mr. McCoy, 
a Baptist missionary, obtained possession of lands on the west side, for the purpose of 
establishing an Indian mission, and was followed two years afterwards by Rev. L. Stateri, 
but was subsequently abandoned. In 1826, Mr. Louis Campau established a trading post 
at the rapids. In 1833, the Roman Catholics established another mission, and in 1838, a 
church was erected by father Vizvisky, the first ever erected in the county. Civili- 
zation may be said to have commenced in Kent county in 1833; and in 1835 the 
improvement of the water power of Grand river commenced, which gave an impe- 
tus to the settlement of the county, and the population began rapidly to increase. 
The plaster beds, near Grand Rapids, were discovered in 1838, and since that time the 
plaster interest has been continually growing. Large quantities are shipped by the Detroit 
and Milwaukee Railroad. The quantity is inexhaustible. (Fbr farOwr partieulQn eon- 
cerning piastery see (" 0-rand Bapids'*) 



mSTOBT OF THB 8TATB OF MIOmGAV COUKTIBS. 108 



Keweenaw Oounty. 

This is a new connty, fonned since 1860, from the upper part of Houghton, and 
emhfaoes the greater part of the large peninsula kno^ni as " Keweenaw Point.** It is 
bounded on the north and east by Lake Superior, on the south by Keweenaw bay and 
Houghton oounty, and on th^west by Houghton county and Lake Superior. Its surface 
is greatly diyenified, being in some parts rough and rocky, and cut up by numerous small 
streams, and in others gently undulating. The principal streams are RusselFs, Potatoe, 
Toheoco, Lower Montreal, and Eagle rivers, all of which have numerous tributaries. 
The shores of the lake are in some places bold and precipitous, and in others low, present- 
mg but few good harbors, the best being Agate, Grand Marais, Copper, Eagle, Wilkins', 
TooTs, and Bete Oris bay. The county presents but few inducements to the agriculturist, 
bat in point of mineral wealth is probably equal to any part of the state. In 1861, there 
were nine copper mines in operation, producing, in a single season, 4,826,200 pounds of 
copper, worth on an average, $420 per ton. Twelve mining companies are now operating 
in this county, having an aggregate capital of five million dollars. (Fbr a minute aeeautU 
ef the copper inieregt, 9ee ike statuUieal and descriptive review of t/ie gtate^ at the commencement 
(f tku feork.) The temperature of the peninsula, owing to the proximity of so large a 
body of water on three sides, is much milder than in the same latitude east and west. 
(F&r names of copper mining eompanie$ now in operation in tJiis county^ tciih their years of 
(frgammUony names ef offleers or agents^ business office and capital stocky see ^^ Tabular list of 
Copper Mining Oompanies^^ on page 66.) 



I«ake County. 

Ah unorganized county, in the north-western portion of the lower peninsula, bounded 
on the north by Manistee and Wexford counties, east by Osceola, south by Newaygo, and 
west by Mason. Area, 576 square miles. The Pere Marquette and Memoosic rivers rise 
in this county, and flow westwardly into Lake Michigan. (For general description of soQ, 
Md surface of the unorganized counties in the upper portion of the lower peninsula^ see article 
(U end of ''Counties:' 



Lapeer County. 

This eoonty is situated in the eastern part of the state, and is bounded on the north 
by Tuscola and Sanilac counties, on the east by Sanilac and St. Clair, on the south by 
Oakland, and on the west by (Genesee. It was organized in 1885, and contains 720 square 
miles. It is watered by the Flint and Belle rivers, and by Cedar, Mill, and Elm creeks. A 
large number of small lakes abound in the south part of the county. It contains seventeen 
organized townships, viz. : Allison, Almout, Arcadia, Attica, Burlington, Deerfield, Dryden, 
Qba, Qoodland, Hadley, Imlay, Lapeer, Marathon, Metamora, North Branch, Oregon, and 
Kch, having a total populatton, in 1860, of 14,875. The surface of this county is rolling 
ind diversified, in the northern and eastern parts being heavily timbered with pme, beech, 
and maple, and in the southern part dotted with groves of sugar maple, and with oak 
(H;>eningBL The soil throughout the county is excellent, and admirably adapted to the 
growth of grain and root crops. Some of the best wheat land in the state can be found 
in tills county. The pine found north of the Flint is considered the best m this section of 



104 msTORT OF Tm^ btatb of michioav — coanrau. 



the country for building purposes. To the west of Lake Nepiasing there is neariy one 
lialf a tow'nsliip covered with a natural grove of sugar maple, which has long been known 
as tho "■ Nepiasing Sugar OrchanU" The water courses Airnish considerable water power, 
which has been improved by a large number of small saw and grist mUhL The Uidted 
States census report of 1860, shows 1,544 occupied farms, having 83,888 acm of in^vorad 
land and 88,941 of unimproved, the estimated cash value of which was $8,406,481. The 
product of wheat was 189,668 bushels ; of com, 177,468 ; oats, 110,880; bariej, 11,0^; 
buckwheat, 12,480; rye, 18,630; potatoes, 111,955; wool, 87,968 pounds; butter, 480,^; 
cheese, 42,770, maple sugar, 175,897; hay, 15,134 tons, and $10,572 worth of arduod pro- 
ducts. There are nine flouring mills in the county, in which is invested a capital of $88,000, 
and which manu&cture annually 15,250 barrels of flour, valued at $110,800. Then 
are thirty-two saw mills, (twenty-two water and thirteen steam) in which are invested t 
capital of $86,000, and which turn out each season, eighteen milUons eight bandied and 
five thousand feet of sawed lumber, valued at $131,960. The whole number ai chfldren 
attending school, is 4,284 ; total amount of district taxes, $2,630.27. 



Leelenaw Gounty. 

This is a new county, formed three years since fh>m the western portion of Grand 
Traverse. It is bounded on the north by Lake Michigan, east by Grand Trayerse bay 
and Grand Traverse county, south by Manistee, and west by Lake Michigan. It has 
numerous small streams and lakes, its general surface being level and swampy, though 
tliere is much good land in the southern portion. Pine, beech, and maple forests cover 
nearly the entire county. There are four townships now formed, viz.: Oentieville, 
Crystal Lake, Glen Arbor, and Leelenaw, having a total population, in 1860, oi 2,445. 
Ted thousand six hundred and forty-four bushels of potatoes were produced, and a small 
quantity of grain, from flfty-four occupied &rms, having 1,878 acres of improved land. 
1,826 barrels of fish were caught, valued at $1,608. For judicial purposes this ooimty is 
attached to Grand Traverse. (See artide at end of *'Oimnties** descriptive of upper ha^ cf 
lower peningula.) 



Lenawee Gounty. 

This is one of the southern tier of counties, bordering on the State of Ohio, and is 
bounded on the north by Jackson, and Washtenaw counties, east by Monroe, south l^- the 
State of Ohio, and west by Hillsdale. It was organized in 1826, and contains 785 square 
miles. It is traversed by the River Raisin, and its branches. Mason and litUe Baisin 
rivers, and Bear, Wolf; and Evans* creeks, and in the south-west comer by Tiffln*s creek, 
a branch of the Maumee. DeviPs, Evans^ Wamplor's, and numerous other small lakes 
exist in the north-west portion of the county. This is one of the most thickly settled, 
highly cultivated and prosperous counties in the state. It has twenty oiganized town- 
ships, viz.: Adrian, Blissfield, Cambridge, Dover, Fairfield, Franklin, Hudson, Maoon, 
Madison, Medina, Ogden, Palm}Ta, Raisin, Ridgeway, Riga, RoUin, Rome, Seneca, 
Tecumseh, and Woodstock; also the incorporated villages of Canandaigua, Clinton, Hud- 
son, Medina, Morenci, and Tecumseh, and the city of Adrian, having an aggr^ate 
population of 88,497, according to the United States census. The sur&ce of the county is 
gently undulating, and in the northern part somewhat hilly. Some portions oi the 



HttlOBT or THB 8TATB OF MICHIOAH — COUKTIBB. 105 



Boathem part are timbered with heavy belts of oak, chestnut, hickory, ash, beech, and 
maple. The soil oonaiats of a rich bUu;k loam, well adapted to all the prodactions of 
MMithem Mkihigim, and in some parts a mixture of sand and marl, which is mieqnaled 
for the growth of grass and cereals. The census shows 8,258 occupied fi&rms, having 
1284155 acres of improTed land, and 147,241 unimproved, the cash value of which is 
tttimaled at $9^948,941. The value of farming hnplements and machinery, $829,878; 
whole number €}f horses owned, 9,561 ; milk cows, 11,256 ; working oxen, 2,219 ; other 
cattk, 17,740; sheep, 90,588; swine, 24,854; total value of live stock, of all kinds, 
$1^1 1^904. This is the greatest com growing county in the state, there being upward of 
14N)0,000 bnahels raised each year. There are 15 flouring mills, manu&cturing an aggre- 
gste of 108,462 barrels of flour per year, valued at $668,805 ; also, 87 saw mills, (10 water, 
27 steam) manolhctiiriiig 14,828,727 feet of sawed lumber per year. Total capital invested 
in manofiurtures Ckf all khids, $14,064,906. The Michigan Southern Raiboad passes 
through the ooonty, and branches to Jackson on the north,. Monroe on the east, and 
Toledo, Ohio, on the south-east No county in the state possesses more advantages of 
soil, climate, acoeee to market, and educational advantages than Lenawee. The whole 
namber of children attending school, is 11,551. (See ^'Adrian^) 



LiTingston County. 

This is one of the eastern central counties oS Michigan, and is bounded on the north 
bj ShiawaaBee and Qenesee counties, on the east by Oakland, south by Washtenaw, and 
west bj Ingjuoo. It contains sixteen oiganized tovnoships and an incorporated village; 

oiganized in 1886, and contains 576 square miles. The principal rivers are the Shia- 
aad Huron, the former flowing north hito Saginaw bay, and the latter south-east 
into Detroit river. Several small lakes-abound in the interior, the principal of which are 
Baai, Portage, and Crooked lakes. Livingston is an excellent &rming county, and has 
some of the beet wheat and grazing land in the state. The sur&ce is gently undulating, 
and the soil a deep, rich, black, sandy loam, in all parts well adapted to agriculture. The 
northern part of the county is heavily timbered with oak, beech, maple, hickory, etc. ; 
due southern part is in oak openings, and in most places under a high state of cultivation. 
The following are the townships, viz. : Brighton, Cohoctah, Conway, Deerfield, €(enoa, 
Green Oak, Hambuig, Handy, Hartland, Howell, Iosco, Marion, Osceola, Putnam, Tjrrone, 
and Unadilla, also the incorporated village of Howell, having an aggregate population of 
16,629. It has 1,779 occupied forms, having 180,777 acres of improved land, and 122,192 
onimproved, valued at $4,585,115. 56,681 sheep are owned, producing, m 1860, 167,028 
lbs. of wooL Number of bushels of wheat raised, 278,545 ; com, 268,478 ; oats, 105,871 ; 
potatoes, 161,222 ; pounds of butter, 440,874; maple sugar, 14,878 ; tons of hay, 88,087; 
barrela of floor manufactured, 18,511 ; feet of lumber sawed, 2,428,000. Number of 
chiklren attending school, 6,207: The principal town of the county is Howell, the seat of 



Macomb Oounty. 

Macomb ooun^ bordarfon Lake St Clair, and is situated in the south-eastern part of 
the state. It is bounded north by Lapeer and St. Clair counties, east by the county and 
Like St Clair, south l^ Wayne, and west by Oakland, and contains 459 square miles. Its 



106 mSTORT OF THB 8TATB OF MIOHIOAV — COUMnMU 



Borfitce is generally level, and heavily timbered in the eastern part of the ooonty, bat 
somewhat rolling and broken in the western. The soil is fertile, and wdl ada^Med to 
grass and grains. The county is watered by the Clinton river, and its numeroos tribut- 
aries, and by several small streams, emptying into Lake St Clair. It contains the follow- 
ing organized towns, viz. : Armada, Bruce, Chesterfield, Clinton, Erin, Hahison, Lenox, 
Macomb, Mt Clemens village, Ray, Richmond, Shelby, Sterling, Wairen, and Washioj^ . 
ton. Popu&tion, 28,113; value of real estate owned, 18,144,516; whole number of acres 
improved, 127,929 ; whole number of acres unimproved, 106,052 ; number of bu^ds of 
wheat raised hi 1860, 74^928; rye, 24,914; Indian com, 829,288; oats, 819,998; potatoes, 
265,818; wool, 177,640 pounds; butter, 652,509 pounds; maple sugar, 51,606 pounds 
There are tax flouring miUs; capital invested in them, $84,500; annual product 8,000 bUi 
flour; sixteen saw mills, employing a capital of $88,800, and manufiicturing 5,587,000 feet 
lumber. There are 8,259 children between the ages of five and twenty, of whom 5,914 
attend school. Amount of money raised by rate bills, $1,859,04; amount by two ndl 
tax, $9,906. There are 76 qualified male teachers, and 150 qualified female teachers. 

Macomb county, next to Wayne, St Clair, and Monroe, is the oldest settled county in 
the state. The shores of Anchor bay, in Lake St Clair, and the river formerly known as 
the "Huron river of St Clair," afterwards called the Clinton river, were settled by tiie 
French, perhaps simultaneously with Detroit, for prior to 1795, cultivated fiurms were 
found along these shores, and extending up the Clinton river nearly to Mount Clemens, 
where the boundaries of the red man*s hunting grounds commenced. The first white 
man, excepting the French, of whose advent in Macomb we have any account, was a Mr. 
Tucker, of Virginia, who with his wife was captured by the Indians during the revohi- 
tionaiy war, and brought to the banks of the Clinton, where they were contented to resnahL 
They reared a family, and many of their descendants are now living in the countf . 
Christian Clemens settled on the site subsequently known as Mount Clemens, in 1795 or 
1796. After the disgracefhl surrender of General Hull, a number of fhmUies removed ftom 
Detroit to Macomb county; but it was not until the government had surveyed the public 
lands, and the county laid open to settlement, in 1817, that the most important era of 
Macomb may be said to have commenced. Large accessions were made to the population 
after the completion of the Fort Gratiot turnpike, in 1831-32; since then it has rapidly 
increased in population and material wealth. Previous to January 15, 1818, Macomb 
county was attached to the Detroit and Huron judicial district It was then oiganized 
into a separate district, its limits embracing Oakland, St Clair, Lapeer, and several of the 
northern counties, and the copnty seat was established at Mount Clemens. 



Kanistee Oounty. 

This county is situated in the north-western section of the state, bordering upon Lake 
ADchigan, and containing an area of 650 square miles. It is bounded on the north by 
Leelenaw county, east by Wexford, south by Mason and Lake, and west by Lake 
Michigan. The Manistee river flows through the center of the county, and is joined near 
its mouth by the Memoosic or Little Manistee river. The surface is rolling and heavily 
wooded, the soil rich, and admirably adapted to agriculture. But few settlements have 
been made, and nearly the entire county is still in a state of nature. It has three organ- 
ized townships, viz. : Brown, Manistee, and Stronach, having a total population of less 
than 1000. There are four water, an^ five steam saw mills located in this county, several 
of them being of the largest kind, and turning out, in the aggregate, each season, 



HIBTOBT OF THE STATE OF MICmOAH — COUXTIM. lOT 



85,000,000 feet of sawed lumber, ralaed at |218,500, and giving employment to 003 men. 
Principal town and county seat, Manistee. (See article at end (f ^*Oininiies.*^) 



Manitou County. 

• 

This is a new county, formed from the islands on the north-western coast of the 
lower peninsula, and embraces an area of about one hundred square miles. The islands 
consist of three principal groups, the Beaver islands at the north, the Fox islands in the 
center, and the Manitou islands at the south. The Beaver group is the lai^est, and con- 
sists of nine principal islands, corresponding in size with the order in which they are 
named: Big Beaver, Garden, Little Beaver, Hog, Gull, Trout, Whisky, Squaw, and flat 
islands. The middle group consists of the North Fox or Paros, and the South Fox or 
Patmos islands; the south group of the Great and Little Manitou islands. The total 
population of the islands, in 1800, was 1,048, mostly engaged in fishing. Big Beaver 
Island has 120 acres of improved land, and Great Msmitou 200. About 6,000 barrels of 
fish are caught annually, valued at $42,000. The county contidns five organized town- 
ships, viz. : Beaver Island, Garden Island, Little Fox Island, Great Manitou Island, and 
Little Manitou Island. The surfisu^ of the islands is diversified, and generally covered 
with a heavy growth of timber. Big Beaver contains about 25,000 acres, and was, until 
about ten years ago, in the possession of a band of Mormons, under the direction of 
Strang, one of the most eminent advocates of the church. These Mormons held the entire 
control of the main island, and probably would have continued to do so, but from the 
many depredations committed by them, the neighboring fishermen, and others living and 
trading on the coasts, became determined to root out this band of robbers and pirates, as 
they believed them to be. After organizing a strong force, they made an attack upon the 
Mormons, and succeeded, though meeting with obstinate resistance, in driving them fix>m 
the island. The attacking party found concealed a large number of hides and other goods, 
which were buried, to avoid detection. Some three or four hundred Mormons were 
sent as prisoners to Chicago, and from thence spread over the country ; others were sent 
to ports on Lake Erie, and now not one is upon the island. Strang was wounded by 
one of the men he had some time previous to this attack robbed and beaten. He 
managed to escape the island, but died in Wisconsin shortly after, in consequence of 
his wounds. 



Marquette Oounty. 

This is the great iron mining county of the upper peninsula, and is bounded on the 
north by Houghton county and Lake Superior, east by Schoolcraft and Lake Superior, 
south by Delta and the State of Wisconsin, and west by Ontonagon. It contains an area 
of 3,880 square miles, and has three organized townships. It is drained by the Esconawba, 
Ford, Nekonnenon, Pine, Huron, Sturgeon, Mequacumecum, and Peshakeme rivers. The 
surface is greatly diversified, In some parts ahnost mountainous, and covered, almost 
entirely, with dense forests of pine. The streams are small, but fhmish sufficient water 



108 HI8T0BT OF THX BTATB OF MICmOAK — COUKTIKS. 



power to cut up the timber. The soil is well adapted to agriculture, and in some of the 
river bottoms peculiarly rich and productive. The underlying rocks are granite and lime- 
stone. Immense masses of iron exist in this county, and have been worked with consider- 
able profit. Marquette, the county seat, is a thriving town of nearly 2000 inhabitants, has 
a fine harbor, and is the port firont which nearly all the ore mined in this county is 
shipped. A railroad, twelve miles long, extends from the port back into the n^ining 
region. The companies now in operation are the " Cleveland," " Jackson," and " Lake 
Superior" companies, having an aggregate capital of 91,100,000. The census of 1860 
shows a total population of 2,821 ; number of occupied &rms, thirty ; acres of improved 
land, 1,082; bushels of oats raised, 2,897; bushels potatoes, 9,845; tons of hay, 243; 
pounds of maple sugar, 400 ; number of saw mills, 7, (five water, two steam,) cutting 
8,148,583 feet of lumber per season. Whole number of children attending school, 403. 
The townships are Chocolay, Marquette and Negaunee. 

Marquette is the iron ore port of Lake Superior ; its harbor is commodious, and at a 
comparatively trifling expenditure may be made entirely safe in all weathers. Its leading 
exports are iron ore from the mines on the line of the Bay de Noquet and Marquette Rail- 
road, which will be presently spoken of, and charcoal pig metal from the frimaces 
of the county. The docks belonging to the iron ore companies, arranged with 
special reference to shipping ore, arrest attention as the village is approached fit)m the 
lake. The most northern, belonging to the Jackson Iron Company, is 800 feet long and 
40 wide, and divided into fifty-one sections, each fifteen feet by forty ; 80,000 tons of ore can 
be stored upon it. The eastern end of the dock is protected by a breakwater 486 feet long 
and 42 wide, running at right angles to it fix>m the north shore of the bay. The 
western end of the dock is connected with the shore by a bridge 1,200 feet long, on which 
a railroad track is laid, which is also continued to the end of the dock ; the ore is thus 
deposited on the dock directly fix>m the cars. Four or five vessels may be loaded here at 
the same time. 

The Lake Superior Iron Company's dock lies next south, and the Cleveland Iron Min- 
ing Company's next below it These latter are arranged with trestle-work, pockets and 
shutes, so that the ore is loaded directly from the cars into vessels. The Lake Superior 
Company's dock is 650 feet long and 70 wide ; the trestle work upon it^ upon which 
the railroad track is laid, is twenty-two feet high and twenty-two feet wide, containing 
twenty-seven pockets for delivering ore to vessels, and eight to steamers, which hold, when 
frill, 1,100 tons. The Cleveland Company's dock is 650 feet long and 100 wide ; and its 
trestle work is -twenty-two feet high and twenty-five feet wide. This dock has twenty-two 
pockets for delivering ore to vessels, and wx to steamers, holding 1,200 tons. At each of 
these docks three vessels may be easily loaded in a day. The Bay de Noquet and Mar- 
inette Railroad, over which the ore is, transported from tlie mines, and of which Marquette 
is the northern terminus, has an equipment of four locomotives and 350 freight cars, with 
a carrying capacity of 2,500 tons a day. It has its shops, foundry, etc., at this place. 
This road has a grant of public lands of six sections to the mile ; when completed it will 
give railroad communication through to Lake Michigan. 

The well known iron mines of the Jackson Iron Company, the Cleveland Iron Min- 
ing Company, and the Lake Superior Iron Company, are situated upon this road ; the first 
fourteen miles, the second sixteen miles, and the last seventeen miles from Marquette. 
They are upon the dividing ridge between Lake Superior and Lake Michigan, between 850 
and 900 feet above the level of Lake Superior. The ore is an igneous product wliich has 
been forced up firom below the slate and trappean rocks of the azoic system. It is a 
specular oxide of great purity ; an inexhaustible quantity of it can be obtained yielding 
firom sixty-five to seventy per cent, metallic iron. The following abstract of analysis of 



mSTORT OF THB 8TATB OF MIOHiaAK COUHTIBB. 



109 



^ ipecimeiis is taken from the report of MesBre. Foster & Whitney, United States geologists, 
vide to oongreiB in 1861. 

Specimens from section 10, township 47, range 27, Marquette Co. : 

iBt Peroxide of iron, ..... 9.058 

Magnetic oxide, ...... 9.17 

OUlCa, ....... .9511 



k • 



2d Peroxide of iron, 
Silidous sublance, 



98.79 
418 



99.95 



99.95 



The first specimen yielded 70.82 per cent metallic iron, the second yielded 69.85 per 

cent 

These resnlts of analyses are fhUy borne out in the practical working of the ore. Annn- 

naDy increasing amomits of it are shipped to Erie and Clereland for use in the ftimaces 

a|m the bitominoos coal fields of Ohio and Penn^lvania ; to Buffalo, where it is smelted 

wkh snthndte coal ; to the charcoal fUmaces of Detroit and vicinity, and to various other 

pofatfi on the lower lakea The excellence of Lake Superior iron is now ftdly established, 

ad time is ereiy reason to anticipate a huge annual increase in the exportation of ore 

ad tlie mannfrcture of charcoal metal at and near Marquette. 

The reoe^ts of ore and pig metal by railroad at Marquette, (which will be equivalent 

to the shipments from the port,) since 1858, have been as follows: 



1859, . 

1860, 

1861, 

Estimated amount 1862, 



Plff-lroii. 

1,627 tons. 

4,388 

8,560 

6,325 

9,000 



«t 

it 



Iron-ots. 

80,551 tons. 

83,578 
150,015 

50,020 
160,000 



ti 
it 
ti 



The shipments of 1861 were small, in consequence of the derangement of the iron 
boriness on account of the war. * 

Four charcoal blast fhmaces are now in operation in this county : the ** Pioneer," a 
t«04lack fhmaoe atNegaunee; the ** Forestville," and " CoUinsville,** about three miles 
fiom Marquette, upon the Dead river, and the ** Northern Iron Co.*s " upon the Chocolate 
rifcr. There is probably no more advantageous locality for the manu&cture of charcoal 
aetal tlian ia this region; nowhere else is ore of equal purity to be found in connection 
vfth such abundant fiKdlities for making charcoal, either in this country or any other. 
Thtn can be little doubt that the demand for charcoal metal in the west, or at least in all 
thit portion of it contiguous to the great lakes, will in future be supplied from the mag- 
nifionit ore depoaits, and the viigin forests of Marquette county. 

As may be presumed from its recent settlement, but a small portion of the land of 
Kaiquette county has been cleared and devoted to agriculture. The land is well, and in 
Mae poftiona lieavily timtMred, with maple, birch, elm, hemlock, beech, and every varied 
of pifMBL The soil, thoo^ sandy, is well adapted to the growth of hay, oats, barley, pota- 
^ and aU root cropa ; and rince there is a huge home demand for idl produce, and agri- 
Qhore IS here protected against competition by a high tariff in the cost of several hundred 
■Bn txtnapoTtBtioDj there is no occupation more certainly and rapidly remunerative than 



110 mSTOBT OF TBB STATE .OF MIOHIOAir — COUHTIBB. 



The climate of this r^on is well adapted to mining and mannihcturing upon a hxgt 

scale. The air is pure and bracing, and men labor without iktigue or depiesrioo «* 

spirits ; feyers of eveiy description are unknown, and contagious diseases lose their Tin- , 

lence in its invigorating atmosphere. Although the summers are short, they are not man 

so than in northern New England, and Lower Canada, and any agricultural prodocti 

which can be raised there can be raised in this region. The mean temperature, ai 

deduced from a series of observations, taken at Marquette for the Smithsonian InslHiitlQa, 

extending through several years, is as follows : 

Mean for the year, * . 41* 40 

do for spring, . 87 57 

do for summer, ...... 61 84 

do for autumn, . 44 14 

do for whiter, ...... 22 08 



Mason Oounty. 

Situated in the western part of the state, bordering upon Lake Michigan, snd 
bounded on the north by Manistee coimty, east by Lake, south by Oceana, and west bj 
Lake Michigan. It contains an area of 500 square miles, and has four oiganized townsh^ 
viz.: Free Soil, Little Sauble, Pere Marquette, and Summit, containing, in 1860, a popula- 
tion of 831. The Marquette river (at the mouth of which is situated the village of Pen 
Marquette, the proposed terminus of the Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad, now oon- 
pleted from Flint to East Saginaw,) runs through the county. But few settlements have 
been made. Surfiice gently undulating, and covered with heavy growth of timber. (<8» 
article at end of "C5w<»(i<».") 



Mecosta Oounty. 

Situated in the northern central portion of the state, and bounded on the north by 
Osceola county, east by Isabella and Montcalm, south by Montcalm and Kent, and west 
by Newaygo. It has an area of 720 square miles, aud contains four oiganiced townships, 
viz. : Green, Hinton, Leonard, and Peafson, having a total population, in 1860, of 1,017. 
The Muskegon river flows through the north- western portion of the coun^, the Sooth 
Muskegon through the center, and the Tamarack creek through the southern part The 
eastern part of the county is low, somewhat swampy, and dotted vrith numerous sduH 
lakes ; the western and southern portions rolling, with excellent fiirming lands. Heavy 
forests of pine, oak, beech and maple extend over the greater part of the county. But 
few settlements have been made, there being, in 1860, but 80 occupied fiumB, having 709 
acres of improved land. Big Rapids, quite a thriving village, is the county seat 



Michillimackinao (Mackinaw) County. 

MiCHiLLDfACKiNAC county Is Situated in the south east part of the upper peninsula, 
and is bounded north and east by Chippeway county, south by the Straits of Mackinaw 
and Lake Michigan, and west by Schoolcraft county. It contains about 1,200 square 
mUes. The general surface of the country is uneven, and is well timbered. It embraces 
several islands, the chief of which are Mackinaw, Bois Blanc, and Great Beaver. The 
county is divided into three townships, to vrit : Holmes, Mason, and St. Ignace. In 1860, 



HI8TOBT OF THE STATE OF MICmGAN — ' COUVTIBS. Ill 



it contained a population of 1,989; number of occupied fimns, 8; acres improved, 
646 ; acres unimproyed, 2,828. But little attention has been paid to agriculture and man- 
ufiu!tures, and its inhabitants are chiefly dependent upon other counties for their grain and 
lumber. There are many valuable fisheries in the county. Kackinaw, the county seat, 
IS situated on the south ^de of an island of the same name, four miles north of the west- 
em extremity of Bois Blanc. There is a United States military post known as fort Made- 
inac, garrisoned by a company of United States troops. It is idtuated on a rocky 
emmence, one hundred and fifty feet high, commanding a fine view of the village aji^ 
surrounding coast. The harbor is spacious and deep enough for the largest vessels. 
The greatest elevation of Mackinaw island is estimated at 812 feet, a much higher altitude 
than is obtained by the adjacent lands in any direction for many miles. The island, it 
is said, was named from the Indian term Michillimacinac, signifying grwU turUe^ fix>m 
the fact that it is nearly round, and rises high above the water, resembling a gigantic 
specimen of the animal whose name it bears. Schoolcraft says that **the present 
Indian signification of the name is 'place of the dancing spirits,* and that the pop- 
ular etymology which derives the word ttom *big turtle,' dates still Airther hack, and 
is foimded on the &ct that miM were turtle spirits." - Chevalier de la Salle, who was 
the first navigator of the upper lakes, visited the island as early as the fidl of 1679, 
when he found a village of the Hurons. The French gave the name of Michillimackinac 
to all tliat region of country in the vicinity of. the straits, both on the upper and lower 
peninsula. As early as 1684 it was a French trading post of some importance. The 
great route fh)m the settlements on the St Lawrence, Montreal and Quebec, to the upper 
lakes, at that period, was up the Ottawa river, crossing the chain of lakes to lake Nepis- 
sing, thence down the French river to Georgian Bay. The country bordering on Lake 
Erie, the Detroit and St. Glair rivers, and Lake St. Clair, was but little known, or 
frequented, by Europeans, until some years after the settlement of Sault Ste. Marie and 
Mackinaw. For several years before Detroit was settled, Mackinaw was the principal 
trading post of the French on the upper lakes. During the war between the English and 
French, which broke out in 1690, Mackinaw was the theatre of exciting interest By the 
terms of the treaty of peace of Ryswick, ratified September 11th, 1697, France was 
allowed to retain all the places of which she had possession at the beginning of the war. 
But a spirit of commercial rivalry, and strife for domination, continued between the 
French and English. Shortly after the settlement of Detroit, in 1701, a spirit of com- 
mercial jealousy grew up between the traders and missionaries of the two posts, and 
Mackinaw was finally compelled to yield the palm to its more successful rival. There are 
many broken links to the chain of history relating to the north-western country, and but 
little of general interest is known in relation to Mackinaw, from 1708 to 1764. According 
to authority before us, in 1768, the British garrison on the peninsula was massacred by a 
combined movement of the Chippewas and Ottawas. The following year the island was 
negotiated for by St Clair, and a government house buUt In 1796 the fort was surren- 
dered to the American goverment In 1812, it was taken by the British, resisted an attack 
from a detachment of the American army and navy in 1814, and was restored by the 
treaty of Ghent. 



Midland Oounty. 

Bounded on the north by Gladwin county, east by Bay and Saghiaw, south by Sag- 
inaw and Gratiot, and west by Isabella, and containing an area of 576 square miles. It is 
watered by the Tittabawassee river, which flows south-easterly through the center of the 



112 RIBTORT or THB STATE OF MICmOAK COimiSt. 



connty ; also, by its branches, the Pine, Chippewa, and Salt rivers. The snrihce Is matfy 
level, in some parts gently ondulating, and covered with a heavy growth of exedlent tim- 
ber. The soil is unsurpassed for forming purposes, being a rich black loam, whicii pro- 
duces wheat, com, potatoes, etc, in the greatest proftision. But a small portioa of the 
county is settled, the balance being an unbroken forest Midland City, the ooimty ssat, ii 
a flourishing village, situated at the head of steamboat navigation on the TJttabawmw 
river. The county has three organized townships, Ingersoll, Jerome, and IGdland, hnkf 
a total population of about 2,000. (See artide at end of "'OounUee.'') 



Miasaukee County. 

An unorganized county of northern central Michigan, bounded on the north by Eal- 
casca county, east by Roscommon, south by Osceola and Clare, and west by Wezfbrd; 
area 576 square miles. The Manistee river flows through the north-west comer of the 
county, and the Muskegon through the south-eastern, both having numerous bruicfaei, 
which take their rise in the center of the county. In the western part is Muskrat lake, a 
beautlflil sheet of water, much resorted to by Indians and sportsmen, for flsh. Comlder- 
able swamp land exists along the valley of the Muskegon. Nearly the whole coonty is 
covered with a dense growth of heavy timber. ("5m artide at end of "CbviUfet.*') 



Konroe County. 

Tms is one of the oldest and most thicldy settled counties in Michigan, having been 
settled by the French as early as 1776. It is situated in the extreme south-eastern comer 
of the state, and is bounded on the north by Wayne and Washtenaw counties, east by 
Lake Erie, south by Lake Erie and the State of Ohio, and west by Lenawee ; it was 
organized in 1817, and contains 532 square miles. The county is well watered by the 
Raisin, Huron, Ottawa, Saline, Macon, Little Rainn, and Monille rivers, and the 
Stony, Sandy, Swan, Plumb, Plaisance, Vance, Otter, Aux Vase, and Bay creeks. It 
contains fourteen organized townships, viz.: Ash, Bedford, Dundee, Erie, Exeter, French- 
town, Ida, La Salle, London, Milan, Monroe, RaisinviUe, Summerfield, and Whitefind^ 
having a total population, in 1S60, of 21,648. The surface of the county is lUver^ed, 
being level and well timbered in the northern and eastern parts, and in the sooth and west 
abounding in prairies, with rolling land, and heavy groves or openings of oak altemadng. 
The soil varies fh>m a light and warm sandy loam, to a rich, black, and clayey alluvium, 
the former especially adapted to the production of cereals, and the latter to grasses and 
root crops. Excellent building stone is found in the bed of the River Raisin, and lime- 
stone quarries abound in different parts of the county. Several sulphur springs, whose 
waters are said to possess rare medicinal virtues, exist in various parts, and one, quite cel- 
ebrated, in the neighborhood of the city of Monroe, is much resorted to by invalids. The 
various water courses of the county furnish an immense amount of hydraulic power, but 
a small portion of which has been improved. The United States census of 1860 shows 
the whole number of occupied farms to be 2,138, having 94,587 acres of improved land, 
and 107,257 unimproved, the entire cash value being $4,081,088. There were 6,141 horses, 
6,611 milch cows, 1,522 working oxen, 9,701 other cattle, 27,022 sheep, and 12,078 swine, 
the entire cash value of live stock being $784,474. There were ndsed, in that year, 



HUTOET or THE STATE OF MICmGAH — GOUETIBS. IIS 



148,488 buahelB of wheat, 497,119 bushels of com, 112,006 of oats, 239,019 of potatoes, 
98^394 tons of hay, 66,517 pounds of wool, 510,769 pounds of butter, 84,030 pounds of 
cheese, and 14,276 pounds of maple sugar. There were Aye flouring mills in operation, 
which mannfkctnred 15,900 bbls. of flour; also, seventeen saw mills, cutting 6,707,188 feet 
of sawed lumber per year. The number of children between the ages of five and twenty 
yean, was 8,026, and the whole number attending school, 5,484 ; the amount of money 
nised by rate bUl, $880.78 ; the total amount of district tax, $6,146.55. The city of 
Monroe, a i>oint of considerable trade, and having a population of about 4,000, is the 
county seat. (See ** Monroe'' d^,) 



Montcalm County. 

Tms county Is situated near the geographical center of the lower peninsula, and is 
boonded on the north by Mecosta and Isabella counties, east by Gratiot, south by Ionia, 
and west by Mecosta and Kent It has eleven organized townships, and embraces an area 
of 576 square miles. The county is well watered by branches of the Qrand, Muskegon, 
tad Saginaw rivers, and occupies an elevated position from wliich the waters run in all 
directioDa. The surface is rolling, the soil various, and good in all parts. Heavy forests 
of pine, oakf walnut, birch, and maple, extend over a large portion of the county. 
The various streams furnish an abundance of water power. The following are the 
oigmized townships: Bloomer, Bushnell, Cato, Crystal, Eureka, Evergreen, Fair- 
plain, Ferria, Greenville, Montcalm, and Sidney ; total population, according to census of 
1800, 3,984 ; number of occupied farms, 208, having 14,247 acres of improved land, and 
20;223 unimproved. Number of bushels of wheat raised, 86,144; com, 20,339; oats, 
16;S79; potatoes, 13,890; pounds of butter, 55,515; maple sugar, 51,136. Whole number 
of children attending school, 1,150. 



Xontmorenoi County. 

Ah unorgaidzed county, situated in the northern central portion of the state, and 
boonded on the north by Cheboygan and Presque Isle counties, east by Alpena, south by 
Oscoda, and west by Otsego. It has a good soil, and is heavily timbered. The Tliunder 
Bajand Black rivers flow through the county, and furnish excellent water power, which 
wiD, at some fhture day, be a source of great profit Area, 576 square miles. (See article 



Muskegon County. 

A HXWLT organized county, situated in the western part of the state, and bounded on 
the north by Ooeuta coun^, east by Newaygo, Ottawa and Kent, south by Ottawa, and 
vest by Lake MkhigaiL The White river flows through the county in the north, the 
Uxukegoa in the center, and the Bhick in the south ; each of these rivers has a lake and 
tolenfale harbor at its mouth. The lake shore is bordered with sand hills and bluflb, in 
aome places two or three hundred fieet high, in the rear of which there is a fine rollmg 
countiy, he^Tily dmbered, but with an excellent soil. In the vaUey of the Muskegon 
8 



114 HI8T0BT OF THE STATE OF MICmOAH COUmRDM. 



there is some of the richest and most productive bottom lands in the state. The timber of 
Muskegon county is in high repute, and is being rapidly cut off. Some of the best pine 
and oak lumber in the country is manufactured in Muskegon, and a larger amount is annu- 
ally sawed than in any other county of the state. There are nine organized townships, liz. : 
Cazenovia, Dalton, Eggleston, Moreland, Muskegon, Norton, Oceana, Ravenna, and White 
River, also, the incorporated village of Muskegon, having, in the aggr^ate, a population 
of about five thousand. There are 194 occupied farms, having 4,700 acres of impiofed 
land, and 19,887 unimproved. There are twenty-eight saw mills, (nine water, witmtefa 
steam,) which manufacture 75,140,000 feet of sawed lumber per season, valued at $464,008, 
and giving employment to 658 men. 763 children attend schooL (See ^*^Mu»hegdn ** tSOage) 



Newaygo County, 

Situated in the western part of the state, and bounded on the north by Lake county, 
east by Mecosta and Montcalm, south by Kent and Muskegon, and west by Muskegon sod 
Oceana. Its surface is gently undulating, and in the northern and western portions there 
are laige prairies. Belts of heavy timber extend across the county and line the valley of 
the Muskegon river, which runs through the county, a little south of its center. Neaity 
the whole of Newaygo possesses excellent soil, and is susceptible of cultivation. The Mus- 
kegon river and its numerous branches fhrnish an abundance of water power. The 
county contains ten organized townships, viz. : Ashland, Barton, Big Prairie, Bridgeton, 
Brooks, Croton, Dayton, Ensley, Everett, and Fremont, containing a population of about 
3,000. 107 farms are under cultivation, having 6,269 acres of improved land. There are 
six saw milbt, cutting 10,700,000 feet of lumber per year. 801 children attend school. 
(See ''Newaygo''' viUage.) 



Oakland Oounty. 

Situated in the south-eastern part of the state, and bounded north by Genesee and 
Lapeer counties, east by Macomb, south by Wa3rne and Washtenaw, west by Livingston 
and Genesee. It contains nine hundred square miles. The surface is undulating and is 
diversified with numerous small lakes, and drained by the Clinton river, and tributaries of 
the Flint and Rouge. The soil is exceedingly fertile, yielding immense crops of wheat, 
corn and potatoes. Oakland, in 1860, had 88,020 inhabitants, and in point of population 
is the tliird county in the state. In agricultural productiveness, it takes the lead of all the 
others. It numbers 4,252 occupied farms ; acres improved, 806,789 ; acres unimproved, 
197,657; their cash value, $13,667,210; number bushels of wheat produced in 1860, 551,- 
104; r}T, 93,693; Indian com, 870, 866 ; oats, 475, 934 ; barley, 47,211; buckwheat, 68,176 ; 
potatoes, 517,936; wool, 426,796 lbs.; value of orchard products, $96,895 ; butter, 1,398,741 
lbs. ; cheese, 181,633 ; maple sugar, 31,581 lbs. There are twenty flouring mills, eighteen 
propelled by water and two by steam ; capital invested in them, $164,100, and they man- 
ufacture 58,814 bbls. flour, valued at $870,856 ; three saw mills, which manu&cture 885,000 
feet of lumber. The aggregate capital invested in all kinds of manu&ctures, mills 
included, is $886,070; value of annual products of same, $740,070. There are 12,906 
children between the ages of five and twenty, and 11,144 attending school; amount of 
money raised by rate bill, $8,668.67 ; by two-mill tax, $14,862.92 ; total amoimt of dis- 
trict taxes, $9,597.70; number of qualified mnle teachers, 194; female, 271. 



mSTORT or THE STATE OF lOCHIOAH COUVTIBa. 116 



The district of conntij along the lakes, Erie, St. Clair, and Huron, and the Detroit 
and St. Clair rivers, and extending so far west as to include the whole of Oakland, and 
part of Livingston and Gknesee, and north so far as to include a part of Lapeer and Sani- 
lac counties, was ceded to the United States government by a treaty with the Indians, 
by Gk)v. Hull, 17th November, 1807. Li 1816-17, surveys were made by government, and 
in 1818 Oakland county was laid open to settlement, from which time it may be consid- 
ered to have commenced the glorious career which distinguished it as one of the most 
populous and productive agricultural counties in the great horth-west The first settle- 
ment in the county by Americans, was made by Daniel LeRoy and Benjamin Graham, in 
1817, which was near the present site of the village of Rochester. Pontiac was subse- 
quently settled. Major Todd, William Lister, Orison Allen, Calvin Hutchins, and Jeremiah 
Allen, being the pioneers. Oakland county was organized January 12, 1810, and the first 
county court was held at Pontiac, July 12th, 1820. Previous to that date, Oakland was 
attached to Macomb for Judicial purposes. The present boundary of the county was 
established by a proclamation by the governor, on the 20th day of September, 1822. The 
following is a list of the towns and villages, viz. : Addison, Avon, Bloomfield, Brandon, 
Clarkston village, Commerce, Farmington, Groveland, Highland, Holly, Holly village, 
Independence, Lyon, Milford, Novi, Oakland, Orion, Orion village, Oxford, Pontiac, Pon- 
tiac city, Rose, Royal Oak, Southfleld, Springfield, Troy, Waterford, West Bloomfield, 
White Lake. 



Oceana Oounty. 

This county is situated in the western part of the state, bordering upon Lake Michi- 
gan, and is bounded on the north by Mason county, east by Newaygo, south by Muskegon,, 
and west by Lake Michigan. It contains an area of 550 square miles, and has 8 
organized townships, containing a population of about 2,000. The county is watered by 
the White river, in the southern part, and by the Pentwater river and its branches in 
the central and northern parts. The surface is rolling and heavily timbered ; soil good, 
especially in the river bottoms, where it is fully equal to any in the state. Peaches and 
other fruit, together with all kinds of grain grown in southern Michigan, can be produced 
in this county in perfection. But few settlements have been made, and by far the greater 
portion of the county is still an unbroken forest There are four saw mills in the county, 
cutting 6,800,000 feet of lumber per season. The organized townships are the following : 
Benona, Clay Bank, Elbridge, Greenwood, Indian Reserve, Otto, Pentwater, and Wears.. 
Whole number of children attending school, 175. 



Ogemaw Oounty. 

An unorganized county in the northwestern portion of the lower peninsula, contain- 
ing an area of 576 square miles, and bounded on the north by Oscoda, east by Iosco, 
south by Bay and Gladwin, and west by Roscommon. The Rifle river flows through 
the center of the county, and empties into Saginaw bay. No actual settlements ha^e 
been made here. The whole county is an unbroken forest. (See artide at endqf 
" Ccmniiesr) 



116 mSTORT OF THE STATS OF MICHIOAV COUHTDM. 



Ontonagon Oounty. 

This is the extreme north-western county of the upper peninsuhi, and is botmded on 
the north hj Lake Superior, east bj Houghton and Marquette counties, south by the State 
of Wisconsin, and west by Lake Superior and Wisconsin. It is watered by the Ontonagon, 
Black, Iron, Mine, Montreal, and Presque Isle rivers. The Ontonagon river rises by four 
branches, the west branch in Marquette county, the middle and south branches in smsU 
lakes near Wisconsin, and the west branch in tlie Gogebic Lake, near the center of the 
county. The Montreal, Black, and Presque Isle rivers also rise in the small lakes cm the 
border of Wisconsin, and flow northerly into Lake Superior. The Iron, Mine, and nearly 
one hundred other small rivers, rise in the hills a few miles fh>m the coast, and flow 
northerly, in parallel lines, to Lake Superior. The soil is rather poor in most parts, with 
occasional intervals of excellent land in the river bottoms. The surfiice of the countiy is 
rolling, irregular, and greatly cut up by small streams and ravines. The Ontonagon river 
is much broken by rapids, and is bordered with bold, precipitous banks, in one of the cliA 
of which was found a mass of native copper, twenty cubic feet in bulk, and weighing finom 
four to Ave tons. In the nortli-west are the ** Porcupine Hills," (a low range of mountaim, 
having acquired their name firom the jagged appearance of the surface,) being the most 
elevated range of hills in the state. Immense deposits of iron and copper are found in 
this region, there being eleven copper mining companies now in operation, fh>m which 
were mined for the year ending September Ist, 1862, upwanl of 8,000,000 lbs. of roogh 
copper. (See ** List of Mining Gainpanie*.''') The county contains an area of 283 square 
miles, and has Ave organized townships, viz. : Algonquin, Qre^nland, Ontonagon, Pe- 
wabic, and Rockland, having a total population of about 5,000. Seventy-two farms are 
occupied, having 2,845 acres of improved land, ftova which were produced, in 1860, 1,771 
bushels of oats, 18,930 bushels of potatoes, and 168 tons of hay. There are four saw mills 
in the county, cutting about 2,000,000 feet of lumber per season. {See **Onionagon^^ ei^,) 



Osceola Oounty. 

An unorganized county, situated north centrally, and bounded north by Wexford and 
Missaukee counties, east by Clare, south by Mecosta, and west by Lake county. The 
Muskegon river and branches, and the south branch of the Manistee flow through the 
county. The surface is undulating, and soil excellent No actual settlements have been 
made in this county, as yet Nearly the entire surface is covered with a dense forest 



Oscoda County. 

Oscoda is situated in the north-eastern portion of the state, and is bounded on the 
north by Montmorenci, east by Alcona, south by Ogemaw, and west by Crawford. It 
contains on area of 576 square miles, is heavily timbered, and as yet unoiganized. The 
Au Sauble river flows through the center of the county, and has several small branches 
flowing in from the north and south. In the article given at the close of the review by 
counties, will be found an extended description of the northern part of the lower peninsula, 
which embraces a general account of this section. 



BISTORT OP THE STATE OF MIOHIOAV — COUHTEES. 117 



Otsego County. 

Ah unorganized oomity in the northern central portion of the lower peninsula, 
boonded on the n<Hth by Cheboygan and Emmet counties, east by Montmorenci, south 
bj Crawford, and west by Antrim. No actual settlements have as yet been made in this 
eoonty, ahhon^ Its soil is said to be well adapted to agricultural purposes. The whole 
eoonty is heavily timberd with pine, beech, maple, etc. The article at the close of the 
ooimtiea embraces a description of the character of this and the surrounding counties. ' 
Area, 576 square miles. 



Ottawa Oounty. 

Ottawa is situated on Lake Michigan, and is bounded north by Oceana and Newaygo 
counties, on the east by Kent, south by Allegan, and west by Lake Michigan, and con- 
Uins 888 square miles. The surface of the country is generally undulating or rolling. 
That portion of the county immediately on the lake shore, and from five to ten miles back, 
ii chiefly of a sandy character ; fUrther east the soil is a rich, sandy loam, and is heavily 
timbered with hickory, beech, maple, oak, pine, etc., and produces abundantly, and is 
admirably adapted to wheat The county is intersected by the Grand river, which flows 
into Lake Michigan at Grand Haven, and is also drained by the Muskegon, North Black, 
Black river, Crockery &reek, and their tributaries. The population of Ottawa, in 1860, 
was 13,127. The following is a list of towns : Allendale, Blendon, Chester, Crockery, 
Georgetown, Holland, Jamestown, Olive, Ottawa, Polkton, Robinson, Spring Lake, Tall- 
madge, Wright, ahd Zeeland. Li 1860, there were 1 ,174 occupied forms, having 87,522 acres 
improved; 68,026 unimproved There were 61,198 bushels of wheat raised in 1860; 
bdian com, 92,798 bushels; oats, 47,800; potatoes, 50,809; wool, 7,851 lbs.; butter, 
227^78 ; maple sugar, 188,842. There are four flouring mills ; capital invested in them, 
$25,000, manufacturing 11,000 barrels per annum ; thirty-three saw mills; capital invested 
in them, $834,200, annual product, 49,500,000 feet of lumber, valued at |818,840. Capital 
invested in all kinds of manufactures, mills included, |470,425, their annual product 
UDoimting to $555,120. There are 4,165 children between the ages of five and twenty, 
ad 8,186 in attendance at the schools; amount of money raised by rate bill, $906.84; 
UBDimt raised by two mill tax, $8,785.89 ; total amount of district taxes, $4,680.96 ; num- 
ber of qualified male teachers, thirty-six ; female teachers, eighty -six. 

Riz Robinson, an agent of the American Fur Company, was the first actual settler of 
Ottawa county. Under the old pre-emption law, he entered at an early day a fraction of 
t quarter of a section, 156 acres, at the mouth of Grand river, upon which he erected a 
Imilding, which he occupied as a trading post. Tousaint and Louis Campau soon alter 
entered some land a few rods below Robinson. In September, 1884, Rev. Wm. M. Ferry, 
a miflsionaiy of the Presbyterian persuasion, entered a quantity of land near Mr. Robin- 
M>D*8 tnding poat, and on the present site of Grand Haven, and on the 2d November, 1884, 
Mr. Fcny and hia iSunUy, with several worianen, arrived, for the purpose of settling there 
pomanait^, and they commenced building a fiame house, which was finished and occu- 
pied the fiollowing March, it being the first frame house erected at Grand Haven. In 1886, 
1887, and 1888, several dwelling houses, stores, and warehouses were erected. In 1886 the 
flnt steamboat, the Michigan, entered the mouth of the Grand river, and from that time 
4e ooonty b^^nn to increase rapidly in population and wealth, and now, in respect to the 
naaafiu^ore of lumber, it is the fifth county of importance in the state. 



118 mSTORT OF THE STATE OF MICBIOAN — COUVTIBt. 



Presque Isle. 

This county is situated iu the extreme north-eastern comer of the lower peninsula, 
and contains an area of 7!^ square miles. It is bounded on the north and east by Lake 
Huron, south by Alpena and Montmorenci counties, and west by Cheboygan. Tlie 80^ 
fiice is gently undulating, and is covered with heavy timber, mostly pine. The soil Ib 
generally indifferent, although quite rich in the river bottoms. Several small rivers nm 
through the county, and numerous lakes exist in different parts. (See artide at end ^ 
" CaunUesy) 



Boecommon County. 

Situated in the northern central portion of the lower peninsula, and bounded on the 
north by Crawford county, east by Ogemaw, south by Gladwin and Clare, and west by 
Missaukee. Area, 576 square miles. Houghton^s lake, the largest inland lake inthte 
state, (being twelve miles long by five broad) exists in this county ; also, Higgins* and Pine 
lakes, all beautiful sheets of water, and abounding in fish. Nearly the entire county is an 
unbroken forest, consisting principally of pine, beech, maple, oak, walnut, and ash. (S» 
description of upper part of southern peninsula^ at end of ^^Ckmnties^) 



Saginaw County. 

Saginaw county is in the eastern middle part of the state, and is bounded on the 
north by Bay and Midland counties, on the east by Tuscola, on the south by Shiawaase 
and Genesee, and on the west by Gratiot and Midland, and contains nine hundred square 
miles. The surface is generally level, though in some parts it is considerably undulating. 
Besides several elongated knolls, there is a beautiful natural ridge road, several rods hi 
width and extending nearly through the county, formerly covered with a fine growth of 
beech and maple. The soil is of a dark, sandy loam, generally varying from fourteen 
inches to two feet in depth, of rich alluvial formation, and covering a sub-strata of blue 
and yellow clay, and almost entirely free from stones. Swamp lands and wet prairi^ are 
found in the northern part of the county. This county is divided by tlie Saghiaw river, run- 
ning nearly in a north-easterly direction. It is formed by the union of the Cass, from the 
east, the Flint and Shiawassee from the south, and the Tittabawassee from the north-west 
Besides these there are several smaller streams, most of which are skirted with wet prairie. 
The country abounds with a variety of valuable timber, such as hickory, oak, beech, hard 
and soft maple, black walnut, bass wood, ash, and pine. The oak, in point of flexibility, 
toughness, and durability, is said to be excelled by none in the union, and is invaluable for 
ship building. The soil is well adapted to the raising of grass, grains and potatoes. 
Specimens of bituminous coal have been found along the banks of the Tittabawassee and 
Flint rivers, and g3rp8um has been discovered in considerable quantities, and also gray 
colored limestone, in the north-west part of the county. Saline springs are found in 
various localities. Those along the Saginaw river are found to produce an abundance of 
brine, and of a specific gravity of 1.165, that of Syracuse, in New York, being 1.142. The 
brine of Syracuse yields, on evaporation, eighteen and one-half per cent of dry saline 
matter; that of Saginaw, twenty per cent It is found that forty gallons of Saginaw brine 
will yield a bushel (56 lbs.) of salt, and this result is practically realized in the daily oper- 
tions of the different works. The manufacture of salt, at various places along the Sagfamw 



BISTORT OF THB STATE OF MICHiaAH COUmiES. 119 



yallej, has grown into a large business, and many thousand barrels are now annually 
exported, and preparations are in progress for the erection of many additional works. In 
August, 1862, there were fourteen different establishments in operation in the valley, 
with one thousand kettles, each kettle averaging about a barrel of salt per day. 

The valley of the Saginaw is undoubtedly the heaviest lumber region in this country. 
In 1846, but two cargoes of lumber were shipped from the valley. In 1861, over six 
hundred cargoes were shipped, carrying away about seventy-five million feet of pine lum- 
ber, exclusive of laths, staves, and shingles, of which latter articles an Immense amount 
was shipped. There are at the present time, some fifty saw mills in the valley, capable of 
manufacturing from one hundred and thirty to one hundred and forty million feet of 
luml)er per annum, the actual amount mannfiEictured averaging ninety million. With low 
freights on the lake, the tendency of the lumber made in Saginaw county is to the eastern 
market ; when the lake freights are high, the lumber is shipped to Chicago and Milwaukee, 
excepting the higher grades, which are sent to Albany and New England. There is, per- 
haps, no coimty in the state where there is less actual waste land than in Saginaw. 
Wherever it is cleared and properly cultivated, it proves to be of unsurpassed fertility. 
The proximity of the heavy timbered lands to a ready market for lumber, affords a rich * 
reward for the toil and labor of clearing. The immense oak and pine timber finds a 
ready sale, while the less valuable varieties, when cut up for fuel, are needed by the salt 
manufacturers, who pay remunerating prices. The demand for this purpose alone is 
immense, and must increase until the country is stripped of its forests. These advantages 
are not overlooked by those who are in search of new homes in Michigan, and the conse- 
quence is that there is an active demand for lands for &rming purposes. The land office 
for the Saginaw district is located at East Saginaw. The district extends from town 6 
north to 28 north, and fh)m 1 to 11 east, till it reaches 11 north, when it widens from 2 
west to 11 east, embracing a territory 132 miles north and south, and 76 miles east and 
west, out of which is to be deducted Saginaw bay and that part of Lake Huron within 
the lines of the district Twenty-three thousand acres were sold last year, of which about 
eighteen thousand were taken under the graduation act, for the purpose of homesteads 
and actual settlement, the average amount taken by individuals being eighty acres. 
Beside the lumber, salt, and agricultural products of Saginaw, there are other interests 
that add materially to the wealth of the county, such as manufactures, furs, fisb, and ship 
building. The following is a list of the townships in the county : Birch Run, Blumfield, 
Brady, Brant, Bridgeport, Buena Vista, Chesaning, East Saginaw, (city,) Frankenmuth, 
Fremont, Kochville, Maple Grove, Saginaw City, Spaulding, St Charles, Taymouth, 
Thomaston, Tittabawassee, and Zilwaukie. The whole number of inhabitants, in 1800, 
was 12,758, but large accessions have been made since then, and it is now estimated that 
tlie coimty contains 16,000. In 1860, the whole number of farms was 564; acres 
improved, 17,&24; acres unimproved, 40,868. The total of wheat produced was 81,789 
bushels; rye, 13,258; Indian com, 57,244 ; oats, 42,027; potatoes, 42,306; wool, 8,682 lbs. ; 
butter, 113,365; maple sugar, 8,864. There were three steam flouring mills, with a 
capital invested of $43,000, producing annually 12,500 barrels of fiour ; twenty-three saw 
mills, with a capital of |559,000, manufacturmg 66,100,000 feet of lumber. (These were 
the figures given in the statistics of 1860, since which time many mills have been added to 
the number.) Aggregate capital invested in all kinds of manufactures, mills included, 
$663,500. Value of annual products in 1860, $750,120. Of 4,288 children between the ages 
five and twenty, 2,828 regularly attend school ; amount of money raised by rate bill, 
$358.02; amount raised by two jo^l tax, $4,164.49; total amount of district taxes, 
$7,726.94 ; number of qualified male teachers, twenty-six ; female teachers, seventy -four. 



120 mSTORT OF THB BTATB OF lOCmOAH — OOUHIIBt. 



Saginaw was known as an Indian trading post as early as in 1815, Louis Campaa 
being tlien engaged there as an Indian trader. Subsequently other individuals engaged ia 
bartering with the Indians for their furs and pelts, giving in exchange blankets, whid^, 
beads, etc. In September, 1820, a treaty was concluded with the Chippewas, by whidi 
they ceded all that portion of country, the southern boundary line of whidi passed through 
Oakland county, running north-east to Lake Huron and west into Livingston cmmtj, 
then north to the head waters of Thunder Bay river. Saginaw county was included ii 
the district thus ceded. In 1822, two companies of United States soldiers were statkned 
where Saginaw City now stands, for the purpose of protecting the fiir trade and waldiiog 
the movements of the Indians. The troops were afterwards withdrawn on account of the 
supposed unhealthfulness of the climate. In 1824 the American Fur Company established 
a trading post there, and, three years thereafter, Gardner D. Williams established himself 
there as an Indian trader. The families of Louis Campau, John B. Cushway, and Mr. 
Williams, being the only white residents of the county. It was not until 1836 that Sagi- 
naw City began to attract the attention of adventurers, and since then it has grown 
gradually, and has for many years been the county seat. The first settlement on the east 
side of the Saginaw river was made on the 4th day of July, 1847, by Curtis Emenoii, Esq., 
and company. In the spring of 1848, the settlement was organized under the name of 
Buena Vista. In 1855, it was incorporated as the village of East Saginaw, and on the 
15th of February, 1859, it was chartered as a city. With the developement of the lumber 
interest, the county began to settle, and villages sprung up along the valley. But the 
fhture growth and wealth of the county will depend chiefly upon the salt manofiicturea 
With an inexhaustible supply of the best brine in the world, and every fiidlity for manu- 
facturing salt cheaply, and conveying it to market, laige towns can scarcely fidl to qnring 
up, demanding the products of an extensive and thickly settled agricultural district 

The Saginaw river is of sufficient depth for steamboat navigation throughout its 
whole length. The Flint and Pcre and Marquette Railroad is neariy completed (torn 
Saginaw to Flint, a distance of thirty-two miles. 



Sanilac County. 

Situated in the eastern portion of the state, and bounded on the north by Hurrai 
county, east by Lake IIim)n, south by St. Clair county, and west by Lapeer and Tuscola. 
It was organized in 1857, and has an area of 780 square miles. It contains fifteen oigan- 
ized townships, viz. : Austin, Bridgehampton, Buell, Delaware, Elk, Forester, Fremont, 
Lexington, Marion, Marlette, Maple Valley, Sanilac, Speaker, Washington, and Worth, 
having an aggregate population of about 10,000. The Black river flows southerly throu£^ 
the eastern part of the county, and Cass through the western part. The center is high 
and rolling, and the coast low and marshy. Numerous small streams flow into the lake 
along the whole coast line of the county. The soil is excellent, and admirably adapted to 
all kinds of farming. The climate is milder than in the center of the state, being greatly 
tempered by the lake winds. Heavy forests of oak, ash, walnut, beech, and maple exist in 
the interior, with occasional small prairies, and timbered openings. In 18W, there were 
408 occupied farms, having 15,372 acres improved and 32,457 unimproved, produchig 
24,714 bushels of wheat, 9,247 of com, 46,184 of oats, and 30,369 of potatoes. There were, 
in that year, nine saw mills, cutting 18,700,000 feet of lumber per season. The whole 
number of children attending school was 2,005. Port Sanilac and Lexington are the 
principal villages, both being located on the lake. The latter is the county seat 



mSTORT OF THB 8TATK OF MIGHIOAV — COUHTIXS. 121 

Sohoolcraft County. 

BouKDED on the North by Lake Frpcricr, ccet \y ChJifCTia nrd IVkbilllnackiErc 
counties, south by Delta, and west by Marquette. It is watered by the Monistique, 
White Fish, Rapid, and othef rivers, flowing south into Lake Michigan, and by the Ush, 
Hurricane, Sucker, Au Sauble, and Au Train rivers, flowing north into Lake Superior. 
Both iron and copper exist in this county, although not worked to any extent The 
center of this county is considerably elevated, and the waters flow over numerous &11b 
and rapids in their coiu-ses north and south from the central ridge. Grand, Train, and 
numerous small islands line the Lake Superior shore, and inmiediately east of Grand 
island are found the celebrated " Pictured Rocks.'* These rocks constitute one of the 
greatest natural curiosities of America, and as such are visited by thousands of tourists 
annually. The rocks consist of an immense sandstone precipice, 800 feet in height, which 
extends for a distance of twelve miles, and rises perpendicularly fh)m the water. The name 
has been given to the rocks in consequence of the diflerent appearances they present to the 
traveler as he passes their bases in a steamboat or canoe. '* It requires but little aid from 
the imagination to discern in them the castellated tower, the lofly dome, spires and pin- 
nacles, and every sublime, grotesque or fantastic shape, which the genius of architecture 
has ever invented." They are apparently tinged with every variety of color, presenting 
numerous projections and indentations, and vast caverns, into which the waves from the 
lake rush with a noise of thunder. To the tourist they present one of the most interesting 
and surprising objects in nature. The " Cascade La Portaille" is formed by a beaudftil 
stream of water, which emerges iit)m a cliff of the "Pictured Rocks," seventy feet above 
the lake, and is carried to such a distance from the face of the.* cliff, that boats can pass 
dry and safe under it, between the falling water and the rock. This cascade contributes 
an additional beauty to the scene, and is admired as one of the most interesting of all the 
wonderful sights in this region. The "Doric Arch" is still another curiosity of the 
" Pictured Rocks " — an isolated mass of sandstone, evidently detached from the main cliff 
by the action of the water. It consists of four pillars, supporting an entablature of stone, 
covered with soil and a handsome growth of pine and spruce trees, some of which are 
from fifty to eighty feet in height. The interior of Schoolcraft county is exceedingly diver- 
sified, being much broken by small mountains and rocky cliffs, and cut up by ravines and 
rivers. Its soil, in the river bottoms, is excellent, but on the hills quite indifferent. A 
dense forest of pine, spruce, hemlock, birch, beech, oak, and maple, covers nearly the entire 
county. Considerable swamp land exists in the interior. But few settlements have been 
made. It is one of the largest counties in the state, having an area of 2,828 square miles. 
It has but two organized townships. Grand Island and Munsing, with a permanent 
population of about 100 whites. The climate is delightflil in summer, though quite severe 
in the winter. 



Shiawassee Oounty. 

Shiawassee is situated in the central part of the state. It is bounded on the north 
by Saginaw county, east by Genesee, south by Livingston and Ingham, and west by 
Clinton, and contains 576 square miles. The northern part of the county is covered with 
heavy timber, while in other parts timbered openings form the characteristics. The 
surface is generally level, occasionally varied with undulations. The soil is a rich, sandy 
loam, and very productive. The Shiawassee river, a lively stream, passes through it, run- 
ning in a north-westerly direction from Byron to Owosso, thence northerly, emptying into 



122 msTOBT or the btats or locmoAS — oomnmui. 



the Saginaw river. It is aLso drained by the tribntaries of the Maple and Looking QUam 
livera These streams furnish excellent water power. Coal is found in abondance near 
Corunna, the county seat, and several beds have been successfully worked. Blue d^, 
overlaying the coal beds, is suited to the manufacture of stoneware, and the fine day bekm 
the coal beds is found to be a superior article for the manufiicture of fire brick. The 
following are the townships belonging to the county, viz. : Antrim, Bouiington, Boras, 
Caledonia, Corunna, (village,) Fairfield, Hazleton, Middlebuiy, New Haven, Owosso, (ct^j 
Perry, Rush, Sdota, Shiawa8see,yenice,yemon, and WoodhulL Total population, in 1860, 
12,888 ; whole number of occupied farms, 802 ; acres improved, 48,728 ; acres unimproved, 
66,818; bushels of wheat, 101,101 ; rye, 5,778; Indian com, 08, 467 ; oats,43,a71; po(»> 
toes, 54,199 ; wool, 46,770 lbs. ; butter, 251,011 ; maple sugar, 96,753. There are five 
flouring mills, with capital invested of $98,500, producing 25,784 barrels floor; eleven saw 
mills, capital hivested, $38,500, and producing 2,900,000 feet of lumber. Aggr^^te of all 
kinds of manufactures, mills included, $178,500; annual products of same, $295,480. 
There are 4,728 children between the ages of five and twenty, 4,106 of whom attend 
school ; amoimt of money raised by rate bill, $735.05 ; amount raised by two-mill tax, 
$3,741.75 ; total amount of direct taxes, $7,263.91 ; number of qualified male teachers, fif^- 
six ; female teachers, one hundred and twenty-rix. 

The first entry of land in Shiawassee was made by Samuel W. Dexter, of Washtenaw 
county, August, 1829, in the town of Shiawassee. In 1831, Alfred L. and Benjamin 0. 
Williams settled in the town of Shiawassee, and in 1833 several other families settled 
there. In 1835 and 1836, there was a great rush, and settlements became general throng 
the county. The village of Shiawassee was laid out in 1836, some four miles below the 
original settlement of the Messrs. Williams. These gentlemen bought the present site of 
Owosso, and laid out the plat of the village, in 1836. The county originally embraced 
thirty-six townships of land, and in 1829 a county seat was established at Byron, in the 
town of Bums. But the county was attached to Oakland for Judicial purposes up to 1886 
or 1837, when it was oiganizcd in its present form, and the county seat was established at 
Corunna, in the town of Caledonia. The first court was held in Shiawassee in 1840. 
The Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad passes through Shiawassee county. The Amboy, 
Lansing, and Traverse Bay Railroad is completed from Owosso to Lansing. Besides the 
city of Owosso there are the following villages : Byron, Corunna, Newberg, and Laings- 
burg. 



St. Glair County. 

St. Clair is situated in the eastern part of the state, on the St Clair river and Lake 
Huron, and is bounded as follows : On the north by Sanilac county, on the east by Lake 
Huron and River St Clair, which separates it from the Province of Upper Canada, south 
by Lake St. Clair and Macomb county, and west by Macomb and Lapeer counties. It 
contains 948 square miles. It is watered by the Black, Belle, Pine, and Swan rivers, and 
Mill creek. The surface is undulating, and the soil in the southern i)art, consisting of a 
black loam, is fertile, and that in the north and west somewhat sandy. It is heavily tim- 
bered with oak, pine, and other timber. The following are townships : Berlin, Brockway, 
Burchville, Casco, China, Clay, Clyde, Columbus, Cottrelville, East China, Emmet, Green- 
wood, Ira, Eenokee, Kimball, Lynn, Mussey, Port Huron, Riley, St Clair, and Wales. In 
1860 the population was 26,814 ; whole number of occupied farms, 955 ; acres improved, 
46,902 ; acres unimproved, 73,540 ; number of bushels wheat raised, 43,243 ; rye, 7,862 ; 
Indian com, 115,647 ; oats, 125,523 ; potatoes, 134,806 ; wool, 30,788 lbs. ; butter, 299,378 ; 



mnOBT <Mr THE 8TATE OF UlCmOAS — C0DKTIB8. 128 



maple ngmr, 68,406. There are flye flooring mills in the county, employfaig a capital of 
in^OOO, and mannfactaring 10,000 barrels of flour; twenty-eight saw mills, emj^loying 
|SS1,QM capital, mannfitcturing 54,700,000 feet of lumber; aggregate of capital employed 
fai an kinds of manufectniea, mills included, $600,770 ; annual value of all kinds of manu- 
futorea, f888/M)9. There are 0,124 children between the ages of flve and twenty years, 
of whom 6,588 attend school. Amount of money raised by rate bill, $968.61 ; by two mill 
tax, $7,768.14; total amount of district taxes, $8,040.80. Number of qualified male 
leidiers, fifty-one ; qualified female teachers, one hundred and nine. 

8l Clair is one of the oldest counties in the state. The first settlements were made 
along Uie riTer, by the French, and many years afterwards, after the lands were open to 
maitet, emigrants began to make entries in the south-eastern part The county was 
oiganised in 1881. The dty of St Chiir is the county seat 



St. Joseph County. 

This is one of the most important and thickly settled counties in the state, and is 
boonded on the north by Kalamazoo county, east by Branch, south by Indiana, and west 
by Cass county. The St Joseph river, and its numerous branches, Portage, Pndrie, 
Bocky, and Pigeon rivers, traverse the county, and fiimish an abundance of water powet. 
The soffeoe is slightly undulating, though a great portion is in level prairie and timbered 
openings Belts of heavy timber extend across the country in the northern and central 
portions. The soil is unsurpased for fertility, being mostly a rich black alluvium, in some 
{Mits direr^ed by a light and warm sandy loam. The Michigan Southern Railroad 
{MKs thitrngh the southern portion of the county. Three Rivers, the county seat, is a 
flourishing place, having one of the best water powers in the state. The inhabitants are 
mostly devoted to agriculture, though large numbers are engaged in manufactures. The 
eoonty contains sixteen organized townships, and seven incorporated villages, viz. : Burr 
Oik, Gokm, Constantine, Fabius, Fawn River, Florence, Flowerfield, Leonidas, Lockport, 
Xcndon, Mottville, Kottawa, Park, Sherman, Stuigis, and White Rgeon, with the villages 
of Burr Oak, Centreville, Colon, Lockport, Mendon, Parkville, Stuigis, and Three Rivers, 
hamg an aggr^ate population, in 1800, of 21,111, which has probably increased at the 
present time to about 25,000. Total valuation of real estate, $8,914,798. Number of occu- 
pied fiirms, 2,288 ; acres improved, 151,192; unimproved, 115,988; cash value, $6,754,445. 
Kmnber of bushels of wheat raised, 618,958; com, 909,108; oats, 69,788; potatoes, 
iMjM; pounds of wool, 97,522; butter, 515,218; cheese, 88,987; tons of hay, 28,758; 
nine of orchard products, $87,788 ; whole number of children attending school, 6,768. 
Peaches, apples and other fruits are raised in this county in great profiision. In various 
puts of tlds and the adjoining counties are found interesting traces of a species of agricul- 
tore practiced by a race that inhabited this region at some very remote period. These 
ranains are in the shape of ancient garden beds, laid out with mathematical precision, and 
oocopjing, oftentimes, a great extent of ground, frequently covering from one to three 
lumdred acres in a single field or garden. They are generally found in prairies, or burr 
Qik plainSb They appear in fimciftil shapes, but order and symmetry of proportion seem 
to ^orcnL Some are Uiid off in rectilineal and curvilineal figures, either distinct, or com- 
Mned in a fhntastic manner, in parterres and scolloped work, with alleys between, and 
tppaicntly ample walks, or avenues, leading hi different dhwxtions, displayhig a taste that 
wwM not discredit a modem pleasure garden. On the west bank of the St Joseph river* 
» *ort«8tsiioeftoiii the liUage of Three lUvers, a garden of this Wnd is still to be seen, 



124 BI8TOBT OF TOE STATE OF MICmOAV — OOmiTIBt. 



in tolerable presenratlon. The garden Is Judged to be half a mile in kngth, bf one^hird 
in breadth, and contains upwards of one hundred acres, regularly laid out in beds^ ranniqg 
north and south, in the form of parallelograms, five feet wide, one hundred feet long, and 
eighteen inches deep, with alleys between them eighteen inches wide, and ei^teen indiei 
deep. At the extremity of each, is a semi-lunar bed, or semi-ditde, of the same depth 
and diameter, correq)onding to the width of the beds. The beds have the appearance cf 
being raised aboye the surrounding countiy, and are as regular and distinct as if but 
recently made. One of the most singular circumstances connected with these remains is 
the circumstance that the Indians of the neighborhood are evidoitly in peifed ignomiee 
of their originators or their usea As early as thirty years ago, these remains were known 
to exist in this region, and the Indians were often questioned conoeining them, but iuTsr 
iably without eliciting any ftuiher information than that they had existed there for a 
length of time to which their traditions did not run back. It is CTident that these gardens 
were constructed and cultivated by a race of men in every way superior in intelUgence 
and civilization to the American Indians of tlie present or past centuiy. Many of the 
largest and most distinct of these gardens have disappeared within the past ten years, to 
give place to the improvements of the present enterprising owners of the soil, and as they 
invariably occupy the richest and best ground in the neighborhood, it is not unlikely that 
in a few years the spirit of improvement may do away with eveiy trace of these ancient 
remahis. (8ee '' Three mvere,") 



Tuscola County. 

BoxTiTDED on the north by Saginaw bay, east by Huron and Sanilac counties, south 
by Lapeer and Genesee, and west by Bay and Saginaw counties, and Saginaw bay. It 
has an area of 811 square miles, and contains 21 oiganized townships, with a popidation, 
in 1860, of 4,885. It is watered by the Cass river and its tributaries, and by numerous 
small streams along the coast of Saginaw bay. The surface is level, and in Uie soothem 
part slightly undulating. The soil is a deep, rich, black alluvium, exceedingly fertile and 
admirably adapted to the growth of wheat and com. Nearly the whole county is still 
covered with an original growth of pine, oak, elm, ash, hickory, beech, maple, etc. The 
various streams furnish an abundance of water power, which has been, as yet, but little 
improved. There are 1,374 children attending school. The following are the townships: 
Akron, Alma, Arbla. Columbia, Dayton, Denmark, Elkland, EUington, Fair Grove, 
Fremont, G^eva, Gilford, Indian Fields, Juniata, Eoylton, Millington, Tuscola, Yassar, 
Watertown, Waterloo, and Wells, having 882 occupied farms, with 18,887 acres of 
improved land, producing 26,438 bushels of wheat, 39,332 bushels of com, 22«806 
bushels of oats, and 29,190 bushels of potatoes. Yassar is the principal village, and 
county seat 



Van Buren County. 

This county is situated in the south-western part of the state, and is bounded north 
by Allegan county, east by Kalamazoo, south by Cass and Berrien, and west by Berrien 
and Lake Michigan. It has an area of 623 square miles, and contains 18 organized town- 
ships, viz.: Almena, Antwerp, Arlington, Bangor, Bloomingdale, Columbia, Decatur, 
Deerfield, Geneva, Hamilton, Hartford, Eeeler, La Fayette, Lawrence, Pine Grove, Porter, 



HIBTOBT OF THB STATE OF MIOHIOAH COCIITm. 1S5 



South Haven, and Wayeriy ; also, the incorporated Tillages of Breedsville, Decatur, Law- 
rence, Lawton, Paw Paw, and South Haven, having, in 1800, a total population of 15,880. 
It is watered by the Paw Pftw river and its branches ; in the central part by the south 
branch of Black river, and Brush and Dowagiac creeks, all of which fhmish abundant 
water power. The surfiM» is level and occasionally swampy, with gently undulating land 
in the eastern portion. The soil is mostly a rich black loam, well adapted to the growth 
of cereals and root crops, while the climate is particularly mild and salubrious, producing 
all kinds of fruit known to this region, in the greatest profusion, especially peaches and 
apples. The vicinity of so large a body of water as Lake Michigan, has the effect of tem- 
pering the atmosphere, and rendering it milder than in the same latitude fhrther west or 
east About one-third of the county is heavily timbered with oak, beech, maple, pine, eta, 
and the balance is in small prairies and oak opemngs. In 1860 there were 1,805 occupied 
forms, having 64,506 acres of improved land, and producing 188,159 bushels of wheat, 
341,785 of com, and 95,278 of potatoes; also, 22,287 lbs. of wool, |24,887 worth of orch- 
ard products, 807,827 lbs. of butter, 12,506 tons of hay, and 95,108 lbs. of maple sugar. It 
has 22 saw mills (18 water, 9 steam,) cutting 15,700,000 feet of lumber per year. Number 
of children attending school, 4,758. Paw Paw is the county seat 



Washtenaw Oounty. 

This is one of the most important counties in the state, and is situated in the south- 
east, bounded on the north by Livingston and Oakland counties, east by Wayne, south by 
Monroe and Lenawee, and west by Jackson. It is watered by the Huron, Saline, Macon 
and Raisin rivers, and Mill, Honey, Mullett and Paint Creeks, finom which an immense 
water power is derived, and which will yet prove a sourcfe of great profit to the inhabit- 
ants. The surface is gently undulating, and in the northern part somewhat hilly. About 
one-fourth of the county is covered with heavy timber, the balance being in plains, oak 
openings and cleared land. The soil is peculiarly rich, being a deep black loam, with a 
slight intermixture of clay, and in some parts, of sand. The name ^* Washtenaw** is 
derived from the Indian tongue, and signifies " grand*' or ** beautlM.*' There are twenty 
organized townships and two incorporated cities in this county, containing a population, 
in 1860, of 35,747, though it is probable that 40,000 would come nearer the truth at the 
present time. The following are the townships: Ann Arbor, Augusta, Bridgewater, Dex- 
ter, Freedom, Lima, Lodi, Lyndon, Manchester, Korthfield, Pittsfield, Saline, Salem, Scio, 
Sharon, Superior, Sylvan, Webster, York, and Tpsilanti, together with the incorporated 
cities of Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti. The census of 1860 gives the whole number of dwel- 
ling houses in the county at 6,652, number in cities, 1,581 ; colored population, 522 ; blind, 
21 ; value of real estate owned, $16,944,099 ; whole number of occupied &rms, 
3,230 ; acres improved, 240,681 ; unimproved, 152,183 ; cash value of occupied fhrms, 
$11,863,150; value of farming implements and machinery, $487,782 ; number of milch 
cows, 11,545 ; working oxen, 3,272 ; horses, 9,684; sheep, 165,424; swine, 20,032 ; value of 
live stock, $1,917,047 ; bushels of wheat raised, 668,768 ; rye, 21,759 ; com, 791,429 ; oats, 
303,492; barley, 25,929 ; buckwheat, 44,458 ; potatoes, 818,118 ; pounds of wool, 551,282 ; 
value of orchard products, $135,529 ; pounds of butter, 950,816 ; cheese, 114,482 ; tons of 
hay, 68,741 ; pounds of maple sugar, 14,144. This county produces more wool, more fiiiit, 
and more hay, than any county in the state. It has twenty-one flouring miUs,* nearly all 
of which arc propelled by water, and which produce 161,211 barrels of flour per year; 
also, thirty-three saw-mills, (twenty-two water, eleven steam,) cutting 8,585,700 feet of 



126 BI8T0RT OF TBM STATE QF MicmaAv — comnm. 



lumber per season. 10,000 children attend the public schools, the whole number in the 
county between the ages of fiye and twenty years being 13,000. The dtiea of Ann Aibor 
and Ypsilanti are flourishing places, and enjoy a large and increasing trade. The Midd- 
gan Central Railroad runs through the center of the county, and has contiiboted laigdy 
toward its rapid development. (8ee "Ann Arbor'' and "TpiSantL'') 



Wayne bounty. 

Watnb is the most populous county in the state, and in point of maiwithctoree sad 
commercial advantages, it is £eu: in advance of all others. It is in the south-eastern part of 
the state, and is bounded on the north by Oakland and Macomb, east by Lake St Clair 
and Detroit river, south by Monroe county, and west by Washtenaw, and contains about 600 
square miles. Its sur&ce is generally level, but in the western part somewhat nndnlatiiig. 
The soil in the southern and western part is a sandy loam, intermixed with clay. A bdt of 
land, immediately adjoining Detroit river, and extending to Lake St Clair, and back from the 
river fh)m two to five miles, consists of a rich black loam, with a substratum of day. It 
was formerly considered valueless, in consequence of its swampy character; but thorough 
draining and proper cultivation proves it to be exceedingly rich and productive. The 
western part of the county is well adapted to grass and grains. It is watered by the 
Rouge, Uie Aujp Ecorces, and the Huron rivers, Milk and Tremblers creeks. Bloody Run, 
Monguagon, Brownstown, Muddy, Woods, and Swan creeks, and by numerous other 
tributaries of the larger streams. The streams generally are of a sluggish character; hot 
the Rouge fUmishes some good water power. In Monguagon township, an exceUent 
quality of limestone has been found, and used for manufacturing and transportaticm, for 
many years. Detroit derives its name from the French word cTetroUy signifying the strait, 
which is believed by some to be more appropriately applied than river. The river Is 
about twenty-five miles in length, and contains several beauUflil islands, the most important 
of which are Groeee and Fighting islands. Much of the historical interest which bdongs 
to Wayne county is associated with this noble stream. When La Salle first ascended the 
river with his vessel, the Griffin, the first built on the upper lakes, in 1679, he found sevend 
Indian villages along the shores, and a large village of the Hurons, which they called 
TewshsagrondUy stood upon the present site of Detroit These villages had been previoody 
visited, as early as in 1610, by the Jesuit missionaries, and the eoureun dm Mi, but no 
settlement had been made. The great importance of establishing a fort at Detroit, was 
discussed soon after the English and French war was ended, in 1607. It was alleged to 
be necessary, in order to prevent the English from having access to the Indians on the fkr 
country bordering the upper lakes and also in order to keep the Indians in check. Count 
Pontchartrain, the colonial minister of France, ordered M. De La Motte Cardillac, com- 
mandant at Michillimackinac, to proceed to Detroit for the purpose of establishing a fort. 
He fitted out an Expedition at Montreal, and with fifty soldiers and fifty Canadian traders 
and artisans, accompanied by two missionaries, proceeded to his destination by the 
Ottawa river and Michillimackinac, and arrived on the 24th of July, 1701. A strong 
stockade of wooden pickets was constructed, and within this inclosure a few log huts were 
built This was called Fort Pontchartrain, and thus was the settlement of Detroit com- 
menced. There were three Indian villages in the vicinity, a Huron and Pottowatomie on 
the south, and an Ottaway on the opposite side of the strait Chime was abundant, and 
herds of buffalo ranged the prairies in the valley of the Detroit The country along the 
border of the Detroit river, after the year 1749, was gradually settled by French, who had 



HI8T0BT OF THE STATE OF MICmOAV COUVTISS. 12T 



succeeded in securing the confidence of the seyeral Indian tribes. But 1712 a plot was 
formed by the Fox, or Ottogamie Indians, who had long been the enemies of the French, 
to seize the fort; but they were repulsed, and retired to the Fox river. During the early 
part of the eighteenth century, France and England were continually at war, the effects of 
which reached thebr respective colonial possessions, and greatly retarded the growth and 
prosperity of both. The capitulation of Montreal to the British was followed also by the 
surrender of Detroit to the latter. In May, 1768, an attempt was made by the noted 
Indian chief, Pontiac, to capture the fort from the English garrison, by an act of treacheiy* 
which was discovered and prevented. The Indians then besieged the fort On the 8d of 
June information was received of the peace between France and England, and of the 
cession of all New France to the British. The siege of the fort was however continued 
by the Indians, until the arrival of (General Bradstreet with 8,000 troops, when a treaty of 
peace was concluded with the various tribes of Indians ; Pontiac, however, refusing to 
take part in it The frontier, from this time, began to e^joy a period of peace and pros- 
perity, which lasted until the breaking out of the revolutionary war. The British adopted 
politic measures to secure the confidence of the Indians, who became warmly attached to 
the British crown. Detroit became the center, from which several expeditions were fitted 
out against the Americans during the war. In 1788 a tr^ty of peace was concluded, by 
which ^lichigan was included within the United States boundary. The county of Wayne 
was organized by (General Wajme, in 1796, and was co-extensive with the whole of the 
peninsula. In 1708, the north-western territoiy assumed the second grade of government, 
and Wayne sent one representative to the general assembly, at Chillicothe. On the first 
of June, 1805, the government of the territory was organized at Detroit, by €(eneral Wil- 
liam Hull, its first governor. In 1812, upon the breaking out of the war with Great 
Britain, the Michigan frontier eariy became the seat of hostilities. The Indians were 
instigated by the British to acts of savage barbarity, and the frontier was laid waste by a 
wanton soldiery. The successfnl attack of Colonel Miller, with 600 men, upon the 
enemy at Monguagon, the surrender of Detroit by Qeneral Hull, the battle at Frenchtown, 
the defeat of General Winchester, and the massacre at the River Raisin, Perry's victory, 
on Lake Erie, followed by the evacuation of Detroit by the British, and the defeat of the 
British army under General Brock, with the Indian allies led by Tecumseh, were events 
that followed in rapid succession, and were intimately connected with the interests of 
Wa}iie county. Peace being declared in 1815, a new impulse was given to the settlement 
of the county. General Cass had been previously appointed Governor of the territory, 
and his wise administration inspired the people with great confidence. The survey of the 
public lands commenced in 1816-17, and in 1818, they were opened to market, and the 
towns lying back from the river began to attract the attention of emignmts. On the 25th 
of July, 1805, the governor and Judges divided the territory into three Judicial districts, or 
counties, viz. : Erie, Detroit and Huron, and Michillimackinac The Detroit and Huron 
district embraced only that portion of the territory west and north, where the Indian titles 
had become extinct, and Wayne was embraced within these limits. The county with its 
present limits was organized in 1815. Wajme is intersected by the Michigan Central, the 
Detroit and Milwaukee, the Detroit, Monroe and Toledo, and the Grand Trunk railwajrs. 
The Detroit river, which forms the eastern boundaiy of the county, conducts the collected 
waters of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, and St Clair to Lake Erie. It is a stream of 
great importance to national commerce, and there is probably not one in this countiy, 
over which so large an amount of national wealth annually passes. The following are the 
townships in the county, viz. : Brownstown, Canton, Dearborn, Dearborn village, Detroit 
city, Ecorse, Greenfield, Grosse Point, Hamtramck, Huron, Livonia, Monguagon, Nankin, 
Northville village, Bedford, Romulus, Springwells, Sompter, Taylor, Van Buren, Wayne 

; 



- 1 



i 



128 mSTORT OF THB STATE OF MICHIGAK. 



village. The county contains a population of 95,000. According to the reCams of 1800, 
there were 14,294 dwelling houses, 8,248 of which were in Detroit; 14,888 fiuniliM; 
estimated value of real estate, $80,438,868; occupied farms, 2,478; acres improved, 128,718; 
acres unimproved, 109,841; bushels of wheat raised, 68,774; rye, 22,681; Indian oon, 
585,055; oats, 525,889; barley, 12,274; potatoes, 485,752; wool, 100,080 lbs.; value of 
orchard products, |88,819; butter, 717,881 lbs.; cheese, 119,622 lbs.; hay, 86,742 torn. 
There were 14 flouring mills, with a capital invested of $105,800, mano&cturing 41^ 
bbl& flour, valued at $282,565 ; 48 saw mills, with a capital of $901,950, manafhctuiiBg 
56,748,000 feet of lumber, valued at $657,549; aggregate of capital invested in all kinds of 
manu&ctures, mills included, $2,878,716. There are 24,272 children between the ages of 
fiye and twenty, 15,275 of whom attend school ; amount assessed by rate bill, $2,825.64; 
amount raised by two mill tax, $9,491.85; total amount of disdict taxes, $8,628.11; 
qualified male teachers, 117; qualified female teachers, 204. Besides the manufiutoiies of 
Detroit, there are extensive iron works at Wyandotte, and various manutkctories at 
Trenton. Dearborn, Plymouth, Wa3me, and Northville are also pleasant villages. {8m 



Wexford Oounty. 

An organized county in the north-western portion of the state, bounded on the noith 
by Grand Traverse county, east by Missaukee, south by Osceola and Lake, and west by 
Manistee. Area, 576 square miles. The Manistee river flows through the ooonty, and is 
joined by numerous branches, which furnish an abundance of water power, as yet wholly 
unimproved. Otsego lakes, two beautiful sheets of water, abounding in trout and white 
flsh, arc situated in the south-eastern part, and are much resorted to by sportsmen. Almost 
the entire surfiice of the county is covered with heavy timber. (See arttde at end tf 



The Korthern Half of the Lower Peninsula. 

The following article, descriptive of the soil, clhnate, and productions of the upper 
half of the lower peninsula, is fVom the pen of the Hon. D. C. Leach, the present efficient 
Indian agent for the district of Michigan. It embraces a general description of the 
various unorganized counties in the northern section of the state, a minute account of 
which it was impossible to give by " Counties," in the foregoing list : 

The lower peninsula of Michigan contains a population numbering three-fourths of a 
million, and yet a large portion of this vast region is a dense and almost an unbroken 
wilderness. 

Many counties have no inhabitants at all, while many others have a few score <Mr a 
few hundred only. By the census of 1800, ten counties, at least, are shown to be wholly 
destitute of inhabitants; while the aggregate ix)pulation of ten others is only 8,865 — an 
average of less than four hundred to a county. 

Pursuing the examination still further, we find eight counties whose entire population 
is 12,104, or a trifle over fifteen hundred for each county. Tlien we find seven additional 
counties with an aggregate population of 25,187 — an average of about thirty-five hundred. 

Here, then, we have ten counties wholly destitute of inhabitants, and twenty-five 
others containing only forty-one thousand souls. To those might be added several other 
counties very sparsely settled, a large portion of their sur&ce being yet covered with the 
native forest 



mSTOBT OF THE 8TATB OF MIOmOAH. ISO 



If we draw a line from east to west through the state, from Lake Huron to Lake 
Michigan, running between townships 12 and 18 north — the north line of Gratiot and 
Montcalm counties — we shall find we have divided the population nearly as follows: 
South of the line, 720,000; north of it, 80,000. Cany the Une fiur enough to divide the 
lower peninsula in two equal parts, and we shall have north of the line hut little, if any, 
over 50,000 souls, while south of it dwell some 700,000 of our people. Hence, it i4>peaiB 
that the entire population of the northern half of the lower peninsula is considerably leas 
than that of the counties of Oakland and Genesee. 

Here, then, is a wilderness, measuring from east to west, in its narrower parts, from 
fifty to eighty miles, and in its wider portions crowding hard upon two hundred milea. 
And fix>m the north line of Gratiot county to the Straits of Mackinaw, the distance la al 
least one hundred and fifty miles. 

On three sides this mighty wilderness is bordered by the great Lakes Huron and Mich- 
igan. Several large bays — Saginaw and Thunder, on Lake Huron, and Grand and Little 
Traverse, on Lake Michigan — extend far inland, offering harbor and commercial fiicilitieB 
of incalculable value. 

Throughout this vast region, springs, rivulets, brooks, creeks and rivers are numerous. 
Few parts of the world, perhaps, are better watered than the northern portion of the 
lower peninsula of Michigan. And resting in the stillness of this great forest, are thou- 
sands of silveiy ponds and quiet lakes. Many of them are perfect gems, and have no 
superiors for purity or beauty in the wide world. 

And here, too, in the shade and security of this vast wilderness, are many animals 
which long since disappeared fh>m the older portions of the state. Here are found the 
deer, elk, moose, wolf, bear, beaver, wild cat, lynx, fox, otter, wolverine, and a great num- 
ber of other animals of lesser note. 

One reason, I apprehend, why this region has settled so slowly, is because of the 
heavy growth of timber which covers almost this entire portion of the state. Probably a 
large majority of those seeking new homes in the west prefer to locate on prairies or oak 
openings. All such, of course, would either go to southern Michigan or fiirther west 
Hence, the flow of this human tide has set in other directions, and multitudes have been 
borne onward by it, without really knowing why they were seeking some particulior 
locality in Illinois, Wisconsin or Iowa. 

Those who prefer open or prairie lands will still continue to shun the country under 
consideration. But there are those — and they are neither few nor foolish — who prefer 
well timbered lands. All such should Imow something of northern Michigan before 
purchasing. 

But another and more potent reason why this region has remained so long in its wild 
state, is because erroneous views have veiy generally prevailed with regard to its soil and 
climate. Even among the people of our own state these errors have been common. They 
have supposed the climate and soil of this region to be unfavorable to agricultural pur- 
suits. It was said the country is low and swampy, and liable to late and early frosts. It 
was believed, also, that fever and ague was the rightful proprietor of all this region, and 
that he was sure to lay violent hands on all who ventured upon his domain. Let us see 
how ill founded are these opinions. 

And first as to the agricultural resources of this portion of the state. I shall speak in 
part from what I have learned from others, in part from Houghton's and WincheU's Geo- 
logical Reports, and in part fh)m my own observation. 

In 1839, Dr. Houghton wrote as follows : " The country north of the southern boun- 
dary of Arenac county, (now included in Bay county) and east of the meridian, so far as 
examined, is, on the whole, but ill adapted to the purposes of agriculture, being chiefly 
9 



180 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF lOCHIQAir. 



composed of sandy ridges, with intcnrening swales, and rising so gradually towatds ttie 
central portions of the state as to leave the countiy extremely flat** 

These remarks are applicable probably to fiye or six counties. Of these ooontiet 
(Ogemaw, Iosco, Alcona, Oscoda, Montmorency, and parts of Alpena and Presqae Ide,) I 
know nothing personally. 

Professor Winchell, present state geologist, says, in his report : '* The whole of the 
eleyated limestone region north of the line Joining Thunder and Little Trayerse baySi ii 
capable of supporting a dense population.*' 

Professor Winchell here speaks of the extreme northern counties of the peninsula, 
and I doubt not his statement is in the main correct. A large portion of these counties ii 
covered with a remarkably heavy growth of sugar maple trees, and my observation hat 
satisfied me that where this tree is found in perfection the soil is not unfit for cultivBtion. 

From all the information I have been able to obtain, I suppose the five or six counties 
first above mentioned to be about the only portion of the lower peninsula " ill-adapted 
to the purposes of agriculture.*' Here and there will be found tracts of pine barrens, at 
cedar, spruce, and hemlock land, embracing, in some instances, several townships, of little 
or no value for fiuming purx)oses. Along the great lakes, too, the soil is generally Ught 
for some miles back. Yeiy many of the streams, also, are bordered with heavy and vaia* 
able pine. But with the exceptions above mentioned, I believe the countiy under consid- 
eration to be well adapted to agricultural pursuits. 

West of the meridian — a line running through the center of Ingham county, doe 
north to the Straits of Mackinaw — the greater porUon of the countiy is entirely diJETerent 
from that bordering on Lake Huron. From old Fort Mackinaw southward to the 
inhabited portion of the state, the countiy is generally well adapted to agriculture. 

The light soil and pine timber before mentioned are common near the lake shore, but 
at a short distance, or at most a few miles back, the gently rolling lands are covered with 
large and even gigantic sugar maples, denoting a soil worthy of the farmer's labors. 

The writer of this, in the autumn of 1860, starting from the mouth of the Cheboygan 
river, passed up that streapti, through Mullet, Burt, and Crooked lakes, and thence acrosB 
to the head of Little Traverse bay. From that point to Traverse City, the journey was 
made by land. The trip was made Just at that season when the maple forests are clothed 
in colors which the painter cannot equal and which no pen can describe. Hence, while 
passing through the lakes and over the hills, it was not difficult to form an idea of the 
extent of the maple regions. And what I saw in that Journey convinced me that few 
people have a correct idea of the amount of good farming lands — for I put down heavily 
timbered maple lands as valuable for agricultural purposes — which exist in tlie northern 
portions of our peninsula. 

A large portion of the country between the Stndts of Mackinaw and the head of 
Grand Traverse bay is quite rolling. In some places it may even be termed hilly. Dr. 
Houghton says some parts of this region have " an altitude probably quite equal, if not 
superior, to any other portion of the peninsula." " This is more particularly the case," he 
says, ** in the vicinity of, and south-east from, Little and Grand Traverse bays. Here the 
surfoce is considerably broken by elevated ridges of lime rock." 

But these ** elevated ridges*' are by no means barren. It is a fiict — a little singular, 
perhaps, yet nevertheless a fact — that these hills are among the very best lands of this 
portion of the peninsula. The summits of the highest of them are covered with the most 
majestic sugar maples. The soil, a sandy loam, containing much lime gravel, is deep, 
black and rich. 

As we proceed south ftom Grand Traverse bay, the interior of the countiy Is less ele- 
vated, and approaches nearer to a level character. And here, probably, south and south- 



HI8T0BT OF THE STATB OF MIOHiaAV. 181 



west from this bay, is one of the finest agricultural r^ons of Michigan — well timbered, 
well watered, and remarkable for its freedom from the miasmatic exhalations which in 
some parts of the state give rise to the various forms of bilious fevers. 

Further south, and in the yidnitj of Manistee river, pine barrens cover a i)ortion of 
the country. Still, even here, much good farming land is to be found A veiy laige por- 
tion of Mason and Oceana counties is made up of agricultural lands of a superior quality. 
And I have no doubt — although I cannot speak from personal observation — that the 
counties east of them are equally valuable for &rming purposes. 

But it is believed by many that the climate of this r^on is unfiivorable to agricul* 
tural pursuits. It is true, of course, that some crops that are grown in Ohio and Illin(^ 
cannot be produced here. The dent com will not mature in this northern region. Bui 
the smaller and earlier varieties of com flourish finely and ripen perfectly. At Little 
Traverse and Pine river, in Emmett county, at Elk Rapids, and on the peniiusnla in Grand 
Traverse county, I have myself seen fine crops of well ripened com. 

Twenty-three years ago. Dr. Houghton wrote as follows on this sulject: "Thia 
northern portion of the peninsula is usually regarded by the inhabitants of our state as 
possessing a climate too rigorous to admit of agriculture, but this is an error that deserves 
to be corrected. The Ottawa Indians, residing on Little Traverse bay, and who have 
some extensive cultivated fields in the elevated limestone district of the interior, more 
particulariy in the vicinity of one of the south-westem forks of the Cheboygan river, 
inform me that their crops of com have not fiilled, within Iheir recollection, to jield 
largely ; and certainly, I never iow finer earn than in $tfme of their fieUU.*^ 

Dr. Houghton stud the soil of this northem r^on is " strictly a warm one," and all 
experience since proves his statement true. Hence crops mature rapidly. 

This latitude, all intelligent fimners know, is not un&vorable to the grasses. No 
country produces finer crops of oats than the region we are considering. Wheat, also, of 
the first quality, is produced here. I never saw finer samples of white winter wheat than 
was shown me by E. P. Ladd, Esq., of Peninsula, Grand Traverse county. It was raised 
on his farm, sown afttr taking off a com crop in the faU^ and yieided UeerUy^hi hueheU per 
acre. I apprehend it would not be easy to excel that anywhere in the north-west 

A knowledge of the principal ingredients of the soil — sand, loam, and lime gravel-— 
would satisfy any intelligent agriculturist of the capabilities of this region for the produc- 
tion of wheat I predict it will become one of the best wheat producing sections of 
Michigan. 

The potatoes of northem Michigan are unsurpassed by those of any part of the 
world. The quality and quantity are all that could be desired. And the same may 
undoubtedly be said of other root crops. 

But little has been done in the northem part of the peninsula in the cultivation of 
fruit. So far as experiments have been made, however, I believe the results have been 
satis&ctory. Rev. G. N. Smith, for many years resident missionary to the Indians at 
Northport, Grand Traverse county, has prolwbly given various kinds of fruits the fairest 
trial of any one. I have seen his apple, pear and peach trees laden with fridt, and he is 
frilly persuaded that well directed labors of the horticulturist will be crowned with success. 

I may as well state here, that thermometrical observations, made at Northport, by the 
gentleman last named, show that the climate at that point is several degrees warmer than 
it is on the westem side of Lake Michigan. Observations at other points show similar 
results. This is caused, of course, by the modifying influence of the vast body of water 
over which the cold winds of Wisconsin pass before reaching our coast Hence, fruit 
trees which cannot survive a single winter on the westem side of the lake, thrive finely 



182 msTORT or the btatb or mcmoiJi. 



and produce abundant fhiit on the eastern. The influence, too, of these lake winds hi 
preventing early autumn frosts, is a matter of Teiy great importance. 

More snow fidls in the northern than in the central portions of the peninsula. At 
least it falls earlier and remains later than in the vicinity of Lansing. Hence, the resi- 
dents of that section have more sleigliing and less mud than those residing in the centnl 
and southern parts of tlie state — a difference rather in their fiivor than oora. 

I have referred to the springs, streams and lakes of northern Michigan. I dare not 
dwell on them as I would like to do, for I see this article is likely to become so long as to 
defeat the object had in view in writing it I may add, however, that they are eveiywhsre 
numerous, and for purity and beauty have no superiors in any part of the worid. Some 
of the lakes are charming beyond description. Their waters are indeed of crsrstal parity, 
and their pebbly bottoms may be distinctly seen at a depth of twenty, twenty-five or thirty 
feet. I had almost said forty feet, and had I done so I believe there would have been 
more truth than poetry in the statement The water of the Traverse bays is also of the 
same delightful purity. Stagnant water, the prolific source of fever and ague, intennittent 
and remittent fevers, and their kindred diseases, is exceedingly rare in the northern partol 
the state. Indeed, I have never met with it in that region. Cedar swampa, as th^ are 
termed, are not uncommon, but where water is found in them it is cold and pure. 

Fine as these lands are, their price is but trifling. In a large portion of the district I 
have described — and I think in the whole of it — the cost per acre for actual settlers is hot 
flfty cents. 

After what has been said as to climate, soil, water, and the general featoroa and dua«- 
acteristics of the country, it is scarcely necessary to add that It is remariuble for its heatth- 
iness. North of Manistee county I am sure bilious diseases are of very rare occorrence. 
At Traverse bay, I have been assured over and over by reliable residents, that fever and 
ague never originates in that vicinity ; and that many persons coming there from regions 
where they had been long afflicted with it, have been speedily and permanently cored by 
the climate alone. 

Through Manistee, Mason and Oceana counties perhapi this disease may prevail to a 
limited extent ; but as the soil is porous, the surface rolling and the water pure, I know not 
whence is to come the miasma which produces it 

The portion of the peninsula north of the north line of Isabella county, is n^ a min- 
eral region. Gritstones, from which superior grindstones are manufiustured, are found in 
the extreme northern piirt of Huron county. Marble is found in Presque Isle county. 
Lime is abundant in many parts of the country, and plaster, of superior quality, is found 
in Iosco county. 

The existence of black bituminous shales at various points — for instance at Mocqna 
and Pine lakes in Emmet county, and at Carp lake and near the outlet of Grand Traverse 
bay in Grand Traverse county — has led to the very general belief that coal exists in that 
vicinity ; and not a few fruitless efforts have been made for its discoveiy. If geology is to 
be trusted, such efforts will continue unsuccessful. On this subject ProC Winchell says hi 
his late report : 

"' There is not the remotest probability of the occurrence of coal within a hmidred 
miles of Grand Traverse bay. This staten^nt is made in full recollection of the allega- 
tion of a learned Judge that he had seen arUhracUe coal that was said to have been col- 
lected in that region. One of the localities, of Indian notoriety, is at the southern extrem- 
ity of Mucqua lake, south of Little Traverse bay. The Indians report that they have 
oflen resorted there for fuel, and that they have burned the coal in their camp fliree — a 
statement perfectly creditable if they substitute sfiale for cwriL" 



HI8T0BT OF THB STATE OF mOHIOAH. 188 



Plaster has been found on Little St Martin's Island north of Mackinaw, and also on 
the mainland of the Upper Peninsula, west of Mackinaw. »« 

A beautifld specimen was once presented to Prof. Fiske, of the Agricultural College, 
for analysis. After an examination, it was found, although a very fine stone, it was yeiy 
poor plaster, or rather no plaster at all And so it will be probably with those who hunt 
minerals in the northern portion of the lower peninsula. 

It is simply as a pleasant, healthftil agricultural region that it commends itself to the 
attention of those looking for forest homes. And to such, unless they prefer prairie or 
open lands, I cordially recommend a careful personal examination of the countiy, some of 
whose characteristics I have thus briefly sketched. - > 



The Upper Peninsula. 

This vast region, botmded on the east by St Mary's river, on the south by Lakes 
Huron and Michigan, on the west by the Menomenee and Montreal rivers, (separating it 
from the StAte of Wisconsin,) on the north by the great Lake Superior, and comprising 
an area of 16,000 square miles, was ceded to the State of ^chigan by the general govern- 
ment, as a compensation for the strip of land, including the city of Toledo, taken from 
the southern fix)ntier of the state, and of which she deemed herself ui^ustly deprived. 

At the period of its cession, this vast " Siberia of Michigan,'' as it was then termed, 
was for the most part an unknown waste, and considered by the citizens as an almost 
worthless grant, but the explorations of later years have brought to light its resourres of 
untold wealth, and it is confidently expected that in a few years time the commerce with 
this region will require as much vessel tonnage as is at present comprised in our whole 
lake marine. 

The first steps toward the exploration of this country were taken in 1641, by Charles 
Raymbault and Isaac Jaques, two missionaries of the order of Jesus, who had established 
a mission near Sault Ste. Marie. They were followed by Fathers Marquette and Allouez, 
names which, for heroic sacrifice and zeal, displayed in their holy mission, will be remem- 
bered as long as the lofty rocks of Superior shall stand. These explorers found evidences 
of the great mineral wealth there concealed, in the use of copper dishes and cooking 
utensils by the native tribes. Attracted by these reports, an Englishman, Alexander 
Henry, by name, undertook, in 1771, a mining enterprise, near the forks of the Ontonagon 
river. This enterprise, by reason of the uncivilized state of the country, and lack of 
means of transportation, although an abundance of copper was found, proved abortive. 
The experiment, however, was undoubtedly undertaken with the expectation of finding 
more precious metals, as were nearly all the explorations of that day. But it was not 
until the publication of the report of Dr. Douglass Houghton, state geologist, in 1841, 
that any definite information concerning the great deposits of copper and iron was to be 
had. His researches gave an immense impetus to the mining interest, which is as yet 
only in its infancy. 

Although rich in mineral wealth, the northern peninsula will never be noted for its 
agricultural productions. With the exception of the fertile intervals on the rivers, the 
soil of the northern portion exhibits conclusive evidence of sterility. The southern part, 
in climate and soil, is more congenial to agriculture. 

The surface of the upper peninsula is much diversified by mountains, hills, valle3rs, 
and plains. The eastern portion rises gradually from Lakes Michigan and Superior, to the 
interior, where it terminates in table land, with a shore on the north sandy, and on the 



184 HI8T0RT OF THE STATE OF MICHIQAV. 



south calcareous rock. Proceeding westward we reach the Poicapine moantains, s^ 
abating the tributary waters of Lake Superior ftom those of Lake MichigaiL The higheit 
eleyation obtained by the Porcupine mountains is one thousand three hundred and dgfaty 
feet. 

The rivers of this region are numerous, but none of them attain any considerable 
magnitude, and are principally adapted to canoe navigation. Th^ all abound in fidb 
and rapids, around which the canoes have to be carried. The carrying places around 
these obstructions are known as ** portages." This kind of inland navigation, used lo 
extensively in the north-west, from the earliest settlements, has created a class of men of 
mazked peculiarities, known as ^'voyoffeurs" They are a hardy race, patient of toil, 
and cheerful under adversity. In their frail barks they pass from the lakes to the Missis- 
sippi, to Hudson's Bay, and even to the Arctic seas. It is customary for many visitors st 
the Sault Ste. Marie to pass over the fklls in a birch bark oanoe, guided by the skUlfal 
voyageur^ a trip attended with no danger, if the proper amount of confidence be had. 
The greater portion of this peninsula is covered with immense forests, principally of pine, 
and with the facilities presented by innumerable streams for converting it into lumber, 
and conveying it to a market, these lands are being sought after, and will erentnaDly 
become very valuable. 

The climate, though highly fiivorable to health, especially to consumptiyea, pieMnli 
insuperable obstacles to successful agriculture, and consequently, to any density of popu- 
lation; still, by continued perseverance, the inhabitants have managed to raise soae 
wheat, and &ir crops of oats, while the hardier vegetables, as potatoes and tnmipa, are 
grown in quantities. As in all cold climates, vegetation is quicker in growth and matmi^ 
than in warmer latitudes ; summer commences and terminates suddenly, and winter oftai 
departs or succeeds with scarcely any intermission of spring or autunm. 

For six Inonths of the year the Lake Superior region is closed to navigation. Frosli, 
of sufficient severity to turn tlie leaves, usually occur as early as the middle of September. 
Snow commences fklling by tlie middle of October; the streams soon become ioe-lodnd, 
and remain so until the first of May. The last of the elegant steamers plying between 
Detroit and the upper lakes usually is compelled to return before the first of Novembec 

Nothwithstanding the proximity of these vast bodies of water tending to mo^Uiy the 
range of the thermometer, it is not uncommon for it to stand at from 70** to 90* above mo In 
summer, and at 20* to 25"* below in winter. During the winter all travel is performed <» 
snow shoes, and mostly by the aid of Indian guides. It Is to be hoped that the fkdUties 
for travel may be soon by some means improved. During the summer the boats an 
thronged with excursionists seeking health and enjoyment fh>m the cool climate and 
sublime scenery of the upper lakes. A remarkable feature is the transparency of the waters 
of Lake Superior — so great that a tin cup may be seen at a depth of ten fiithoms. Ooast- 
ing along the shores in a sunlight day every fissure in the rock, and every glittering pebble Is 
revealed with wonderful clearness, and the light streaming through the transparent medium 
tinges eveiy object with a brilliant hue. A favorite amusement with travelers is to throw 
a silver coin into the lake, watching the Indians, who are always ready, dive for it 
Although the statistics of the upper peninsula given by the last census are imperfect, we 
are able to extract the following : " Of the occupied farms in the upper peninsula there 
are 5,113 acres improved, and 80,564 unimproved. There were cut, in one year, 58,400,000 
feet of lumber by various saw mills in operation." 

A laige amount of valuable information regarding the upper peninsula vnll be found 
under the heads of the various countkB and toioM, in the body of the Gkizctteer. 



coNBTrmnoK of the state of lacmoAir. 186 



CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF MICHIGAN. 



ARTICLE I. 

BOmiDABIES. 



The State of Michigan consists of, and has Jurisdiction over, the territory embraced 
within the following boundaries, to wit : Commencing at a point on the eastern boundaiy 
line of the State of Indiana, where a direct line drawn fiom the southern extremi^ of 
Lake Michigan to the most northerly cape of the Maumee Bay shall intersect the same — 
said point being the north-west comer of the State of Ohio, as established by act of con- 
gress, entitled, *' an act to establish the northern boundary line of the State of Ohio, and 
to provide for the admission of the State of Michigan into the Union upon the oonditioiis 
therein expressed," approved June fifteenth, one thousand eight hundred and thlrty-sIx ; 
thence with the said boundary line of the State of Ohio till it intersects the boundaiy line 
between the United States and Canada in Lake Erie; thence with said boundary line 
between the United States and Canada through the Detroit river, Lake Huron and Lake 
Superior to a point where the said line last touches Lake Superior ; thence in a direct line 
through Lake Superior to the mouth of the Montreal river; 'thence through the middle of 
the main channel of the said river Montreal to the head waters thereof; thence in a direct 
line to the center of the channel between Middle and South Islands, in the Lake of the 
Desert; thence in a direct line to the southern shore of Lake Brule ; thence along said 
southern shore, and down the river Brule to the main channel of the Menomonee river; 
thence down the center of the main channel of the same to the center of the most usual 
ship channel of the Green Bay of Lake Michigan ; thence through the center of the most 
usual ship channel of the said bay to the middle of Lake Michigan ; thence through the 
middle of Lake Michigan to the northern boundary of the State of Indiana, as that line 
was established by the act of congress of the nineteenth of April, eighteen hundred and 
sixteen ; thence due east with the northern boundary line of the said State of Indiana to 
the north-east comer thereof; and thence south with the eastem boundaiy line of Indiana 
to the place of beginning. 

ARTICLE II. 

BEAT OF GOVERNMENT. 

Section 1. The seat of government shall be at Lansing, where it is now established. 

ARTICLE III. 

DIVISION OF THE POWERS OF GOVERNMENT. 

Section 1. The powers of government are divided into three departments: the 
legislative, executive, and judicial. 

Sec. 2. No person belonging to one department shall exercise the powers properly 
belonging to another, except in the cases expressly provided hi this constitution. 



186 C0H8TITDTI0N OF THE BTATE OF XICHIOAH. 



ARTICLE IV. 

LBOISLATIVB DEPABTHENT. 

Section 1. The legislative power h vested in a Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

Sec. 2. The Senate shall consist of thirty-two members. Senatmv shall be elected 
for two years, and by single districts. Such districts shall be numbered from one to tbSaij' 
two, indusive; each of which shall choose one senator. No county shall be divided in 
the formation of senate districts, except such county shall be equitaUy entitled to two cr 
more senators. 

Sec. 8. The House of Representatives shall consist of not less than sizty^aiir, nor 
more than one hundred members. Representatives shall be chosen for two years, and by 
single districts. Each representative district shall contain, as neariy as may be, an equal 
number of white inhabitants, and civilized persons of Indian descent, not members of any 
tribe, and shall consist of convenient and contiguous teiritoiy. But no township or d^ 
shall be divided in the formation of a representative district When any township or dty 
shall contain a population which entitles it to more than one rq^resentatlve, then sodi 
township or dty shall elect, by general ticket, the number of rq;»resentative8 to which it is 
entitled. Each county hereafter oiganized, with such territoiy as may be attadied thereto, 
shall be enUtled to a separate representative when it has attidned a population equal to a 
moiety of the ratio of representation. In every county entitled to more than one repre- 
senta^ve, the board of supervisors shall assemble at such time and place as the l^gislitara 
shall prescribe, and divide the same into representative districts, equal to the number of 
representatives to which such county is entitled by law, and shall cause to be filed in the 
offices of the secretary of state and clerk of such county, a description of sudi rqn«- 
sentatlve districts, specifying the number of each district, and the population thered^ 
according to the last preceding enumeradon. 

Sec. 4 The legislature shall provide bylaw for an enumeration of the inhabitants in 
the year eighteen hundred and fifty-four, and every ten years thereafter, and at the first 
session aft^ each enumeration so made, and also at the first session after each enumera- 
tion by the authority of the United States, the legislature shall re-arrange the senate dis- 
tricts, and apportion anew the representatives among the counties and districts, according 
to the number of white inhabitants, and dvilized persons of Indian descent, not members 
of any tribe. Each apportionment and the division into representative districts, by any 
board of supervisors, shall remain unaltered until the return of another enumeration. 

Sec. 5. Senators and representatives shall be dtizens of the United States, and 
qualified electors in the respective counties and districts which they represent A removal 
from their respective counties or districts shall be deemed a vacation of their office. 

Sec. 6. No person holding any office under the United States [or this state,] at any 
county office, except notaries public, officers of the militia, and officers elected by town- 
ships, shall be eligible to or have a seat in dther house of the l^^ature ; and all votes 
given for any such person shall be void. 

Seg. 7. Senators and representatives shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, or 
breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest They shall not be subject to any dvil 
process during the session of the legislature, or for fifteen days next before the commence- 
ment and after the termination of each session. They shall not be questioned in any other 
place for any speech in either house. 

Sec. 8. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do boidness; but a 
smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and compd the attendance of absent mem- 
bers, in such manner and under such penalties as each house may prescribe. 



CONSTITDnOH OF THB 8TATE OF XICmOAH. 187 



Sec. 9. Each house shall choose its own oflScers, determhie the roles of its proceed- 
ings, and judge of the qualifications, elections and returns of its memhers ; and may, with 
the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members elected, expel a member. No member 
shall be expelled a second time for the same cause, nor for any cause known to his con- 
stituents antecedent to his election. The reason for such expulsion shall be entered upon 
the journal, with the names of the members voting on the question. 

8ec. 10. Each house shall keep a Journal of its proceedings, and publish the same, 
except such parts as may require secrecy. The yeas and nays of the members of either 
house, on any question, shall be entered on the journal at the request of one-fifth of the 
members elected. Any member of either house may dissent from and protest against any 
act, proceeding or resolution which he may deem i^urious to any person or the public, 
and have the reason of his dissent entered on the joumaL 

Bec. 11. In all elections by either house, or in joint convention, the votes shall be 
given vifM voce. All votes on nominations to the senate, shall be taken by yeas and nays, 
and published with the journal of its proceedings. 

Sec. 12. The doors of each house shall be open, unless the public wel&re require 
secrecy. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than 
three days, nor to any other place than where the legislature may then be in session. 

Sec. 13. Bills may originate in either house of the legislature. 

Sec. 14. Every bill and concurrent resolution, except of acQoumment, passed by the 
leg^lature, shall be presented to the governor before it becomes a law. If he approve, he 
shall sign it ; but if not, he shaU return it, with his objections, to the house in which it 
originated, which shall enter the objections at laige upon their journal, and reconsider it 
On such reconsideration, if two-thirds of the members elected agree to pass the bill, it 
shall be sent, with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall be reconsidered. If 
approved by two-thirds of the members elected to that house, it shall become a law. In 
such case, the vote of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of 
the members voting for and against the bill shall be entered 04 the journals of each house 
respectively. If any bill be not returned by the governor within ten days, Sundays 
excepted, after It has been presented to him, the same shall become a law, in like manner 
as if he had signed it, unless the le^slature, by their acyoumment, prevent its return ; in 
which case it shall not become a law. The governor may approve, fdgn, and file in the 
office of the secretary of state, within five days after the adjournment of the legislature, 
any act passed during the last five days of the session ; and the same shall become 
a law. 

Sec. 15. The compensation for the members of the legislature shall be three dollars a 
day for actual attendance, and when absent on account of sickness, for the first sixty days 
of the session of the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, and for the first forty 
days of every subsequent session, and nothing thereafter. When convened in extra ses- 
sion their compensation shall be three dollars a day for the first twenty days, and nothing 
thereafter ; and they shall legislate on no other subjects than those expressly stated in the 
governor's proclamation, or submitted to them by special message. They idiall be entitled 
to ten cents, and no more, for every mile actually traveled, going to and returning fh>m 
the place of meeting, on the usually traveled route; and for stationery and newspapers 
not exceeding five dollars for each member during any session. Each member shall be 
entitled to one copy of the laws, journals and documents of the legislature of which he 
was a member ; but shall not receive, at the expense of the state, books, newspapers, or 
other perquisites of office, not expressly authorized by this constitution. 

Sec. 16. The legislature may provide by law for the payment of postage on all mail- 



188 coNSTiTcrnoy of the state of lacExoAV. 



able matter received by its members and officers during the sessions of the legiilatiire, but 
not on any sent or mailed by them. 

Sec. 17. The Preddent of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Bepreeenti- 
tiyes shall be entitled to the same per diem compensation and mileage as members of the 
legislature, and no more. 

Sbc. 18. No person elected a member of the legislature shall receiTe any ctTil 
appointment within this state, or to the Senate of the United States, from the goyernor, 
the governor and senate, from the legislature, or any other state authority, during the 
term for which he is elected. All such appointments, and all votes given for any person 
so elected for any such office or appointment, shall be void. No member of the legislalare 
shall be interested, directly or indirectly, in any contract with the state, or any county 
thereof, authorized by any law passed during the time for which he is elected, nor for one 
year thereafter. 

Sec. 19. Every bill and Joint resolution shall be read three times in each house 
before the final passage thereof No bill or Joint resolution shall become a law without 
the concurrence of a majority of all the members elected to each house. On the final pas- 
sage of all bills the vote shall be by yeas and nays, and entered on the Journal 

Sec. 20. No law shall embrace more than one object, which shall be expressed in 
its title. No public acts shall take effect or be in force until the expiration of ninety days 
from the end of the session at which the same is passed, unless the legislature shall other- 
wise direct, by a two-thirds vote of the members elected to each house. 

Sec. 21. The legislature shall not grant nor authorize extra compensation to any 
public officer, agent or contractor, after the service has been rendered or the contract 
entered into. 

Sec. 23. The legislature shall provide by law that the fiimishing of ftiel and station- 
ery for the use of the state, the printing and binding the laws and Journals, all blanks, 
paper and printing for the executive departments, and all other printing ordered by the 
legislature, shall be let by contract to the lowest bidder or bidders, who shall give adequate 
and satis&ctory security for^the performance thereo£ The legislature shall prescribe by 
law the manner in which the state printing shaU be executed, and the accounts rendered 
therefor; and shall prohibit all chaiges for constructive labor. They shall not rescind nor 
alter such contract, nor release the person or persons taking the same, or his or their 
sureties, from the performance of any of the conditions of the contract No member of 
the legislature nor officer of the state shall be interested, directly or indirectly, in any such 
contract. 

Sec. 23. The legislature shall not authorize, by private or special law, the sale or 
conveyance of any real estate belonging to any person ; nor vacate nor alter any road laid 
out by comnussioners of highways, or any street in any city or village, or in any recorded 
town plat. 

Sec. 24. The legislature may authorize the employment of a chaplain for the state 
prison ; but no money shall be appropriated for the payment of any religious services in 
either house of the legislature. 

Sec 25. No law shall be revised, altered or amended by reference to its title only; 
but the act revised, and the section or sections of the act altered or amended, shall be 
re-enacted and published at length. 

Sec 26. Divorces shall not be granted by the legislature. 

Sec 27. The legislature shall not authorize any lottery, nor permit the sale of lottery 
tickets. 

Sec 28. No new bill shall be introduced into either house during the last three days 
of the session, without the unanimous consent of the house in which it orlj^inates. 



OOVBTITnnOH OF THE 8TATB OF XICHiaAK. 189 



Sec. 29. In case of a contested election, the person only shall recdve from the state 
per diem compensation and mileage, who Is declared to be entitled to a seat by the house 
in which the contest takes place. 

Ssa 80. No collector, holder, nor disburser of public moneys, shall have a seat in 
the l^islatare, or be eligible to any office of trust or profit under this state, until he shall 
haye accounted for and paid over, as provided by law, all sums for which he may be 
liable. 

Sec. 81. The legislature shall not audit nor allow any private claim or account 

8ec. 32. The legislature, on the day of final adjournment, shall adjourn at twelve 
o^dock at noon. 

Sec 88. The legislature shall meet at the seat of government on the first Wednesday 
in February next, and on the first Wednesday in January of every second year thereafter, 
and at no other place or time, unless as provided in this constitution. 

Sec. 84. The election of senators and representatives, pursuant to the provisions of 
this constitution, shall be held on the Tuesday succeeding the first Monday of November, 
in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two, and on the Tuesday succeeding the 
first Monday of November of every second year thereafter. 

Sec. 85. The legislature shall not establish a state paper. Every newspaper in the 
state which shall publish all the general laws of any session %ithin forty days of their 
passage, shall be entitled to receive a sum not exceeding fifteen dollars therefor. 

Ssa 8tt. The legislature shall provide for the speedy publication of all statute laws 
oi a public nature, and of such judicial decisions as it may deem expedient. All laws 
and Judicial decisions shall be free for publication by any person. 

Sec. 87. The legislature may declare the cases in which any office shall be deemed 
vacant, and also the manner of filling the vacancy, where no provision is made for that 
purpose in this constitution. 

Sec. 38. The legislature may confer upon organized townships, incorporated cities 
and villages, and upon the board of supervisors of the several counties, such powers of a 
local, legislative and administrative character as they may deem proper. 

Sec. 80. The legislature shall pass no law to prevent any person from worshipping 
Almighty Qod according to the dictates of his own conscience, or to compel any person 
to attend, erect or support any place of religious worship, or to pay tithes, taxes or other 
rates for the support of any minister of the gospel or teacher of religion. 

Sec 40. No money shall be appropriated or drawn from the treasury for the benefit 
of any religious sect or society, theological or religious seminary, nor shall property 
belonging to the state be appropriated for any such purposes. 

Sec 41. The legislature f^ll not diminish or enlarge the civil or political rights, 
imvileges and capacities of any person on account of his opinion or belief concerning 
matters of religion. 

Sec. 42. No law shall ever be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or 
of the press; but every person may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments on all 
subject^ being responsible for the abuse of such right 

Sec 48. The legislature shall pass no bill of attainder, eiD-post facto law, or law 
impairing the obligation of contracts. 

Sec 44. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus remains, and shall not be sus- 
pended by the legislature, except in case of rebellion or invasion the public safety require it. 

Sec. 45. The assent of two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the legis- 
lature shall be requisite to every bill appropriating the public money or property, for local 
or private purpoaea. 



140 GovsnriTTiov of the btatb of michioav. 



Sec. 46. The l^islatOTe may authorize a trial by a Jmy of a lew niimber than twelye 
men. 

Sbc. 47. The legislature shall not pass any act authorizing the grant of license fbr 
the sale of ardent spirits or other intoxicating liquors. 

Sbc. 48. The style of the Uws shall be, '' The People of the State of Midiigan enact** 

ARTICLE V. 

BXBCUnYB DEPABTMEKT. 

Section 1. The executive power is rested in a goyemor, who shall hold his office 
for two years. A lieutentant goyemor shall be chosen for the same term. 

Sec. 3. No person shall be eligible to the office of goyemor or lieutenant goyemor, 
who has not been fiye years a citizen of the United States, and a resident of this slate two 
years next preceding his election ; nor shall any person be eligible to either office who has 
not attained the age of thirty years. 

Sec. 8. The goyemor and lieutenant goyemor shall be elected at the times and 
places of choosing the members of the legislature. The person haying the highest num- 
ber of yotes for goyemor or lieutenant goyemor, shall be elected. In case two or mem 
persons shall haye an equal and the highest number of yotes for goyemor or lieutenant 
goyemor, the legislature shall, by Joint yote, choose one of such persons. 

• Sec. 4 The goyemor shall be commander-in-chief of the militaiy and nayal finces, 
and may call out such forces to execute the laws, to suppress insuirections, and to repel 
inyasions. 

Sec. 6. He shall transact all necessary business with officers of goyemment, and 
may require information, in writing, from the officers of the executiye department, upon 
any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices. 

Sec. 6. He shall take care that the laws be fiiithftilly executed. 

Sec. 7. He may convene the legislature on extraordinary occasions 

Sec. 8. He shall give to the legislature, and at the close of his official term, to the 
next legislature, information by message of the condition of the state, and recommend 
such measures to them as he shall deem expedient 

Sec. 9. He may convene the legislature at some other place, when the seat of gov- 
ernment becomes dimgerous from disease or a common enemy. 

Sec. 10. He shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies as occur in the senate 
or house of representatives. 

Sec. 11. He may grant reprieves, commutations and pardons after convictions, for 
all offenses except treason and cases of impeachment, upon such conditions, and with 
such restrictions and limitations, as he may Uiink proper, subject to r^ulations provided 
by law, relative to the manner of applying for pardons. Upon conviction for treason, he 
may suspend the execution of the sentence, until the case shall be reported to the legisla- 
ture at its next session, when the legislature shall either pardon, or commute the sentence, 
direct the execution of the sentence, or grant a further reprieve. He sliall communicate 
to the legislature at each session information of each case of reprieve, commutation or 
pardon granted, and the reasons therefor. 

Sec. 12. In case of the impeachment of the governor, his removal from office, death, 
inability, resignation or absence from the state, the powers and duties of the office shall 
devolve upon the lieutenant govemor for the residue of the term, or until the disability 
ceases. When the govemor shall be out of the state in time of war, at the head of a 
militaiy force thereof^ he shall continue commander-in-chief of all the military force of 
the state. 



covsTmrnoN or the state of michioav. 141 



Ssa 18. During s yacancy in the office of governor, if the lieutenant governor die, 
resign, be impeached, displaced, be incapable of performing the duties of his office, or 
absent from the state, the president pro tempore of the senate shall act as governor, until 
the vacancy be fiUed, or the disability cease. 

Ssa 14. Ttie lieutenant governor shall, by virtue of his office, be president of the 
senate. In committee of the whole he may debate all questions ; and when there is an 
equal division, he shall give the casting vote. 

Sec. 15. No member of congress, nor any person holding office under the United 
States, or this state, shall execute the office of governor. 

Sec. 16. No person elected governor or lieutenant governor, shall be eligible to any 
office or appointment from the legislature, or either house thereof, during the time for 
which he was elected. All votes for either of them, for any such office, shall be void.^ 

Sec. 17. The lieutenant [governor,] and president of the senate pro tempore, when 
perfonning the duties of governor, shall receive the same compensation as the governor. 

Sec. 18. All official acts of the governor, his approval of the laws excepted, shall be 
authenticated by the great seal of the state, which shall be kept by the secretary of state. 

Sec. 19. All commissions issued to persons holding office under the provisions of 
this constitution, shall be in the name and by the authority of the People of the State of 
Michigan, sealed with the great seal of the state, signed by the governor, and counter- 
signed by the secretary of state. 

ARTICLE VI. 

JUDICIAL DEFABTMENT. 

Section 1. The Judicial power is vested in one supreme court, in circuit courts, in 
probate courts, and in Justices of the peace. Municipal courts of civil and criminal Juris- 
diction may be established by the legislature in cities. 

Sec. 2. For the term of six years, and thereafter until the legislature otherwise pro- 
vide, the judges of the several circuit courts shall be Judges of the supreme court, four of 
whom shall constitute a quorum. A concurrence of three shall be necessary to a final 
decision. After six years, the legislature may provide by law for the organization of a 
supreme court, with the Jurisdiction and powers prescribed in this constitution, to consist 
of one chief Justice and three associate Justices, to be chosen by the electors of the state. 
Such supreme court, when so organized, shall not be changed or discontinued by the legis- 
lature for eight years thereafter. The Judges thereof shall be so classified that but one of 
them shall go out of office at the same time. Their term of office shall be eight years. 

tea 8. The supreme court shall have a general superintending control over all 
inferior courts, and shall have power to issue writs of error, habeas corpus, mandamus, 
quo warranto, procedendo, and other original and remedial writs, and to hear and deter- 
mine the same. In all other cases it shall have appellate Jurisdiction only. 

Ssa 4. Four terms of the supreme court shall be held annually, at such times and 
places as may be derignated by law. 

Ssa 5. The supreme court shall, by general rules, establish, modify, and amend the 
practice in such court and in the circuit courts, and simplify the same. The legislature 
shall, as ihr as practicable, abolish distinctions between law and equity proceedings. The 
office of master in chancery is prohibited. 

Sec. 0. The state shall be divided into eight Judicial cifcuits ; in each of which the 
dectors thereof shall elect one circuit Judge, who shall hold his office for the term of six 
years, and until his successor is elected and qualified. 

Sec 7. The legislature may alter the limits of circuits, or increase the number of the 
same. No alteration or increase shall have the effect to remove a Judge fix>m office. In 



142 coirsTiTOTioir of tbb btatb of uloexoak. 



every additional drcuit established, the Judge shall be elected bj the dect^HV of sacfa 
circait, and his tenn of office shall continue, as provided in this oonstitation fat Judges of 
the circuit court 

Sec. 8. The circuit courts shall have original Jurisdiction in all matters, civil and 
criminal, not excepted in this constitution, and not prohibited by law; and appdiate Juris- 
diction from all inferior courts and tribunals, and a supervisory control of tiie aame. 
They shall also have power to issue writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, injunction, quo 
warranto, certiorari, and other writs necessary to carry into effect their ord^v, Judgments 
and decrees, and give them a general control over inferior courts and tribunals within 
their respective Jurisdictions. 

Sbc. 0. Each of the Judges of the drcuit courts shall recdve a salary payable quar- 
terly. They shall be ineligible to any other than a Judicial office during the term for 
which they are elected, and for one year thereafter. All votes for any person elected such 
Judge for any office other than Judicial, given either by the legislature or the people, diall 
be void. 

Sec. 10. The supreme court may appoint a reporter of its decirions. The decirions 
of the supreme court shall be in writing, and signed by the Judges ooncuiring therdn. 
Any Judge dissenting therefrom, shall give the reasons of sudi dissent in writing, under 
his signature. All such opinions shall be filed in the office of the derk of the supreme 
court. The Judges of the drcuit court, within their respective Jurisdicdcms, may fill 
vacandes in the office of county clerk and of prosecuting attorney ; but no Judge of the 
supreme court, or circuit court, shall exercise any other power of appointment to public 
office. 

Sec. 11. A circuit court shall be held at least twice in each year in every county 
organized for Judicial purposes, and four times in each year in counties containing ten 
thousand inhabitants. Judges of the drcuit court may hold courts for each other, and 
shall do so when requfred by law. 

Sec. 12. The clerk of each county organized for Judidal purposes, shall be the deik 
of the circuit court of such county, and of the supreme court when hdd within the same. 

Sec. 18. In each of the counties organized for Judidal purposes, there shall be a 
court of probate. The Judge of such court shall be elected by the electors of the county 
in which he resides, and shall hold his office for four years, and until his successor is 
dected and qualified. The Jurisdiction, powers and duties of such court shall be pre- 
scribed by law. 

Sec. 14. When a vacancy occurs in the office of Judge of the supreme, circuit, 
or probate court, it shall be ffiled by appointment of the governor, which shall continue 
until a successor is elected and qualified. When elected, such successor shall hold his 
office the residue of the unexpired term. 

Sec. 15. The supreme court, the drcuit and probate courts of each county, shall be 
courts of record, and shall each have a common seal. 

Sec. 16. The legislature may provide by law for the election of one or more persons 
in each oi^nized county, who may be vested with Judicial powers, not exceeding those 
of a Judge of the drcuit court at chambers. 

Sec. 17. There shall be not exceeding four Justices of the peace in each oiganized 
township. They shall be elected by the electors of the townships, and shall hold their 
offices for four years, and undl their successors are elected and qualified. At the first 
election in any township, they shall be classified as shall be prescribed by law. A justice 
elected to fill a vacancy shall hold his oflSce for the residue of the unexpired term. The 
legislature may increase the number of Justices in dtie& 



coKSTinrnoN of the state of lacmoAK. 148 



Sec 18. In civil cases. Justices of the peace shall have exclusive Jurisdiction to the 
amoont of cne hundred dollars, and concurrent jurisdiction to the amount of three hun- 
dred dollars, which may be increased to five hundred dollars, with such exceptions and 
restrictions as may be provided by law. They shall also have such criminal Jurisdiction, 
and perform anch duties as shall be prescribed by the legislature. 

Sec 19. Judges of the supreme court, circuit Judges, and Justices of the peace, shall 
be conservatofB of the peace within their respective Jurisdictions. 

Sec 20. The first election of Judges of the circuit courts shall be held on the first 
Mcmday in A|Nril, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, and every sixth year there- 
after. Whenever an additional circuit is created, provision shall be made to hold the 
sabeeqoent election of such additional Judges at the regular election herein provided. 

Sbc 31. The first election of Judges of the probate courts shall be held on the Tues- 
day sacceeding the first Monday of November, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two, 
and every fourth year thereafter. 

Sec 22. Whenever a Judge shall remove beyond the limits of the Jurisdiction for 
which he was elected, or a Justice of the peace fix)m the township in which he was elected, 
or by a change in the boundaries of such township shall be placed without the same, they 
shall be deemed to have vacated their respective offices. 

Sec 28. The legislature may establish courts of conciliation, with such powers and 
duties as shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec 24 Any suitor in any court of this state shall have the right to prosecute or 
dcAmd his svdt, either in his own proper person or by an attorney or agent of his choice. 

Sec 25. In all prosecutions for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the 
JuiT ; and if it sliall appear to the Juiy that the matter charged as libelous is true, and 
was published with good motives and for Justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted. 
The Jniy shall have the right to determine the law and the foct 

Sec 2fi. The person, houses, papers, and possessions of every person shall be secure 
from unreasonable searches and seizures. No warrant to search any place or to seize any 
person or things, shall issue without describing them, nor without probable cause, sup- 
ported by oath or affirmation. 

Sec 27. The right of trial by Juiy shall remain, but shall be deemed to be waived in 
all civil cases, unless demanded by one of the parties, in such manner as shall be pre- 
scribed by law. 

Sec 28. In every criminal prosecution the accused shall have the right to a speedy 
and public trial by an impartial Juiy, which may consist of less than twelve men in all 
coarts not of record ; to be informed of the nature of the accusation ; to be confronted 
with the witnesses against him ; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his 
fhvor, and have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 

Sec 29. No person, after acquittal upon the merits, shall be tried for the same 
offense ; all persons shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for 
murder and treason, when the proof is evident, or the presumption great 

Sec. 80. Treason against the state shall consist only in levying war against pt,] or in 
adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort No person shall be convicted of 
treason, unless upon the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession 
in opencoort 

Sec 81. Excessive bail shall not be required ; excessive fines shall not be imposed ; 
cruel or nnnsiial punishment shall not be inflicted, nor shall witnesses be unreasonably 
detained. 

Sec 82. No person shall be compeUed, in any criminal case, to be a witness against 
hhnseU; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law. 



144 coNBTmmoN of the state of michioah. 



Sec. 88. No person shall be imprisoned for debt ftrislng out of or founded an a ccm- 
tract, express or implied, except in cases of fraud or breach of trust, or of moneys oc^ 
collected bj public officers, or in any professional employment. No person ahaQ be 
imprisoned for a militia fine in time of peace. 

Sec. 84. No person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness on acooont oi hb 
opinions on matters of religious belief. 

Sec. 85. The style of all process shall be : '' In the name of the People of the State 
of Michigan." 

ARTICLE VII. 
ELEcnoire. 

Section 1. In all elections every white male citizen, every white male inhabitant 
reading in the state on the twenty-fourth day of June, one thousand eight hundred and 
thirty-five ; every white male inhabitant residing in this state on the first day of Januaiy, 
one thousand eight hundred and fifty, who has declared his intention to be(x>me a citizen 
of the United States, pursuant to the laws thereof, six months preceding an election, or 
who has resided in this state two years and six months, and declared his intention as afore- 
said ; and every civilized male inhabitant of Indian descent, a native of the United States, 
and not a member of any tribe, shall be an elector and entitled to vote ; but no citizen or 
inhabitant shall be an elector, or entitled to vote at any election, unless he shall be above 
the age of twenty-one years, and has resided in this state three months, and in the town- 
ship or ward in which he offers to vote, ten days next preceding such election. 

Sec. 2. All votes shall be given by ballot, except for such township officers as may 
be authorized by law to be otherwise chosen. 

Sec 8. Every elector, in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, 
shall be privileged from arrest during his attendance at election, and going to and return- 
ing from the same. 

Sec. 4. No elector shall be obliged to do military duty on the day of election, 
except in time of war or public danger ; or attend court as a suitor or witness. 

Sec. 5. No elector shall be deemed to have gained or lost a re^dence, by reason of 
his being employed in the service of the United States, or of this state ; nor while engaged 
in the navigation of the waters of this state or of the United States, or of the high seas ; 
nor while a student of any seminary of learning ; nor while kept at any alma-house or 
other asylum at public expense ; nor while confined in any public prison. 

Sec. 6. Laws may be passed to preserve the purity of elections, and guard against 
abuses of the elective franchise. 

Sec 7. No soldier, seaman, nor marine in the army or navy of the United States, 
shall be deemed a resident of tins state, in consequence of being stationed in any military 
or naval place within the same. 

Sec 8. Any inhabitant who may hereafter be engaged in a duel, either as principal, 
or accessory before the &ct, shall be disqualified from holding any office under the consti- 
tution and laws of this state, and shall not be permitted to vote at any election. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

STATE OFFICERS. 

Section 1. There shall be elected at each general biennial election, a secretary of 
state, a superintendent of public instruction, a state treasurer, a commissioner of the land 
office, an auditor general, and an attorney general, for the term of two years. They shall 
keep their offices at the seat of government, and shall perform such duties as may be pre- 
scribed by law. 



OOVflTITUnOlf OF THB BTATB OF MIOHIOAir. 145 



Saa 8. Their term of office ahall commence on the first day of January, one thoa- 
amd eight hundred and fifty-tiiree, and of every second year thereafter. 

tea 8. Whenever a vacancy shall occur in any of the state offices, the governor shall 
fin the aune hy appointment, by and with the consent of the senate, if in session. 

tec. 4. The secretaiy of state, state treasurer, and commissioner of the state land 
office shall constitute a board of state auditors, to examine and adjust all claims against 
the fltale not otherwise provided for by general law. They shall constitute a board of 
state canvaaBere to determine the result of all elections for governor, lieutenant governor, 
and state officers, and of such other officers as shall by law be referred to them. 

Sbc. 5. In case two or more persons have an equal and the highest number of votes 
for any oflSce, as canvassed by the board of state canvassers, the legislature in joint con- 
vention ahall choose one of such persons to fill such office. When the determination of 
the board of state canvassers is contested, the legislature in Joint convention shall decide 
which person is elected. 

ARTICLE IX. 
flALAKnta 

Sbction 1. The governor shall receive an annual salaiy of one thousand dollars ; 
tiie judges of the circuit court shall each receive an annual salary of one thousand five 
hundred dollars ; the state treasurer shall receive an annual salaiy of one thousand dol- 
lars ; the auditor general shall receive an annual salary of one thousand dollars ; -the 
superintendent of public instruction shall receive an annual salary of one thousand dol- 
lars ; the secretary of state shall receive an annual salary of eight hundred dollars ; the 
commiflBioner of the land office shall receive an annual salary of eight hundred dollars ; 
the attorney general shall receive an annual salary of eight hundred dollars. They shall 
receive no foes or perquisites whatever, for the performance of any duties connected with 
their offices. It shall not be competent for the legislature to increase the salaries herein 
provided. 

ARTICLE X. 
couNTma 

tecnoN 1. Each organized county shall be a body corporate, with such powers and 
immunities as shall be established by law. All suits and proceedings by or against a 
county shall be in the name thereof. 

Sec. 3. No organized county shall ever be reduced by the organization of new coun- 
ties to less than sixteen townships, as surveyed by the United States, unless, in pursuance 
of law, a minority of electors residing in each county to be affected thereby shall so decide. 
The legislature may organize any city into a separate county, when it has attained a pop- 
ulation of twenty thousand inhabitants, without reference to geographical extent, when a 
majority of the electors of a county in which such city may be situated, voting thereon, 
shaU be in &vor of a separate organization. 

Saa 8. In each organized county there shall be a sheriff, a county clerk, a county 
treasurer, a register of deeds, and a prosecuting attorney, chosen by the electors thereof, 
once in two yearsy and as often as vacancies shall happen, whose duties and powers shall 
be prescribed by law. The board of supervisors in any county may unite tiie offices of 
county clerk and register of deeds in one office, or disconnect the same. 

tea 4. The sh^iff, county clerk, county treasurer, judge of probate, and register of 
deeds, shall hold their offices at the county seat 

Boa 5. The sheriff shall hold no other office, and shall be incapable of holding the 
office of aheriff longer than four in any period of six years. He may be required by law 
10 



146 oovBiiTunoH or the btatb of looraoAV. 



io lenew his leciirity tnm time to time, and in de&nlt of giving such eecnri^* hit office 
shall be deemed vacant The county sliall never be responsible for his acts. 

Ssa 6. A, board of supervisors, consLsting of one from eadi oiganised township, 
shall be established in each county, with such powers as shall bo prescribed by law. 

Sbc. 7. Cities shall have such representation in the board of soperviaois of the 
counties in wliich they are situated, as the legislature may direct 

Sbc 8. No county seat once established shall be removed until the place to wbkh it 
is proposed to be removed shall be designated by two-thirds of the boaid of msgerwiaan 
of the county, and a majority of the electors voting thereon shall have voted in fitvor of 
the pn^tosed location, in imch manner as shall be prescribed by law. 

8bc. 9. The board of supervisors of any county may borrow or raise by tax one 
thousand dollars, for construcdng or r^Miring public buildings, highways or bridges ; but 
no greater sum shall be borrowed or raised by tax for such puipose in any one year, unless 
au^orized by a majority of the electors of such county voting thereon. 

Sec. 10. The board of supervisors, or, in the county of Wayne, the board of county 
auditors, shall have the exclusive power to prescribe and fix the compensation for all ser- 
vices rendered for, and to adjust aU claims against, their respective counties ; and the sum 
so fixed or defined shall be eobject to no appeal. 

Sbo. 11. The board of supervisors of each organized county may provide for laying 
out highways, constructing bridges, and organizing townships, under sudii restrictions and 
limitations as shall be prescribed by law. 

ARTICLE XI. 

TOWNSHIPS. 

Sbction 1. There shall be elected annually, on the first Monday of April, in each 
organized township, one supervisor, one township clerk, who shall be, eoHffflciOf school 
inspector, one commissioner of highways, one township treasurer, one school inspector, 
not exceeding four constables, and one overseer of highways for each highway district, 
whose powers and duties shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 2. Each organized township shall be a body corporate, with such powers and 
immuniUes as shall be prescribed by law. All suits and proceedings by or against a town- 
ship shall be in the name thereofl 

ARTICLE XII. 

DCFSACHMKNTS AKD REMOVAIiS FROM OFFICE. 

SBcnoir 1. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of impeaching 
civil officers for corrupt conduct in office, or for crimes and misdemeanors; but a minority 
of the members elected shall be necessaxy to direct an impeachment 

Sbo. 2. Every impeachment shall be tried by the senate. When the governor or 
lieutenant governor is tried, the chief justice of the supreme court shall preside. When 
an impeachment is directed, the senate shall take an oath or affirmation truly and impar- 
tially to try and determine the same according to the evidence. Ko person shall be con- 
victed without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members elected. Judgment in case 
of impeachment shall not extend further than removal from office ; but the party convicted 
shall be liable to punishment according to law. 

Sec 8. When an impeachment is directed, the House of Representatives shall elect 
from their own body three members, whose duty it shall be to prosecute such impeach- 
ment Ko impeachment shall be tried until the final ac^ pumment of the l^iislature, when 
the senate will proceed to try the same. 



commnmoH or the state of xiobioak. 147 



Sad 4. No Jndkiftl oiBcer shall exercise his office after an impeachment Is directed, 
mitil he is aoqiiitled. 

Baa Ow The goremor may make a prorisional appointment to fill a vacancy ooea- 
sioned by the smq^ension of an officer antU he shall be acquitted, or mitil after ih» elecdon 
and qoalilleatkm of a successor. 

Sbc. 0. For reasonable cause, which shall not be sufficient grotmd for the impeach- 
ment of a Judge, the goTcmor shall remove him on a concurrent resolution of two-thirds 
of the members elected to each house of the legislature ; but the cause for which such 
removml is required, shall be stated at length in such resolution. 

8bc. 7. The legislature shall provide by law for the removal of any officer elected Yff 
a county, township or sdiool district, in such manner and for such cause as to them shall 
seem just and proper. 

ARTICLE XIII. 

EDUCATION. 

SacnoN L The superintendent of public instruction shall have the general super- 
vision of public instruction, and his duties shall be prescribed by law. 

Sbc 2w The proceeds from the sales of all lands that have been or hereafter may be 
granted by the United States to the state, for educational purposes, and the proceeds of all 
lands or other property given by individuals, or appropriated by the state for like pur- 
poses, shall be and remain a perpetual fVmd, the interest and income of which, together 
with the rents of all such lands as may remain unsold, shall be inviolably appropriated 
and annually applied to the specific objects of the original gift, grant or appropriation. 

Saaa AH Umda, the titles to whidi shall &il from a defect of heirs, shall escheat to 
the state ; and the interest on the clear proceeds from the sales thereof, shall be appropri- 
ated exchislvely to the support of primary schools. 

Sbo. 4. The legislature shall, within five years from the adoption of this constitution, 
provide for and establish a system of primary schools, whereby a school shall be kqpt 
wfthoot chaige for tuition, at least three months in each year, in every school district in 
the state; and all iBStmotlon in said schools shall be conducted in the English language. 

8Ba 5. A school shall be maintained in each school district at least three months in 
each year. Any school district neglecting to maintain such school, shall be deprived for 
the ensuing year of its proportion of the income of the primary school ftmd, and of all foxidft 
arising flrom taxes for the support of schools. 

Sbc. 6. There shall be elected in each Judicial circuit, at the time of the election of 
the Judge of such circuit, a regent of the university, whose term of office shall be the same 
as that of such Judge. The regents thus elected shall constitute the board of regents of 
the Univerrf^ of Ifichigan. 

Sbc. 7. The regents of the university, and their successors in office, shall continue to 
constitute the body corporate, known by the name and tiUe of '* The Regents of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan." 

Sbc. 8 The regents of the university shall, at their first annual meeting, or as soon 
thereafter as may be, elect a president of the university, who shall be einyllMo a member 
of their board; with the privilege of speaking, but not of voting. He Bhall*preride at the 
meetings of the regents, and be the principal executive officer of the university. The 
board of regents shaU have the<|^eral supenddon of the university, and the direction 
and contfol of all expenditures from the university interest ftmd. 

Ssa 9. There shaU be elected at the general election in the year one thousand eight 
hundred and lllty-two, three members of a state board of education, one for two years, 
one for four yam, and <«e for six yean; and at each snooeedhig biennial election there 



148 OONBTITUTION OF THE STATE OF MIOHiaAV. 



shall be elected one member of such board, who shall hold his office for six years. The 
Buperintendent of public instruction shall be ex^ffldo a member and secretaiy of aodi 
board. The board shall have the general supervision of the state normal school, and tlidr 
duties shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 10. Institutions for the benefit of those inhabitants who are deaf^ duml^ blind, 
or insane, shall always be fostered and supported. 

8bc. 11. The legislature shall encourage the promotion of intellectual, sdentifKc aod 
agricultural improvement; and shall, as soon as practicable, provide for the fwtaWishmiwt 
of an agricultural school The legislature may appropriate the twenty-two aectiooB of 
salt spring lands now unappropriated, or the money arising from the sale of the same, 
where such lands have been already sold, and any land which may hereafter be granted 
or appropriated for such purpose, for the support and maintenance of such school, and 
may make the same a branch of the university, for instruction in agriculture and the 
natural sciences connected therewith, and place the same under the supervision of the 
regents of the university. 

Sbc. 12. The legislature shall provide for the establishment of at least one library 
in each township; and all fines assessed and collected in the several counties and 
townships for any breach of the penal laws, shall be exclusively applied to the support of 
such libraries. 

ARTICLE XIV. 

FINANCE AND TAXATION. 

Section 1. All specific state taxes, except those received from the mining compa- 
nies of the upper peninsula, shall be applied in paying the interest upon the primary 
school, university, and other educational funds, and the interest and principal of the state 
debt in the order herein recited, until the extinguishment of the state debt, other than the 
amounts due to educational fimds, when such specific taxes shall be added to, and consti- 
tute a part of the primary school interest fund. The legislature shall provide for an 
annual tax, sufficient, with other resources, to pay the estimated expenses of the state 
government, the interest of the state debt, and such deficiency as may occur in the resources. 

Sec. 2. The legislature shall provide by law a sinking fund of at least twenty thou- 
sand dollars a year, to commence in eighteen hundred and fifty-two, vrith compound inter- 
est at the rate of six per cent per annum, and an annual increase of at least five per cent, 
to be applied solely to the payment and extingmshment of the principal of the state debt, 
other than the amounts due to educational funds, and shall be continued until the extin- 
guishment thereof The unfimded debt shall not be funded or redeemed at a value 
exceeding that established by law in one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight 

Sec. 8. The state may contract debts to meet deficits in revenue. Such debts shall 
not in the aggregate at any one time exceed fifty thousand dollars. The moneys so raised 
shall be applied to the purposes for which they were obtained, or to the payment of the 
debts 80 contracted. 

Sec. 4. The state may contract debts to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, or 
defend the state in time of war. The money arising from the contracting of such debts 
shall be applied* to the purposes for which it was raised, or to repay such debts. 

Sec. 5. No money shall be paid out of the treasury, except in pursuance of appro- 
priations made by law. Mk 

Sec. 6. The credit of the state shall not be granted to, or in aid of, any person, asso- 
ciation or corporation. 

Sec. 7. No scrip, certificate, or other evidence of state indebtedness shall be issued, 
except for the redemption of stock previously issued, or for such debts as are expressly 
authorized in this constitution. 



ooKSTinrnoN of the ^tate of wcmoAir. 149 



Ssa 8. The state shall not subscribe to, or be interested in, the stock of any com- 
pany, asBodation or corporation. 

Bec 9. The state shall not be a party to, or interested in, any work of internal 
improrement, or engaged in canying on any such work, except in the expenditure of 
grants to the state of land or other property. 

Ssa lOi The state may continue to collect all specific taxes accruing to the treasury 
xmda existing laws. The legislature may provide for the collection of specific taxes, fix>m 
banking, railroad, plank road, and other corporations hereafter created. 

8bc. 11. The legislature shall provide an uniform rule of taxation, except on prop- 
erty paying specific taxes, and taxes shall be levied on such property as shall be prescribed 
bylaw. 

Ssa 12. All assessments hereafter authorized shall be on property at its cash value. 

Sec. 18. The legislature shall provide for an equalization by a state board, in the 
year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, and every fifth year thereafter, of assess- 
ments on all taxable property, except that paying specific taxes. 

Sec 14. Eveiy law which imposes, continues or revives a tax, shall distinctly state 
the tax, and the object to which it is to be applied; and it shall not be sufl^cient to refer 
to any other law to fix such tax or object 

• 
ARTICLE XV. 

CORPORATIONS. 

Sbcttoh 1. Corporations may be formed under general laws ; but shall not be created 
by q>edal act, except for municipal purposes. All laws passed pursuant to this section, 
may be altered, amended or repealed. 

Sec. 2. No banking law or law for banking purposes, or amendments thereof, shall 
have effect mitil the same shall, after its passage, be submitted to a vote of the electors of 
tlie state, at a general election, and be approved by a majority of the votes cast thereon 
at such election. • 

Ssa 8. The officers and stockholders of every corporation or association for banking 
porposea, issuing bank notes or paper credits to circulate as money, shall be individually 
liable for all debts contracted during the time of their being ofilcers or stockholders of such 
corporation or association. 

8Ba 4. The legislature shall provide by law for the registry of all bills or notes 
issued or put in drculation as money, and shall require security to the ftill amount of 
notes and bills so registered, in state or United States stocks bearing interest, which shall 
be deposited with the state treasurer for the redemption of such bills or notes in specie. 

Sec. 5. In case of the insolvency of any bank or banking association, the bill holders 
tliereof shall be entitled to preference in payment, over all other creditors of such bank or 
association. 

Sec. 0. The legislature shall pass no law authorizing or sanctioning the suspension 
of spede payments by any person, association or corporation. 

Sb& 7. The stockholders of all corporations and Joint stock associations shall be 
individoaUy liaUe for all labor performed for such corporation or association. 

Ssa 8. The legislature shall pass no law altering or amending any act of incorpor- 
ation heretofore granted, withotrt the assent of two-thirds of the members elected to each 
house; nor shall any such act be renewed or extended. This restriction shall not apply 
to munidpal corporationa 

Sec. 9. The property of no person shall be taken by any corporation for public use, 
without compensatioa being first made or secured, in such manner as may be prescribed 
bylaw. 



150 ooviTirunoN or thi state of looHioAir. 

Sec. 10. No corporation, except for municipal porpoeeB, or for the conatmction of 
rail roads, plank roads and canals, shall be created for a longer time tlian thirty yean. 

Sbc. 11. The term ** corporation," as used in the preceding aectiona of this article, 
shall be construed to include all associations and Joint stock companies having ai^ of the 
powers or privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerahips. All 
corporations shall have the right to sue and be subject to be sued in all ooorte, in like 
cases as natural persons. 

Sbc. 12. No OMporation shall hold any real estate hereafter acquired for a Id^^er 
period than ten years, except such real estate as shall be actually occupied by fsach cor- 
poration in the exercise of its franchises. 

Sbc. 18. The legislature shall provide for the incorporation and organization of 
cities and villages, and shall restrict their powers of taxation, borrowing money, contract- 
ing debts, and loaning their credit 

Sbc 14. Judicial officers of cities and villages shall be elected, and all other officers 
shall be elected or appointed at such time and in such manner as the l^islature may 
direct 

Sbc. 15. Private property shall not be taken for public improvements in cities snd 
villages without the consent of the owner, unless the compensation therefor shall first be 
determined by a Jpiy of freeholders, and actually paid or secured in the manner provided 
by law. 

Sbc. 16. Previous notice of any application for an alteration of the charter of any 
corporation shall be given in such manner as may be prescribed by law. 

ARTICLE XVI. 

EXBMFTIONS. 

Section 1. The personal property of every resident of this state, to consist of such 
property only as shall be de^gnated by law, shall be exempted to the amount of not less 
than five himdred dollars, from sale on execution or other final process of any court, 
issued for the collection of any debt contracted after the adoption of this constitution. 

Sec 2. Every homestead of not exceeding forty acres of land, and the dwelling house 
thereon, and the appurtenances, to be selected by the owner thereof, and not included in 
any town plat, city or village ; or instead thereof, at the option of the owner, any lot in 
any city, village or recorded town plat, oh such parts of lots as shall be equal thereto, and 
the dwelling house thereon, and its appurtenances, owned and occupied by any lesid^it 
of the state, not exceeding in value fifteen hundred dollars, shall be exempt from forced 
sale on execution, or any other final process from a court, for any debt contracted after the 
adoption of this constitution. Such exemption shall not extend to any mortgage thereon 
lawfully obtained; but such mortgage or other alienation of such land by the owner 
thereof, if a married man, shall not be valid without the signature of the wife to the same. 

Sec 8. The homestead of a family, after the death of the owner thereof, shall be 
exempt from the payment of his debts, contracted after the adoption of this constituticmi 
in all cases during the minority of his children. 

Sec 4 If the owner of a homestead die, leaving a widow, but no children, the same 
shall be exempt, and the rents and profits thereof shall accrue to her benefit during the 
time of her widowhood, unless she be the owner of a homestead in her own right 

Sec 5. The real and personal estate of every female, acquired before marriage, and 
all property to which she may afterwards become entitled by gift, grant, inheritance or 
devise, shall be and remahi the estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable 
for the debts, obligations or engagements of her husband, and may be devised or 
bequeathed by her as if she were unmarried. 



oonnnrnoK of thb state or miohioak. 161 

ARTICLE XVII. 

MILITIA. 

Sbctiok 1. Tlie militia shall be oompofled of all able bo<Ued white male citizens 
between the ages of eighteen and fbrty-five years, except sach as are exempted by the 
laws of the United States or of this state ; but all sach dtizens, of any religious denomin- 
ation whaterer, who, flrom scruples of conscience, may be averse to bearing arms, sliall be 
excused therefrom, upon such conditions as shall be prescribed by law. 

Bec 2. The legislature shall provide by law for organizing, equipping and disciplin- 
ing the miUtia, in such manner as they shall deem expedient, not incompatible with the 
laws of the United States. 

Sbc. 8. Officers of the militia shall be elected or appointed, and be commissioned in 
BQch manner as may be provided by law. 

ARTICLE XVIII. 

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS. * 

SBcnoN 1. Members of the legislature, and all officers, executivMmd Judicial, except 
BQch officers as may by law be exempted, shall, before they enter on the duties of their 
respective offices, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation : " I do solemnly 
swear (or affirm,) that I will support the constitution of the United States and the consti- 
tution of this state, and that I will fidthftilly discharge the duties of the office of 

iocording to the best of my ability." And no other oath, declaration or test shall be 
required as a qualification for any office or public trust. 

Sec. 2. When private property is taken for the use or benefit of the public, the 
necessity for uMng such property, and the just compensation to be made therefor, except 
when to be made by the state, shall be ascertained by a Jury of twelve freeholders, reading 
in the vicinity of such property, or by not less than three commissioners, appointed by a 
court of record, as shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec 8. No mechanical trade shall hereafter be taught to convicts in the state prison 
of this state, except the manu&cture of those articles of which the chief supply for home 
consumption is imported from other states or countries. 

Sec. 4 No navigable stream in this state shall be either bridged or dammed without 
inthority from the board of supervisors of the proper county, under the provisions of law. 
No such law shall prejudice the right of individuals to the free navigation of such streams, 
or preclude the state from the ftulher improvement of the navigation of such streams. 

Sbc. 5. An accurate statement of the receipts and expenditures of the public moneys 
Bhall be attached to and published with the laws, at every regular session of the legislature. 

Sbc. 6. The laws, public records, and the written Judicial and legislative proceedings 
of the state shall be conducted, promulgated and preserved in the English language. 

Sec. 7. Every person has a right to bear arms for the defense of himself and the 
state. 

SBa 8. The notary shall, in all cases, and at all times, be in strict subordhiation to 
the dvil power. 

Saa 9. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the 
consent of the owner or occupant, nor in time of war, except in a manner prescribed by 
Uw. 

Sbc. 10. The people have the right peaceably to assemble together, to consult for the 
oonmion good, to instruct their representatlTes, and to petition the le^lature for redress 
of grievanceB. 

8tac. 11. Ndthcr slavery, nor involuntary servitude, unless for the punishment of 
crime, ahall ever be tolerated in this state. 



152 ooHSTiTcrnoN of thb state of momaur. 



Sec. 12. No lease or grant hereafter of agricultural land for a longer period than 
twelve years, reserving any rent or service of any kind, shall be valid. 

Sbc. 18. Aliens who are, or who mky hereafter become, bona fide residents oS this 
state, shall ei^oy the same rights in respect to the possession, enjoyment and inheritanfls 
of property, as native bom dtizens. 

Sec. 14. The property of no i)erBon shall be taken for public use without Just com- 
pensation therefor. Private roads may be opened in the manner to be prescribed by law; 
but in every case the necessities of the road and the amount of all damage to be surtained 
by the opening thereof, shall be first determined by a Jury of freeholders; and such 
amount, together with the expenses of proceedings, shall be paid by the person or personB 
to be benefited. 

Sec. 15. No general revision of the laws shall hereafter be made. When a reprint 
thereof becomes necessary, the legislature in joint convention shall appoint a suitable 
person to collect together such acts and parts of acts as are in force, and without 
^dteration, arrange them under appropriate heads and titles. The laws so arranged shall 
be submitted to two commissioners appointed by the governor, for examination, and if 
certified by them UA^ a correct compilation of adl general laws in force, shall be printed 
in such manner as shall be prescribed by law. 

ARTICLE XIX. 

UPPER PENINSULA. 

Section 1. The counties of Mackinaw, Chippewa, Delta, Marquette, Schoolcraft, 
Houghton and Ontonagon, and the islands and territoiy thereunto attached, the islands of 
Lake Superior, Huron and Michigan, and in Green Bay, and the Straits of Mackinaw and 
the River Ste. Marie, shall constitute a separate Judicial district, and be entitled to a district 
Judge and district attorney. 

Sec. 2. The district Judge shall be elected by the electors of such district, and shall 
perform the same duties and possess the same powers as a circuit Judge in his circuit, and 
shall hold his office for the same period. 

Sec. 8. The district attorney shall be elected every two years by the electors of the 
district, shall perform the duties of prosecuting attorney throughout the entire district, and 
may issue warrants for the arrest of offenders in cases of felony, to be proceeded with as 
sludl be prescribed by lawr 

Sec 4 Such Judicial district shall be entitled at all limes to at least one senator; 
and until entitled to more by its population, it shall have three members of the house of 
representatives, to be apportioned among the several counties by the legislature. 

Sec. 5. The legislature may provide for the payment of the district Judge a salary 
not exceeding one thousand dollars a year, and of the district attorney not exceeding seven 
hundred dollars a year; and may allow extra compensation to the members of the legis- 
lature from such territory, not exceeding two dollars a day during any session. 

Sec. 6. The elections for all district and county officers, state senator or represen- 
tatives, within the boundaries defined in this article, shall take place on the last Tuesday 
of September in the respective years in which they may be required. The county canvass 
shall be held on the first Tuesday in October thereafter, and the district canvass on the 
last Tuesday of said October. 

Sec. 7. One-half of the taxes received into the treasury fro;n mining corporations in 
the upper peninsula, paying an aimual state tax of one per cent, shall be paid to the 
treasurers of the counties from which it is received, to be applied for township and county 
purposes, as provided by law. The le^slature shall have power, after the year one 
thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, to reduce the amount to be reftmded. 



ocNmTEvnov of thb btatb of MiomoAn. 158 



Sbc. 8. The legidatore may change the location of the state prison ftom Jackson to 
the upper peninsuhL 

Qbc, 9. Tlie charters of the seyeral mhiing corporations may be modified by the 
k^slatnre, in r^gazd Id the tenn limited for subscribiDg to stock, and in relation to the 
quantity of land which a corporation shall hold; but the capital shall not be increased, 
nor the time tor the existence of charters extended. No such corporation shall be 
pennitted to parchase or hold any real estate, except such as shall be neoessaiy for the 
exefdae of itacoip<»mle franchises. 

ARTICLE XX. 

AMENDMENT AND BBYISION OF THB GONHTlTUTiON. 

Sbction 1. Any amendment or amendments to this constitution may be proposed in 

the senate or house of representatiyes. If the same shall be agreed to by two-thirds of the 

members elected to each house, such amendment or amendments shall be entered on their 

Joamals respectiyely, with the yeas and nays taken thereon, and the same shall be sub- 

ndtted to the electors at the next general election thereafter; and if a nuO^i^^ of the 

dectois qualifled to vote for members of the leg^lature yoting thereon, shall ratify and 

tpproye such amendment or amendments, the same shall become part of the constitution. 

Sbc. 2. At the general election to be held in the year one thousand eight hundred 

and sixty-six, and in each sixteenth year thereafter; and also at such other times as the 

k^datore may by law proyide, the question of a general reyision of the constitution shall 

be sabmitted to the electors qualified to yote for members of the legislature ; and in case 

a majority of the electors so qualified, yoting at such election, shall decide in fayor of a 

coDvcDtion for soch purpose, the legislature, at the next session, shall proyide by law for 

fbe dection of ddegates to such conyentlon. All the amendments shall take effect at the 

OQaunenoement of the political year after their adoption. 

SCHEDULE. 

That no inconyenience may arise from the changes in the constitution of this state, 
and in order to cany the same into complete operation, it is hereby declared, that 

Section 1. The common law, and the statute laws now in force, not repugnant to 
this constitution, shall remain in force until they expire by their own limitations, or are 
altered or repealed by the legislature. 

Sec 2. All writs, actions, causes of action, prosecutions and rights of indiyiduals 
and of bodies corporate, and of the state, and all charters of incorporation, shall continue ; 
and ill iadictments which shall haye been found, or which may hereafter be found, for 
aoj crime or ofEsnae committed before the adoption of this constitution, may be proceeded 
opoo as if DO change had taken place. The seyeral courts, except as herein otherwise 
prorided, ahall continue with the like powers and Jurisdiction, both at law and in equity, 
aiifthisoonstitation had not been adopted, and until the oi^ganization of the Judidal 
deptrtmcot under this constitution. 

Ssa 8. That all fines, penalties, forfeitures, and escheats accruing to the State of 
Michigan under the present constitution and laws, shall accrue to the use of the state under 
this constitution. 

Saa 4. That all recognizances, bonds, obligations, and all other instruments entered 
into or ex«»ted before the adoption of this constitution, to the people of the State of 
Michigan, to any state, county or township, or any public officer or public body, or which 
Bay be entered into or executed under existing laws " to the people of the State of Michi- 
gin,'* to any Bach officer or public body, before the complete oi:ganization of the depart- 



I 
OUMVITRITION OF THE STAm OF MIOHIOAV. 



ments of goremmeiit under this constitution, diall remain binding and YaUd ; and ri^tB 
and liabilities upon the same shall continue, and may be prosecuted as pnnrided by law. 
And all crimes and misdemeanors ai^d penal actions, shall be tried, punished «nd prose- 
cnted, as though no change had taken place, untU otherwise provided by law. 

Bbc. 6. A goremor and lieutenant governor shall be cSioeen under the extotii^^ con- 
stitution and laws, to serve after the expiration of the term of the present incumbent 

Sec. 6. All officers, civil and military, now holding any office or appc^tment, shall 
continue to hold their respective offices, unless removed by competent authority, imtfl 
superseded under the laws now in force, or imder this constitution. 

Sec. 7. The members of the senate and house of representatives of the le^slature of 
one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one shall continue in office, under the provisions of 
law, until superseded by their successors, elected and qualified under this constitution. 

Sec. 8. AH county officers, unless removed by competent authority, shall continae 
to hold their respective offices until the first day of Januaiy, in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and fifty-three. The laws now in force as to the election, qualification and 
duties of township officcm, shall continue in force until the legislature shall, in confonnhj 
to the provisions of this constitution, provide for the holding of elections to fill such offices, 
and prescribe the duties of such officers respectively. 

Sec. 9. On the first day of January, in the year one thousand dght hundred and 
fifty-two, the terms of office of the judges of the supreme court under existing laws, and of 
the Judges of the county courts, and of the clerks of the supreme court, shall expire on tbe 
said day. 

Sec. 10. On the first day of January, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-two, the Jurisdiction of all suits and proceedings then pending in the present supreme 
court, shall become vested in the supreme court established by this constitution, and shall 
be finally abjudicated by the court where the same may be pending. The Jurisdiction of 
all suits and proceedings at law and equity, then pending in the circuit courts and county 
courts for the several counties, shall become vested in the circuit court of the said counties, 
and district court of the upper peninsula. 

Sec. 11. The probate courts, the courts of Justices of the peace, and the police court 
authorized by an act entitled ** an act to establish a police court in the dty of Detroit,** 
approved April second, one thousand eight hundred and fifty, shall continue to exerdse 
the Jurisdictien and powers now conferred upon them respectively, until otherwise pro- 
vide by law. 

Sec. 12. Theofficeofstateprintershallbe vested in the present incumbent until the 
expiration of the term for which he was elected under the law then in force ; and all the 
provisions of the said law relating to his duties, rights, privileges and compensation, shall 
remain unimpaired and inviolate until the expiration of his said term of office. 

Sec. 18. It shall be the duty of the l^;i8lature, at their first session, to adapt the 
present laws to the provisions of Mb constitution, as far as may be. 

Sec. 14. The attorney general of the state is required to prepare and report to the 
legislature, at the commencement of the next session, such changes and modifications hi 
existing laws as may be deemed necessaiy to adapt the same to this constitution, and as 
may be best calculated to carry into efiect its provisions; and he shall receive no additional 
compensation therefor. 

Sec. 15. Any territory attached to any county for Judicial purposes, if not otherwise 
represented, shall be considered as forming part of such county, so fiu* as r^ar^s elections 
(br the purpose of representation. 

«[ Sections 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, and 21, referring to the mode of voting for the new con- 
stitution, are omitted, not having any dh:ect connection with the instrument] 



O OMWWUTlO y OF THB 8TATB OT MIOHIOIH. 165 



Sbc. 23. Eveiy county except Mackinaw and Chippewa, entitled to a representatiye 
in the L^^iBlature, at the time of the adoption of this constitation, shall continue to be so 
entitled under this constitiition ; and the county of Saginaw, with the territoiy that may 
be attached^ shall be entitled to one representatiye; the county of Tuscola, and the terri- 
tory that may be attached, one representative ; the county of Sanilac and the territory 
tiiat may be attached, one representatiye ; the counties of Midland and Arenac, [Bay,] with 
the territory that may be attached, one representatiye ; the county of Montcalm, with the 
territory that may be attached thereto, one representatiye; and the counties of Newaygo 
and Oceana, with the territory that may be attached thereto, one representatiye. 'Each 
county haying a ratio of representation and a fraction oyer, equal to a moiety of said ratio, 
flbaU be entitled to two representatiyes, and so on aboye that number, giving one addi- 
tional member ibr each additional mtio. 

Sbc. 28. The cases pending and undisposed of in the late court of chancery, at the 
time of the adoption of tiiis constitution, shall continue to be heard and determined by 
t]ieju4gc8 of the supreme court But the Legislature shall, at its session in one thousand 
ei|^t hmidied and fifty-one, provide by law for the transfer of said causes that may 
re^iun undisposed of on the test day of January, one thousand eight hundred and fifty- 
two, to the supreme or circuit court, established by this constitution, or require that the 
aime may be heard and determined by the circuit Judges. 

Saa 24. The term of oflSce of the governor and lieutenant governor shall com- 
mence on the first day of January next after their election. 

Obc. 25. The tenitoiy described hi the artide entitled ** Upper Peninsula,'* shall be 
tttadied to and constitute a part of the third circuit for the dection of a regent of the 



tea 26. The legislature shall have authority, after the expiration of the term of 
oflloe ci the district Judge first elected for the upper peninsula, to abolish said office of 
diftrict Judge and district attorney, or dther of them. 

Sic. 27. Tlie legislature aliall, at its session of one thousand dght hundred and 
llfty-(Mie, i4;>poiitiQn the representatives among the several counties and districts, and 
dhide the state into senate districts, pursuant to the provisions of this constitution. 

fiasa 28. The terms of office of all state and county officers, of the circuit judges, 
members of the board of education, and members of the legislature, shall begin on the 
tbst day of January next succeeding their dection. 

Sbc. 29. The state, exclusive of the upper peninsula, shall be divided into eight 
judicial dicoits, and the counties of Monroe, Lenawee and Hillsdale shall constitute the 
first drcoit; the counties of Branch, St. Joseph, Cass and Berrien, shall constitute tlie 
second drcuit; the county of Wayne shall constitute the third circuit; the counties of 
Washtenaw, Jackson and Ingham shall constitute the fourth circuit; the counties of 
Calhoim, Kalamazoo, Allegan, Eaton and Van Buren, shall constitute the fifth circuit; 
[the] ooontieB of St Clair, Macomb, Oakland and Sanilac shall constitute the sixth circuit; 
the coonties of Lapeer, Genesee, Saginaw, Shiawassee, Livingston, Tuscola and IkGdland 
ihaU oonstitate the seventh circuit; and the counties of Barry, Kent, Ottawa, Ionia 
Clinton and Montcafan shall constitute the eighth circuit 
Done in convention, at the capitol of the state, this fifteenth day of August, in the year 

of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty, and of the independence of the 

Unhed States the seventy-fifth. 

D. GOODWIN, PBwroBKT. 



• 



166 FOBT omoBB ur thb stats of loomoAV. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



OF Tin 



POST OFFICES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN, 

ABRANGED BT COUKTIE8, 

TOGETHER WITH THE RATES OP POSTAGE. 



IfaUec^'No letters will be sent to places within the United States, unleis thepMtagek 
pre-pauL 

Unpaid letters will continue to be sent to places beyond the limits of the United 
States, in those cases in which letters can now be sent, without pre-payment 

Unpaid letters deposited for places within the United States will be sent to the dead 
letter office at Washington. 

If the postage on a letter is part paid, and it is apparent that the defldency in the 
payment was umntenUonal, the letter idll be charged with the balance of the postage, and 
forwarded pursuant to its address ; otherwise it will be sent to the dead letter offlca 

Letters, — The inland postage (which must be pre-paid,) for 8000 miles or under, upon 
single letters, is three cents; double and treble letters, twice and three times these rates. 

Letters for California and Oregon, ten cents. 

Eyeiy letter or parcel not exceeding half an ounce in weight shall be deemed anngle 
letter, and every additional weight of half an ounce or less shall be charged with an addi- 
tional single postage. 

Drop letters, for deliyery only, one cent. 

Advertised letters are chaiged with one cent in addition to the regular postage. 

Newspapers, — The postage per quarter on the regular numbers of a newspaper, 
mailed fiom the office of publication to subscribers anywhere within the United States, is 
as follows: 

On a daily paper, 80 cents; tri-weekly, \^% cents; semi- weekly, 18 cents; weekly, 
6J^ cents; semi-monthly, 8 cents; monthly, IJ^ cents. Payable quarterly in advance. 

TransierU Newspapers. — One cent each to any part of the United States, if pre-paid. 

Magannes — Transient Bates. — One cent for first three ounces. Every additional 
ounce, or fractional part of an ounce, one cent, pre-paid. To subscribers, one half the 
above rates, pa3rable quarterly in advance. 

Books. — One cent an ounce for any distance under 8000 miles; over 8000 miles, two 
cents an ounce, pre-paid. 

OirciUars, — One cent each to any part of the United States, pre-paid. 



POST OFTICKS IK THE STATE OF lOOHIOAir. 



167 



LIST OF POST OFFICES, 



AJmaCh. 

HarrisTille. 

AJkganQ}. 

Mknn (a h.,) 
Bn(Ue7, 



GimMareh, 
Hopkinfl, 
Lake, 
Ldghton's, 

Monterey, 

New Casco, 

New Salem, 

Otse^, 

Ovensel, 

PineFlaina, 

Plainwell, 

Proctor, 

Saogatnck, 

Bilrer Creek, 

Trowbridge, 

Wajland. 

Alpena. 

AxtrimCh. 

Aotrim City, 
I3k Rapids. 

Any Ch, 

AsByria, 

Baltimore, 

Btny, 

BarryriUe, 

Blaif. 

Bristolyille, 

Carlton, 

Cedar Creek, 

Glass Creek, 

6an Lake, 

Hastings (c. h.,) 

Hickory Comers, 

Irring, 

Johnslown, 

Maple GroTe, 

Menitt, 

Middlerffle, 

MHo, 

North Irring, 

Onmffeville, 

Plraiimille, 

Rutland, 

Woodland, 

Yankee Springs. 

ft^City(c.h.,) 
Poftsmoutli. 



Berrien Co, 

Bainbridffe, 

Berrien Center, 

Berrien Spring (c h,) 

Bertrand, 

Buchanan, 

Coloma, 

Dayton, 

EaaClali, 

Ckilien, 

Millburgh, 

New Buffalo, 

Niles, 

Pipestone, 

Saint Joseph, 

Sodus, 

Three Oaks, 

WatervUet, 

Weesaw. 

Branch Co. 

Algansee, 

Batavia, 

Bethel, 

Bronson's Prairie, 

Butler, 

California. 

Coldwater (c h.,) 

East Gilead, 

Gilead, 

Girard, 

Einderhook, 

Mattison, 

Noble Centre, 

Quincv, 

Round Lake, 

Sherwood, 

Union City. 

Calhoun Co, 

Abscota, 

Albion. 

Athens, 

Battle Creek, 

Bedford, 

Burlinfi^ton, 

Cedar Lake, 

Ceresco, 

Clarence, 

Clarendon Centre, 

Convis. • 

Convis* Centre, 

East Leroy, 

Homer, 

Marengo, 

Marshall (c. h.,) 

Newton, 

Penfield!, 

Partello, 

Rne Creek, 

Sedlla, 



Tekonsha, 
West Leroy. 

Case Co. 

Adamsville, 

Brownsville, 

Cassopolis (c. h.,) 

Dowagiac, 

Jeffersonville, 

La Grange, 

Little PrSrie Ronde, 

Marcellus, 

Newberg, 

Pokagon, 

Shave Head^ 

Summerville, 

Union, 

Yandalia, 

Williamsville. 

Cheboygan Co. 

Duncan (c. h.,) 
Burt. 

Chippewa Co, 

Sugar Island, 
Sault de St. Marie 
(c. h.) 

Clinton Co, 

Bath, 

Ben^l, 

Dallas, 

De Witt, 

Duplain, 

Eagle, 

Essex, 

Elsie, 

Geary, 

Greenbush, 

Keystone, 

Maple Rapids, 

North Eagle, 

Olive, 

Ovid, 

Ovid 'Centre, 

Ridge Road, 

Riley, 

Saint Johns (c. h.,) 

South Riley, 

Victor, 

Wacousta, 

West Leroy, 

Westphalia. 

DeUa Co, 

Cedar Fork, 
Esconawba, 
Ford River, 
Gena. 

EaionCo, 

Belleyae, 



Brookfield, 

Carlisle, 

Centre, 

Charlotte (c. h-,) 

Chester, 

Delta, 

Eaton Rapids, 

Elmira, 

Grand Ledge, 

Ealamo,^ 

Mud Cre^k, 

Olivet, 

Oneida. 

Rozana, 

South Sunfleld, 

Sunfield, 

Vermontville, 

West Windsor, 

Windsor. 

EmmeU Co. 

Bear River, 
Charlevoix, 
Little Traverse 
(c. h.) 

Genesee Co. 

Argentine, 

Atlas, 

Burnett, 

Davison Centre, 

Elk, 

Elgin, 

Fentonville, 

Flint (c. h.,) 

Flushing, 

Gaines, 

Gaines' Station, 

Genesee Village, 

Goodrich, 

Grand Blanc, 

Kearsley, 

Linden, 

Montrose, 

Mount Morris, 

Mundy, 

Otisville, 

Pine Run, 

Richfield, 

Stony Run, 

Schwartz Creek, 

Thetford, 

Thetford Centre, 

Valeria. 

OraiiotCo, 

Alma, 

Beaver Creek. 
Elm HaU, 
Forest Hill, 
Ithaca (c. h.,) 



IM 



POST MflCM nr TB9 BTATB OF MIOHIOiJr. 



La&yette, 
Monticello, 
Newark, 
North Star. 
North Shade, 
Pompei, 
Saint Louis, 
Stella, 
Spring Brook. 

Orand Tracam Ch. 

Grand Traverse, 

Mapleton^ 

Omena, 

Traverse City (a h^) 

Whitewater. « 

BSlUdal$Oo. 

Amboy, 

Cambria mils, 

Camden, 

Cass, 

Edinboigh, 

Florida, 

Frontier, 

Hillsdale, (c h.,) 

Jefferson, 

Jonesville, 

Litchfield, 

Moi^gansville, 

Moscow, 

Moshendlle, 

North Adaxns, 

Osseo, 

Ransom, 

Reading, 

-Somerset, 

South Wright, 

Sparta, 

Sylvanus, 

Undine, 

Wheatland Centre, 

Wood's Comers. 

HmvghUm Co. 

Algonquin, 
Clifton, 

Houghton (c h.,) 
North West Mmes. 

Huron Co. 

Port Austin, 
Port Hope, 
Sand Beaoh (c h.,) 
Sebawaing, 
White Rock. 

Ingham Co. 

Alverson, 

Aurelius, 

Bunker Hill) 

Dansville, 

Eden, 

Felt's, 



Fitchbuig, 

Holt, 

LanEing, 

LeRoy, 

Leslie, 

Locke, 

Mason, (c h.,) 

North Atdreliua, 

North Leslie, 

Norton, 

Okemos, 

Onondaga, 

Phelpstown, 

Red Bridffe, 

Stockbrioge, 

West DelW, 

White Oak, 

Williamstown, 

Winfield. 

LnUa Co. 

Boston, 

Campbell, 

Caston, 

Danby, 

Hubbardstown, 

Ionia, (c h.,) 

KiddvUle, 

Kossuth, 

Lake City, 

Lyons, 

Maple, 

Matherton, 

Muir, 

North Plains, 

Orange, 

Otisco, 

Palo, 

Pewamo, 

Portland, 

Rix, 

Ronald's Centre, 

Saranac, 

Sebewa, 

Smyrna, 

South Boston, 

South Cass, 

Wheatland. 

ItabeUa Co. 

Isabella Centre, 
Isabella City, 
Salt River, 
Wlota. 

Jack9onCo. 

Arland, 

Baldwin's Mills, 

Barry, 

Brooklyn, 

Columbia, 

Concord, 

FrandscovUle, 



Gidley's Station, 

Grass Lake, 

Hanover, 

Henrietta, 

Jacks(»i (c h.,) 

Leoni, 

Liberty, 

Michigan Centre, 

Napoleon, 

Norvell, 

Otter Cre^k, 

Parma, 

Portage Lake, 

Pulaski, 

South Henrietta, 

South Jackson, 

Spring Arbor, 

Sprineport, 

Tompkins, 

Waterloo, 

West Rives. 

Io9co Co. 

Au Sauble, 
Tawas City (c. h.) 

Kalamazoo Co. 

Alamo, 

Augusta, 

Brady, 

Climax Prairie, 

Comstocd^, 

Cooper, 

Galesbuigh, 

Kalamazoo (c. h.,) 

Oshtemo, 

Pavilion, 

Portage, 

Richlffiid, 

Schoolcraft, 

Wakeshma, 

West Climax, 

Yorkville. 

KerU Co. 

Ada, 

Alpine, 

Alto, 

Alton, 

Ashley, 

Austerlitz, 

Bostwick Lake, 

Bowne, 

Buck Creek, 

Caledonia, 

Cannonsbuigh, 

Cascade, 

Cedar Spring, 

Cortland Centre, 

Cuba, 

Englishville, 

Fallasburgh, 

Flat River, 



Gkinesville, 

Grand Rapids (c h.,) 

Graham vule, 

Grandville, 

Grattan, ^ 

Indian Creek, 

Kelloggsville, 

Laphamsville, 

Lowell, 

Nelson, 

North Brownville, 

Oakfield, 

Paris, 

Pleasant, 

Sparta Centre, 

Spencer's Mill, 

Vergennes, 

Whitneyville. 

Keweenaw Co. 

Copper Harbor 

(c. h.,) 
Eagle River, 
Eagle Harbor, 
Keweenaw Bay. 

Lapeer Co. 

Allison, 

Almont, 

Columbiaville, ' 

Dryden, 

Farmers' Creek, 

Goodland, 

Hadley, 

Hunter's Creek, 

Imlay, 

Lapeer (c. h.,) 

Marathon, 

Metamora, 

North Branch, 

Pool, . 

Thomville. 

Leelenaw Co. 

Benzona, 
Frankfort, 
Glenn Arbor, 
Leland, 
Melville, 
Northport, 
North Unity, 
Suttonville. 

Lendwee Co. 

Addison, 

Adrian (c. h.,) 

Attica, 

Blissfield, 

Cambridge, 

Cananda^a, 

Clayton, 

Clinton, 

Deerfield, 



von omoiB or tsb bxatb ov ioGaiaA*« 



IM 



Dover, 

East Ogden, 

Fairfield, 

Geneva, 

Hudson, 

Lake Ridge, 

Macon, 

3Iedina, 

Morenci, 

North Adrian, 

Oakford, 

Palmyra, 

Ridgeway, 

Riga, 

Rollins, 

Rome, 

Springville, 

Tecmnseh, 

Tipton. 

Wellsville, 

West Ogden, 

Woodstock, 

Wolf Creek. 

lAHngiUm Co, 

Brighton, 

Cohoctah, 

Conway, 

Deer Creek, 

Fleming, 

Fowlersville, 

Genoa, 

Green Oak, 

Hamburgh, 

Hartlana, 

Hollister, 

Howell (c. h.,) 

Iosco, 

Madison, 

Marion, 

Middletown, 

North Brighton, 

Oak Grove, 

Oceola Centre, 

Parsliallville, 

Pinckney, 

Plainfield, 

T\Tone, 

Unadilla. 

Maccriib Go. 

Armada, 

Disco, 

East Union, 

Lenox, 

Macomb, 

McPhersonviUe, 

Mere, 

Milton, 

Mount Clemens 

(c. h.,) 
Mount Vernon, 
New Baltimore, 



New Haven, 
Plumb Bnx^ 

Ray, 

Ray Centre. 

Richmond, 

Romeo, 

Roseville, 

Scottsville, 

Utica, 

Vienna, 

Waldenburgh, 

Warren, 

Washington. 

Mason Co. 

Fairview, 
Free Sou, 
Lincoln, 
Pere Marquette 
(ch.) 

Manistee Co. 

Manistee (c. h.,) 
Portage Creek. 

Marquette Co. 

Harvey, 

Marquette (c. h.,) 
Negaunee. 

AficktUimaMnae Oo. 

Mackinac (c h.) 
Midland Co. 

Midland City (c. h.) 

Meeotia Co. 

Grove, 
Hinton, 
Leonard, 
Pierson. 

Monroe Co. 

Brest, 

Clark City, 

Dundee, 

East RaisinviUe, 

Erie, 

Exeter, 

Grafton, 

Hamlin, 

Ida, 

Lambertville, 

La Salle, 

London, 

Lilian, 

Monroe (c. h.,) 

Newport, 

Oakville, 

Ottawa Lake, 

Summerfield. 

Montcalm Co. 

Bloomer Centre, 
Bushnell Centre, 



Cato, 

Clear Lake, 

Crystal, 

Fair Plahis, 

Ferris, 

Greenville (c. h,,) 

Montcalm, 

Stanton, 

West Bloomer. 

Muskegon Co. 

Big Springs, 

Cazenovia, 

Crimea, 

3iears, 

Muskegcm (c. h.,) 

Ravenna, 

Six Comen. 

Newaygo Co. 

Ashland, 

Bi^ Prairie, 

Bndgeton, 

Cpoton, 

Newaygo (c h.,) 

Ponoma, 

Weavervilla 

Oakland Co. 

Auburn, 

Austin^ 

Ball Mountain, 

Big Beaver, 

Birmingham, 

Brandon, 

Clarkston, 

Commerce, 

Davisbuixh, 

Drayton Plains, 

Farmington, 

Four Towns, 

Franklin, 

Groveland, 

Highland, 

Holly, 

Jersey, 

Kensington, 

LakeviUe, 

Mahopac, 

Milford, 

Moimt Pleasant, 

New Hudson, 

North Farmington, 

North Oxford, 

Novi, 

Oakland, 

Oakwood, 

Orion, 

Ortonville, 

Oxford, 

Pontiac, (c. h.,) 

Rochester, 

Rose, 



Royal Oak, 
Southfleld Centra, 
South Lyon, 
Springfield, 
Spring Mills, 
Strait^s Lake, 
Summit, 
Troy, 

Walled Lake, 
WateriOTd, 
West Bloomfleld, 
West Novi, 
White Lake, 

Oceana Co. 

Benona^ 

Clay Banks (c. h. J 

Forest City, 

Marr, 

Pentwater, 

White River. 

OnUmagon Co, 

Greenland, 
National, 
Ontonagon (ch.) 

Ottawa Co. 

Allendale, 

Berlin, 

Big Spring, 

Blendon, 

Eastmansville, 

Ferrysburg, 

Georgetown, 

Grand Haven, (c h.,) 

Holland, 

Jamestown, 

Lamant, 

Mill Pomt, 

Numica, 

Robinson, 

Sebastopol, 

Six Comers, 

Tallmadge, 

Ventura, 

Wright. 

Zeamna. 

Saginaw Co. 

Birch Run, 
Blumfield, 
Blumfield Junction, 
Bridgeport, 
Bridgeport Centre, 
Chesamng, 
East Sagmaw, 
.Elk, 
Frankenlust, 
Frankenmuth, 
Frankentrost, 
Havanna, 
Jay, 



160 



POST 0FFI0B8 US THB 8TATB OF MIOmOAV. 



Saginaw City (ch.,) 
Sauit Charles, 
Taymouth, 
Tittabawaasee, 
Zilwaukee. 

ScUrU Ckdr Oo, 

Algonac, 

Brockway, 

CampbeUton, 

Capac, 

Casco, 

China, 

Clyde Mills, 

Columbus, 

CottrellYiUe, 

Fairhaven, 

Kenochee, 

Lakeport, 

Lynn, 

Memphifl|^ 

MemllsyiUe, 

Port Huron, 

Pottersbuig, 

Ruby, 

Saint Clair (c. h.,) 

Smith's Creek, 

Tara's Hall, 

Thornton, 

Wales, 

West Berlin. 

Saint Joseph Co, 

Burr Oak, 

Centreyille (c. h.,) 

Colon, 

Constantino, 

Fawn River, 

Florence, 

Flowerfield. 

Howardsyille, 

Leonidas, 

Mendon, 

Mill Creek, 

Mottville, 

Nottawa, 



Oporto, 
Park, 
Parkyille, 
Sturgis, 
Three Rivers, 
White Pigeon. 

Sanilac Co, 

Buell, 

Davisville, 

Farmers, 

Forrester, 

Forest Bay, 

Forestville, 

Lakeport, 

Lexington (c. h.,) 

Peck, 

Port Sanilac, 

Richmondville. 

8hiawa89e& Co, 

Antrim, 

Bennington, 

Bums, 

Byron, 

Corunna (c. h.,) 

Enterprise, 

Fremont, 

Hartwellville, 

Hazleton, 

Maple Valley, 

Middleburgh, 

Nebraska, 

North Vernon, 

Owosso, 

Perry, 

Rttsburgh, 

Shiawasseetown, 

Vernon, 

West Haven, 

Wheelerville, 

Woodhull. 

TSiMoUi Co. 

Akron, 

Bumside, 

Denmark, 



East Dayton, 

Ellington, 

Elkland, 

Elmwood, 

Fair Grove, 

May, 

MiUinffton, 

Pine Grove, 

Richville, 

Unionville, 

Vassar (c. h.,) 

Wal^emega, 

Watertown, 

Watrousville, 

Worth. 

Van Burtn Co, 

Arlington, 

Bangor, 

Bloominsdale, 

Breedsviue, 

BrewersviUe, 

Decatur. 

Hartford, 

Hunter, 

Keelersville, 

Lake Mill, 

Lawrence, 

Lawton, 

Mattawan, 

Paw Paw (c. h.,) 

Pine Grove Mill, 

Prospect Lake, 

South Haven, 

Waverly. 

Washtenaw Co, 

Ann Arbor (c. h.,) 

Base Lake, 

Benton, 

Bridgewater, 

Chelsea, 

Dexter, 

Dixboro, 

Fredonia, 

Gravel Run, 



Lima, 

Lodi, 

Manchester, 

Mooreville, 

Paint Creek, 

Salem, 

Saline, 

Scio, 

Stony Creek, 

SuperiOT, 

Sylvan, 

Webster, 

Whitmore Lake, 

York, 

TpsilantL 

Wayne Co. 

Belleville, 

Borodino, 

Brownstown, 

Catville, 

Conner's Creek, 

Dearborn, 

Detroit (c h.,) 

Delhi. 

East Nankin, 

Ecorce, 

Elm, 

Gibraltar, 

Greenfield, 

Huron Station, 

Livonia Centre, 

Mead's Mills, 

Moulin Rouge, 

Nankin, . 

NorthviUe, 

Oak, 

Peninsville, 

Rymouth, 

RawsonviUe, 

Redford, 

Romulus, 

Smithville, 

Trenton, 

Wayne, 

Wyandotte. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



OF 



CITIES, TOWNS, VILLAGES AND POST OFFICES, 



BMBBACINO 



Tun Lists of an Persons Engaged in Business in each Place. 



The Itots of dbim fJoDotrlnff the daioripUve matter, for all minor plaeei, were furnished ni bj Post 
Xastvra, and are nadoabtedly fbll and complete. In the larger cities It Is possible that some names are 
omitted, eHMtclal ly am ong the earpenten and others who have no fixed place of business. The name* 
in CAPITAL LXTTXBtf ara of thoea who hava paid for the Insertion as a partial advertisement. 



AB8COTA. 

A post office of Calhoon county, 120 miles 
wnt of Detroit. 



ADA. 
A township mod post village of Kent county, 
148 nules north-west from Detroit, on the D. 
k M. Ballroed. The township is possessed 
of ft good soil, is well watered, and sup- 
plied with excelleot timber, mostly in oak 
openings. The railroad fttrnishes an outlet 
fw the produce of the town, and has done 
much to improre the ralue of property in 
the neighborhood. The Tillage contains one 
Baptist and one Congregational church, one 
mm and one grist mill, two hotels, and four 
itores. Population of township, 1200; of 
Tillage, 800. Two daily mails are receiyed. 
?ef/jN«f<«r— Willis W. Wilcox. 

Towirsmp oppicBBS. 

^wy^^fTisor^ Peter McLean. 
Treawrer — Jared N. Brasee. 
Twcn Clerk — Rodolphus Q. Chafee. 

List of Profeaetone, Trades, ete. 

Ballard James, Rey (Congregational). 
Bayard Albert L, physician. 
Bayard Daniel £, physician. 
Beebe Ransom, general store. 
Bradfield Edward, flour mill. 
Bnuiee Jared N, carpenter. 
Brown Luke H, cooper. 
ClemeDts John L, saw mill. 
Collar Charles, Justice of the peace. 
Critet George, hotel. 
Biimniore Luther, carpenter. 
fuoQ Samuel £ Rot, (Baptist). 
Gtnber Earl W, blacksmith. 
Oriiwold Augustas G, lawyer. 

A 



King Francis, general store. 
McDonald Findley, carpenter. 
McKeel William H, JusUce of the peace. 
McLean Peter, justice of the peace. 
McMurry Robert, carriage maker. 
Robinson Rix, general store. 
Thomas Albert, hotel. 
Wilcox Willis W, boots and shoes. 



AOAMSVIL.L-E. 

A post Tillage of Cass county, in the town- 
ship of Ontwa, on the Christiana riTer, 160 
miles south-west from Detroit, and 110 south- 
east from Chicago. Fare f^om Detroit, |6.00 ; 
from Chicago, $4.00. The place has one 
church (Free- Will Baptist), a Masbnic and 
Odd Fellows' lodge, a saw mill, flour mill, 
hotel, general store, etc. Population, 200. 
Daily mail receiTed. PoHmasUr — M. G. Sage, . 

lilet of Profteelone, Trades, etc. 

Ashley James Rey, (Baptist). 
Bacon James G, justice of the peace. 
Benjamin Eli, justice of the peace. 
Conley Miss Adaline, milliner. 
Garmon Henry, cooper. 
Gillispie Enoch B Rev. 
Hatch Oliver W, physician. 
Hewett D, justice of the peace. 
McNeil George B, carriage maker. 
Sage M G d& N (Martin G and Norman), gen- 
eral store, flour and saw mill. 
Sheppard Orlando J, boot and shoe maker. 
Simmons Peter W, blacksmith. 
Smack William, cooper. 
Smith Bolaen, mason. 

Sullivan , hotel. 

Walker John F, cooper. 
Wood Hiram T, carpenter. 



BTATB OAZSTTEXB, 



164 ADR CHABLBs F. clakk's ADR 



ADR 



8TATB 'OAZEITBXB. 



ADR 



165 



Bev. John McEldowney, A. M., Vice Presi- 
dent and Professor of Latin and Greek 
Language and Literature. 

Bev. James McEldowney, A. M., Professor of 
Mathematics and Astronomy. 

Ber. I. W. M. Keever, A. M., Professor of 
Natural Philosophy and Natural History. 

Bey. J. Kost, A. M., M. D., Professor of Chem- 
istry and Geology. 

Miss Martha H. Pomeroy, Principal of Ladies' 
Department. 

A. T. Smith, Teacher of Vocal and Instru- 
mental Music. 

N. W. Wilcox, Teacher of Penmanship and 
Book Keeping. 

I«lst ef Profeaslons, Trades^ etc* 

Abrams Mary £, milliner, Maumee. 

Abrams Noble, photograph artist, Maumee. 

Ackley C B, fancy goods, Maumee. 

Aldrich A W, photographist, Maumee. 

Auchampaugh J J & Co, (J J Auchampaugh, 
Levy Auchampaugh), dry goods and mil- 
linery, Maumee. 

Avery John, baker. Main. 

Backus Clark B, justice of peace, Blaumee. 

Bailey R M &. Co, grocers, Maumee. 

Baldwin Leonard, boots and shoes, Main. 

Barker L D, saloon. Main. 

Bartley W, shoemaker. Main. 

Beals K 8, grocer, Main. 

Beaman & Kingsley, (Fernando C Beaman, 

George Kingsley\ lawyers, Maumee. 
Benedict D &. Bro8(Daniel, Julius and Oscar), 

grocers, Maumee. 
Bennett Joseph R, U 8 Tax Assessor. 
Bennett W H & Co (W H and William Ben- 
nett), grocers, Main. 
Berry James, lumber, Maumee. 
BERRY LANGFORD G, banker, Auditor 
General and U. 8. Tax Collector, Maumee. 
Bidelman Robert, saddlery and harness, 

Main. 
Bidwell & Carey, (Ira Bidwell and A. W. 

Carey), dry goods, Maumee. 
Bidwell Charles, clothing, Maumee. 
Bidwell G L, hardware, Maumee. 
Bidwell N, chemist and druggist, Maumee. 
Blackman Isaac J, drugs, groceries and 

liquors, Maumee. 
Bod well J H, dry goods, Maumee. 
Bolig William, proprietor Bolig*s Hotel, 

Maumee. 
Bot^ford J G, prop'r Botsford Hotel. . 
Bowen & Geddes, (Lucian B. Bowen, Norman 

Geddes, C R Miller), lawyers, Maumee. 
Brackett James, prop'r Bracket House, 
Brown John S, butcher, Maumee. 
Buck & Farrar, (F J Buck and James Far- 

rar), hardware, Maumee. 

Camburn & Winans, (Joseph Cambum, E H 

Winans), prop'rs flour mill. Main. 
Carey W 8, dry goods, Maumee. 
Carter Philo jr, carpenter, Maumee. 



Castle J A, grocer, Maumee. 

Chapin G P &. Co., (G P Chapin, J H Penni- 

man), grocers, Maumee. 
Chapin H H d& C T, job printers, Maumee. 
Chappell A J, sewing machine agent. Main. 
Chatten R, boot and shoemaker. Main. 
Clark John R, dry goods, Maumee. 
Clay Henry, dry gc^ds, Maumee. 
Clegg & Brower, (Richard Clegg, G H 

Brower), butchers. Main. 
Cleveland & Clegg, (Marvin Cleveland, Jamet 

Clegg), butchers. Main. 
Cleveland William H, grocer, Main. 
Cole B J, agent Union Telegraph Co, Maumee. 
Collins A, prop. Travelers' Home, Michigan* 
Comstock Addison J, late banker. Winter. 
Comstock E, grocer, Main. 
Condict B F, boots and shoes. Main. 
Cornelius J M, grocers. Main. 
Courter B F &. J H (Benjamin F and J H), 

saddlery and harness. Main. 
Crittenden A, boots and shoes. 
Cross Japhet, prop. Union Hotel, near R R 

depot and watches and jewelry, Maumee. 
Crosswell Charles M, lawyer, Maumee. 
Crowel R H, hats and caps, Maumee. 
Drew Delos, saloon, Maumee. 
Dunn Wm &. Co, (Wm Dunn, Charles Mc- 
Ginn V grocers. Main. 
Emans A L Miss, milliner, Maumee. 
Fish G F, milliner. Main. 
Fish &, Webber, (G F Fish, A T Webber), 

boots and shoes, Main. 
Fisher John M, undertaker, Maumee. 
Fowler James, photographist, Maumee. 
Foster J A, photographic artist, Maumee. 
Gaflfhey Martin, grocers, Main. 
Galloway A, grocer. Main. 
Qantley J H, crockery ware, Maumee. 
Gistwit A, saloon, Main. 
Greenly William L, lawyer, Maumee. 
Gunsolus & Crassner, saddlery and harness, 

Main. 
Hardy D W C, general store, Maumee. 
Harison H H, news dealer, Maumee. 
Hart & Day, (Samuel B* Hart, C Day), 

drugs and groceries, Maumee. 
Hart Henry, dry goods, Maumee. 
Hathaway Benjamin, prop'r Hathaway House, 

Maumee. 
Helme J W & Co., (J W Helme, OE Finch), 

bakers. Main. 
Henica C, boot and shoe maker. Main. 
Herrmann & May, (Nathan Herrmann 

Moses May), clothing, Maumee. 
Hood C M, grocer. Main. 
Horsman 'Thomas, saloon, Main. 
Hoyt C, physician, Maumee. 
Humphrey Charles, books and stationery, 

Maumee. 
Ingals &, Mills, (Rensselaer W Ingals,Edward 

Mills), proprietors Adrian Watch tower. 
Irish A Gish, (William Irish, John Gish), 

restaurant, Blaumee. 



166 



ADR 



CHABLES F. CLABK^S 



ALB 



Jackson Charles, boots and shoes, Manmee. 

Jermain 8 P &. Co., (Sylvanus P Jermain, 
Henry £ Baker,Richard I Bonner,Marcus 
Knight), propr's Adrian daily and weekly 
Expositor. 

Johnston £ B Mrs., milliner, Maumee. 

Johnson James W, (col'd), dyer, w Maumee. 

Kimball N H, physician, Maumee. 

Kimball W E, crockery ware, Maumee. 

King A C, agricultural implements. Main. 

Kingsley Mrs D M, milliner, Maumee. 

Kiugsley Geo, justice of the peace, Mau- 
mee. 

Knapp H, physician. Main. 

Lake Adolphus, boots and shoes, Maumee. 

Leary George, dentist, Maumee. 

Lewis G W, (col'd) barber, Maumee. 

Lewis John, saloon, Maumee. 

Livingston &. Holberg, (M Livingston, F Hol- 
berg), clothing, Maumee. 

Lusk & McLouth, (Silas Lusk, Lewis Mc- 
Louth), butchers, Main. 

Lyon Benjamin R, general store, Maumee. 

Lyons Daniel R, boot and shoe maker, Main. 

McFarland & Co, (John McFarland, Thomas 
Savage), butchers, Maumee. 

Mahau Rev A, professor, Adrian College. 

Meindermann & Corvey, (LB Mcindermann 
and F Corvey), druggists, Maumee. 

Merrick George W Dr, dentist, Maumee. 

Meyer Charles, saloon, Maumee. 

Miller S D, livery, Maumee. 

Millerd & Condict, (H L Millerd and H D 
Condict), lawyers, Maumee. 

Mills John, boots and shoes. Main. 

Mixer Edward W, boots and shoes, Maumee. 

Morey &. Wilson (G R Morey, A 8 Wilson), 
grocers, Main. 

Mulyer M, boots and shoes, Main. 

Nash Theodore & Co, hats and caps, Mau- 
mee. 

Newell & King, (J J Newell, W F King), 
watches and jewelry, Maumee. 

Nichols C E Miss, dress maker. Main. 

Niles & Clay, (R Niles and F W Clay), gro- 
cers, Main. 

Owen Woodland, dentist, Maumee. 

Parsons Eli, merchant tailor, Maumee. 

Payne George F, books and stationery, Mau- 
mee. 

Peters J L, marble works, Main. 

Pierson J M, physician, Main. 

Post John, prop Railroad House, Center. 

RamsdeU T D & Co, (T D Rarasdell, W D 
Ramsdell), lumber dealers, Maumee. 

Ratbburn T R & Co, (T R Rathburn, J E 
Wadsworth), auction and commis'n, Main. 

Redfield A N, grocer, Main. 

Redfield Charles, postmaster, Maumee. 

Remington & Bennett, (F J Remington, J R 
Bennett), groceries. Main. 

Reynolds Peter, barber, Main. 

Ripley Whitney, prop Adrian city mill, foot 
w Maumee. 



Bobbins Richard B, Justice of the peace, 

and insurance agent, ^aumee. 
Roberts Myron H, wagon maker, w Manmee. 
Roper Edward, (coPd) barber, Biaumee. 
Rowley J C, groceries. Main. 
Rynd Charles, physician, Maumee. 
Salmon George, blacksmith, w Maumee. 
Sammons Sampson, prop'r Mansion Honse, 

Maumee. 
Schneider & Langohr, (Q C Schneider, J N 

Langohr), boots and shoes, Main. 
Scott John, jeweler, Main. 
Shannon A F, dentist, Maumee. 
Sigler A, jeweler, Maumee. 
Smith & Worden, (Clement Smith, AlaoBOO 

Worden), boots and shoes, Maumee. 
Smith £ C, marble works, Main. 
Smith Henry B, saloon, Main. 
Smith & Kinsell, fCbarles F Smith, John 

Kinsell), confectioners, Maumee. 
Spalding George, physician, Maumee. 
Sparrow George & Co, grocers, Main. 
Stebbins F R, furniture, Maumee. 
Stephenson Robert, physician. Main. 
STONE H W &Co, (H W Stone, L G Berry), 

bankers. 
Stone William H, proper New York mills, 

near northern limits. 
Stowers C G, grocer, Main. 
Strasburger H, boots and shoes, Maumee. 
Thomson James, watches and Jeweli^^, Main. 
Tyler H Amos, saloon. Main. 
Van Ostrand & Crapo, (C N Van Ostrand, H 

Crapo), manufacturers of blacking. Main. 
Vansandt Elisha, washing machines, Maumee. 
Voorhces Francis, hats, caps and furs, Mau- 
mee. 
Wagner H H, boots and shoes, Manmee. 
Wahl John, saloon, Main. 
Warner &. Todd,(T C Warner, ThiUet Todd), 

flour and feed, Maumee. 
Watts J 8, physician, Maumee. 
Whitney, Bowen &, Paulding, (C S Whitney, 

H Bowen, Isaac Paulding), grocers, Main. 
Wilcox William 8, hardware, Maumee. 
Wise T &. J W, tobacconists, Main. 
Wood Alfred H, clothing, Maumee. 
Wood & Co, (James H Wood, Polly Harrison), 

building stone and marble, Broad. 
Young J J & Co, (J J Youiig, J H Bodwell), 

dry goods, Maumee. 
Youngs Charles, grocer. Main. 



AKRON- 
A township and post office of Tuscola 
county, population 200. 

AUAMO- 
A post Tillage of Kalamazoo County, on 
a Creek of Kalamazoo River, 150 miles west 
of Detroit. 



AL.BION. 
A township of Calhoun county, containing 



ALB 



STATE GAZETTEER. 



ALB 



167 



a portion of the thriTiDg incorporated Tillage 
of the same name. The township has a good 
soil, and produces grain abundantly. It is 
watered by the Kiriamazoo river and 
branches. 

T0WH8HIP OFFICBBB. 

Superviaar — Henry Drake. 
««•*— William Howard. 
TreoMurer — Henry W Crittenden. 



Al-BION. 

An important and flonrishing post Tillage 
of Calhoun county, situated partly in the 
township of the same name and partly in 
the township of Sheridan, at tbo junction of 
the West aiid South branches of the Kalama- 
zoo river, and on the Michigan Central Rail- 
road. Distance from Detroit, 90 miles west, 
fare, ^2.85 ; 188 miles east of Chicago, fare, 
$0.70; 12 miles east of Marshall, the county 
seat, fare 40 cents ; 9 miles from Homer (by 
stage, daily line,) fare 50 cents. The Elala- 
mazoo riTer and branches furnish an abun- 
dant water power, which has been improved 
by the erection of three flouring mills and a 
number of other m&nufactories. The village 
is pleasantly situated, on gently midulatiug 
ground, with sufficient elevation to secure 
good drainage, and contains several line busi- 
ness blocks and numerous elegant private 
residences. It is the seat of the well known 
'^ Albion College,** the educational institute 
of the Methodist Episcopal denomination. 
li also contains A^e churches, (representing 
the Presbyterian, Methodist, Ba)>tist, Episco- 
pal and Union or Spiritual denominations,) 
three hotels, a woolen factory, a saw mill, a 
sash and blind factory, a tannery, two weekly 
newspapers, four carriage shops, two private 
banking houses, two iron foundries and ma- 
chine sliops, and about thirty stores. One of 
the lareest flouring mills in the state (the 
Albiiin Stone Mill, Jesse Crowell, proprietor) 
which turns out an average of 25,000 bbls of 
flour annually, is located here. The total 
amount of flour shipped from this point, for 
the yeaV ending July 1st 1802, was 50,000 
bbls. ; wheat, 20,000 bushels ; wool, 200,000 
lbs ; fruit (apples, peaches and pears) 20,000 
bushels; total annual Taluation of manu- 
factured articles, (including flour, agricultu- 
ral implements, castings, leather, tinware, 
carriages, and miscellaneous articles, the 
same being shipped from and sold outside 
the village) 400,000. Among the noticeable 
features of Albion is the artesian well on the 
premises of Jesse Crowell, Esq., the only 
well of the kind in the county. It is 285 feet 
in depth and discharges a continuous stream 
of pure water, at the rate of two barrels per 
minute, the water maintaining a mean tem- 
perature of 53^ Farenheit, which never varies 
a single degree in summer or winter. 



The Albion College is a large and imposing 
institution, consisting of a main centre build- 
ing 100 X 46 feet, three stories high, with 
basement, and north and south buildings, 
each 80 x 46 feet, and three stories high. 
The buildings are of brick, stuccoed, in imi- 
tation of granite, and are delightfully situ- 
ated on an eminence overlooking the village. 
The college has accommodations for SOO 
students, though the number now in atten- 
dance is about 350. This institution is under 
the patronajjo and control of the Methodist 
Episcopal churcli, it being the only college 
belonging to that denomination within the 
State. It was first located at Spring Arbor, 
in 1835, under the name of the Wesleyan 
Semuiary. In April, 1839, it was removed 
to Albion, and in 1850 a female collegiate de- 
partment added, with the power of confer- 
ring degrees upon females pursuing a scien- 
tiflc and classical course. In 18G0 the insti- 
tution was incorporated, with full college 
powers, and has now adopted a much higher 
grade of study, both classical and scientific, 
and will shortly have an increased faculty. 
The college now justly ranks with the State 
University, and the best educational insti- 
tutions of the country. 

The first actual settler of Albion was Tennv 
Peabody, of New York State, who located 
here in 1832. Ue was followed, the same 
year, by Warren Warner, Jacob Devoe and 
Asa Finch, and in 1835, by Jesse Crowell, 
who is still a resident and the pr1nci[)al pro- 
perty owner of the village. The first saw 
mill was built by Mr. Warner and the first 
grist mill by Mr. Crowell, both in 1835. The 
first store was opened by Philo Taylor, in 
1830. The first church was erected on the 
east side of the river, by the Methodists, in 
1837, and was also used as a school house. 
The village of Albion was about this time 
purchased by a company styled the "Albion 
Land Company," and a plat made in the 
spring of 1837. The completion of the Cen- 
tral Railroad gave to this town an onward 
impetus and its excellent manufacturing fa- 
cilities have attracted a class of mechanics 
who are rapidly building up a fiourishing 
city. 

VILLAGE OFFICERS. 

Common Council meets on the first Tues- 
day evening of each month, at the council 
rooms, in Crowell's block. 

Frtsidcnt — Ira Mayhew. 

Re<»rder — F. A. Wheclock. 

Treasurer — George W. Stone. 

Attorney — Alvin Peck. 

Marshal and Street Commusioner — Charles 
Ensign. 

Chief Engineer — George Cady. 

Trustees — Wm. Howard, Benjamin Peck- 
ham, Orton Robinson, George Maher, Charles 
C. Lane, George W. Stone. 



168 



ALB 



CHABLEB V. CUUKK'B 



ALB 



CHURCHES. 

Preshifiertan Church — Porter street, Bev. 
J. Odell, pastor. 

Baptist Church — Superior street, Rev. I. 
M. Wade, pastor, 

Methodist Chwr^y—l^ne street, Key. B. 
Sapp, pastor. 

Episcopal Church — Erie street, (vacant). 

Unim {Spiritual), Church-^Erie 8treet,ReY. 
Mr. WhitiDg, pastor, 

PUBLIC HALLS. 

Firemen's JIaU — Hannah's block, Superior. 
Howard Hail — Howard's block, Superior. 
Masonic HaR — Peabody's block, Superior. 
Odd Fettows' HaU—CTOwelVB block, Superior. 

HEW8PAFBR8. 

7^e Albion Weekly Mirror — $1.50 per year. 
Published every Thursday, on Superior street, 
by Lawrence W. Cole, editor and proprietor. 
^moeraiie. 

The Union JJfrffW— (weekly,) $1.60 per 
year. Published every Saturday, on Superi- 
or street, by Wheelock & Case, editors and 
proprietors. RepvUiean, 

'societies. 

The Albion Toung Men*s Society — Organized 
1859. Meets at Howard Hall, on the first 
Friday in each month. Ira Mayhew, Presi- 
dent, 

Murat Lodge, No. 14, F. ^ A. M, — Meets 
third Monday in each month, at Masonic 
Hall. 

Albion Lodge Ko, 20, /. 0. of 0, J^.— Meets 
every Friday evening, in Odd Fellows' Hall. 

Albion Division, No. 4, S, of T. — Meets 
every Tuesday evening, in Howard Hall, 

ALBIOH COLLEGE. 

Faculty: — Rov. Thomas Sinex, D. D., 
President, and professor of moral philosophy 
and political ecofiomy. 

Rev. Carmi C. Olds, A.M., professor of na- 
tural sciences. 

John Richards, A. M., professor of ancient 
languages. 

Miss Julia F. Robinson, principdl of female 
department, and teacher oj French and fine arts. 

Miss Charlotte Imus, assistant teacher. 

Henry Meakin, professor of music, 

ALBION COHMERCIAL COLLEGE. 

Superior street. Organized 1860. Ira May- 
hew, principal. 

lilst of ProfeMlons, Trades, ete. 

Adams Solleck, paint shop, Superior. 
Anderson James A, tailor, Erie. 
Babcock William H, dentist, Superior. 
Babcock William R Mrs, millinery, Superior. 
Baker Thomas, clocks, watches and jewelry, 

Superior. 
Bidwell B B & W H, (Benjamin B and Walter 

H), dry goods, groceries, etc, Superior. | 



Bing M & Co, (Mosef Bing, of CiQ*ti, <^o» 
Lewis Meir), clothing, Superior. 

CADY OEORQE N, thi nuumfr, lanMr, tad 
wool dealer, Supeftor. 

Cady John H, shoemaker, Superior. 

Cassidy Hillery S, photographer, Superior. 

Chafy Thomas W, photographer, Superior. 

Chatfield Robert M, saloon, Supierior. 

Chichester Ephraim, cooper, Ionia. 

Clift John, groceries and provisions, ftie. 

Cole Lawrence, prop'r Weekly Mirror. 

Collins William W, physician, (homos), Bn« 
perior. 

COMSTOCK 6l BRO, (Isaac D & Charles H), 
drugs, medicines and groceries, Superior. 

Cooley Carlton, wagon, carriage and black- 
smith shop, Ionia. 

Crain Lewis, justice of the peace. 

Crowell Jesse, flouring mill, Superior. 

Culver Allen M, lawyer, Superior. 

Dalrymple Charles W, pos^naster, office on 
Superior. 

Duparck Ulcius H, jeweler and gunsmitii, 
Superior. 

Eslow Champion, iron foundry, machhieshop, 
wool carding, planing mill, wagon ana 
blacksmith shop, Superior. 

Finch & Sheldon, (Robert T Finch, Frederidic 
W Sheldon), iron works and machine riiop, 
Superior. 

Gale Charles 0,hardware,8tove8, etc,Superior. 

Gardner Augustus P, hardware, stoves and 
tinware, Superior. 

Garland John D, boots and shoes, Erie. 

Gates &. Gordon (William Gates, Aaron B 
Gordon), meat market, Superior. 

Gibbs Isaac, boots and shoes, Superior. 

Green Orator H, boots and shoes, Superior. 

Hannah Marvin, currier. Center. 

Holden Lemont, groceries and provisions, 
Mich. 

Hovey Horace M, physician, (eclectic), Supe- 
rior. 

Howard William, justice of the peace. 

Howard &. Brisbin, ^William Howard, Gilead 
S Brifbin), clothing, Superior. 

Hurst Solomon, (col'd), barber, Superior. 

Irwin Samuel V, insurance agent, and agent 
Am Exp Co, at Mayhew & Irwin's bank- 
ing office. 

Jacobs Lyman, wagon shop. Elm. 

Johnson Cornelius, proprietor Albion Hotel, 
cor Superior and Erie. 

Kellogg Evander H, clocks, watches and jew- 
elry, Superior. 

Lewis Evelin P, station agent M C R R depot. 

McGregor & Fox, (RobertMcGregor, William 
D Fox), dry goods, groceries, etc, Super'r. 

Maher George W, sash, door and blind fac- 
tory, and jobbing shop, comer Michigan 
and Superior. 

Maxson Joseph D, physician, (eclectic), Erie. 

Mayhew &, Irwin, (Ira Mayhew, Samuel V 
Irwin), bankers, Superior. 



ALB 



8TATB 6AZSITBBB. 



ALG 



169 



Millard James W, blacksmith, Michigan. 

Koble Edwin 8, diy goods, groceries, etc, cor 
Superior and Erie. 

Odell J Key, pastor Presbyterian church. 

Osborn Milton, physician, Erie. 

Palmer Nathaniel Q, blacksmith, Elm. 

Parker Charles T, justice of the peace, and 
prop'r of Parker's Exchange, Michigan. 

Peabody D & Bro, (David &. Walter), mer- 
chant millers, and plaster mill. Porter. 

Peck AWin, lawyer and Justice of the peace, 
Superior. 

Peck Rufus L, telegraph operator, M C B B 
depot. 

Penniman George H, lawyer, Superior. 

Perry Daniel, baker and confectioner. Porter. 

Phelps and Robertson (John W Phelps, Orris 
W Robertson), livery stable, Superior. 

Phillips David M, real estate agent, Superior. 

Phipany G J &. Son, (George J and WalterS), 
dry goods, groceries, etc, Erie. 

Plough &L Betts, (Nicholas Plough, Lewis F 
Betts), tin shop, Erie. 

Pray Thomas G, lawyer, Superior. 

Presley William, shoemaker, Superior. 

Reed Ira W, marble works, Superior. 

Beed & Bro,(Wiiliam T and George S), drugs, 
medicines, books and stationery, Supe- 
rior. 

Beed Sl Green,(Beuben Beed, Dorastus Green, 
Jr), harness shop and carriage trimming, 
Superior. 

Bobinson Orton, wagon, carriage and black- 
smith shop, Superior. 

Bowe Charles, meat market, Superior. 

Sapp R Bev, pastor Methodist church. 

Sawyer Ammi H, saloon, Superior. 

SHELDON JAMES W, banker and insurance 
agent, Superior. 

Smith Joseph, eating saloon. 

Snider Peter, groceries and provisions, Su- 
perior. 

STONE GEOBGE W, dentist, Superior. 

Swift Thomas, livery stable, Michigan. 

Swift J &, Son, (James and Frank), propr's 
Knapp House, cor Superior and Michi- 
gan. 

Thrasher William, blacksmith, Superior. 

Tichenor Edrick B, groceries and provisions, 
Superior. 

Tompkins John A, meat market, Center. 

Tuttle Sarah M Mrs, millinery, Superior. 

Upright & Erhardt, (Jacob Upright and Fred- 
rick W Erhardt), fUrniture, Superior. 

Van Ostrand H, physician, Superior. 

Wade I M Bev, pastor Baptist church. 

Walsh John F, saloon, Superior. 

Watkins William H, shoemaker and sewing 
machine agent, Porter. 

Wheelock Frederick, physician, Superior. 

Wheelock & Case, (Frederick A Wheelock 
and William L Case), props Albion Union 
Herald. 

Whiting M Bev, pastor Spiritual church. 



Williams Brothers, (Theodore and Fitch B), 
drugs, medicines, books, stationery and 
news dealers, Superior. 

Wilber Edwin C, physician (homoe), cor Su- 
perior and Porter. 

Williamson David, (col'd), barber, Superior. 

Williamson & Newell, (Lorenzo D Williamson 
and William P Newell), wagon and car- 
riage shop, Michigan. 

Wright James G, groceries and provisions 
Superior. 

ALQANSEE. 

A township and post office in the county 
of Branch, three miles south of the Michigan 
Southern Bailroad, about 120 miles westerly 
from Detroit. The township contains 1200 
inhabitants. It has a weekly mail. Pott' 
m«s<«r— Ferdinand C. Pratt. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — ^Asahel Brown. 

Cferifc— Levi P. Fuller. 

Treasurer— "WilUam Tibbits. 

Isimt of ProDMslons, Trades^ ete« 

Amsberry William, carpenter. 

Becker Jerry, blacksmith. 

Bennett John, physician. 

Bowker Charles, saw mill. 

Bowles Charles, carpenter. 

Boyce Hiram, carpenter, 

Brainard Mahlon W, carpenter. 

Brown Asahel, justice of the peace. 

DeWitt Clinton J, boot and shoe maker. 

Fisher Bates Bev. 

Fordham Gideon, carpenter. 

Hoger Adolpbus, blacksmith. 

Keeler Samuel H, cooper. 

Kenyon Ellas, harness maker. 

Kline Jacob, blacksmith. 

Larkin Edmond, blacksmith. 

Moffit Harvey H, boot and shoe maker. 

Pierce William, carpenter. 

Pratt Ferdinand C, carpenter. 

Rhodes David, cooper. 

Roundy Frank, justice of the peace. 

Simpkins Aaron, blacksmith. 

Smith Blake, blacksmith. 

Thompson David, cooper. 

Thompson Hiram, cooper. 

Tibbitts William, justice of the peace. 

Tompkins Frank, saw mill, 

Wakeman Eli, saw mill. 

Welker William H Bev. 

Williams James, physician. 

AL-QOMA. 

A post office of Kent county, 165 miles 
north-west of Detroit. (See ''LaphamvUU "). 

AL.QONAC-: 

A post village in the township of Clay, in 
St. Clair county, situated on the St. Clair 
river near its mouth, and about 40 miles 



110 



ALG 



CHABLBS F. CLXBE'S 



ALL 



from Detroit, — fare on traveled route $1.00. 
It contains three churches, viz : Methodist, 
Congregational and Disciples; two saw 
mills, one flour mill, several general stores, 
and mechanics' shops, and four hhip yards. 
Population about 600. There are three week- 
ly land mails, two Arom Canada, and a daily 
mail by steamboat. FottmatUr — Charles C. 
Folkerts. 

Iiisi of ProftosstonSf Trades, ete« 

Allen Come, shoe maker. 
• Allen George, shoemaker. 

Benson William Rev, (Methodist). 

Bostich Austin & Son, blacksmiUis. 

Curry Thomas, harness maker. 

Edgecomb A B, carriage manufacturer. 

Folkerts C. C. & Son, (Charles C and Char- 
les M.), general store. 

Forbes Thomas, carriage manufacturer. 

Foster James W, cabinet maker. 

Hill Thomas F, Hotel. 

Hamch Simon, carpenter. 

Hinman Charles £, ship builder. 

Jackson Joseph, carpenter. 

Jackson Michael, shoemaker and hotel. 

Jackson R C, blacksmith. 

Kean Michael B, flour mill. 

Kendall Oliver, mason. 

Lindall John, shoemaker. 

McCan John, carpenter. 

Melvin Alexander, physician. 

Mudge Stephen M, blacksmith. 

Pangbnrn Z, shipbuilder. 

Poole Charles, general store. 

Poole Edwin, grocer. 

Raymond James 8, physician. 

Ripley & Butterfleld, (Volney A Ripley and 
James D Butterfleld.), lumber dealers. 

Russell Samuel, justice of the peace. 

SMITH A & 8 L, r Abram and Samuel L), 
general store and lumber. 

Stewart A P, justice of the peace. 

Swartout & Co, (Benjamin Swartout and 
James D. Butterfleld), general store. 

AL-QONG^UIN. 

A township and post office in Ontonagon 
county, situated on road from Ontonagon to 
Houghton, 774 miles from Detroit. — Fare 
from Detroit, |14.75. The township is 
chiefly valuable on account of its copper 
mines. It has four mails per week. Post- 
nuuter — ^John H. Welch. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICEBS. 

Supervisor — ^W. E. Dickinson. 
Clerk — John Job. 
Treasurer — John H. Welch. 

lilst of i rofBMlons, Trades, etc* 

Bonday 1 lias, uou 1. 

Dickenson Vv £, ju: tice of the peace. 

J( b John, hotel. 

McKellar Peter, carpenter. 



McKittrick Robert, JusUce of the peace. 
McNaughton Frederick, blacksmiui. 
McNaughton John, carpenter. 
Welch John H, justice of the peace. 
Weston Robert D, justice of the peace. 
White John, carpenter. 

AL.I-EQAN. 

A township and post village in the county 
of Allegan, situated at the terminus of the 
Kalamazoo to Allegan, and fiaugatuck U> 
Allegan stage routes ; distance fh>m Detroit 
168 miles, and from Chicago, 168 ; fare on 
travele<l route from Detroit $5.40. Population 
of the town including village, 2000. It con- 
tains six churches, to wit: Presbyterian, Con- 
gregational, Episcopal, Methodist Episcopal, 
German Methodist, and Baptist ; two news- 
papers; one masonic lodge; a number of 
stores, manufactures and mechanics' shopih 
The merchants ordinarily receive their goods 
by railroad to Kalamazoo, and then by teams 
25 miles. Heavy goods are brought up the 
Kalamazoo river, by river boats, 25 miles. 
The Kalamazoo at Allegan ftimishes inrniense 
water power, which is employed as the motive 
power for several mills and factories. Allegan 
is the centre of a rich country, and com- 
mands the trade for some twenty miles 
around. A daily mail is carried each way 
between Allegan and Kalamazoo. Poiimaster 
— Hiram S. Manson. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

SuperviiOf^-VhWetns 0. Littlejohn. 
C/<tA:— Henry C. Smith. 
Trecuurer — Martin Cook. 

1.1st of Proftasiona, Tradea, etc. 

Atkins B, carpenter. 

Bailey J B, insurance agent. 

Bailey Leonard, carpenter. 

Baker Carlo, cabinet maker. 

BASSETT & ARNOLD, (Elisha B Bawett 
& Daniel J Arnold), lawyers. 

Booth H H, real estate agent. 

Bom E B, carriage maker. 

Bush Jonathan D, general «tore. 

Butler & Littlejohn, (Augustus S Butler and 
Walcott H Littlejohn), books and station- 
ery. 

Calkins A R, physician. 

Calkins & Stone, (Chauncey W Calkins and 
Silas E Stone), general store. 

Carter & Bro, (Hiram and Charles), grocers. 

Case A & H G, ( Alanson and Homer G), flour- 
ing mill. 

Case Homer G, general store. 

Chaffier Ira, general store. 

Chapin G A, livery stable. 

Church & Coleman, ( Church and George 

C Coleman), grocers. 

Curtiss John J, carriage maker. 

I Dumout Henry, flouring mill. 



ALL 



8TATB GAZETTBSaEL 



ALM 



in 



Duooing ft. Bro, (Harland and Philetns H), 
druggistA. 

ElliDger Daniel, merchant tailor. 
Ely David, mason. 

FoUett James D, hardware. 
Franks Henry, merchant tailor. 
Graham Rev, (Methodist.) 

Green James, boot and shoe maker. 

Hawks & Asians, (Charles M Hawks and 
George L Askins) publishers of "Record." 
Henderson D C d^ Co, (Don C and James D), 
pablishers of " Journal." 

Jenner Thomas C, general store. 

Kennedy Joel Bot, (Presbyterian). 
Kent James W, blacksmith. 
lUngsbury Henry, cabinet maker. 

Leslie A R, harness maker. 

Littlejohn Philetus 0, justice of the peace. 

-Lonsbury George W, daguerreotypist. 

McCormick John P, grocer. 
HcCortley William ReT, (Baptist). 
Marsh Hollister F, hotel. 
Marsh William L B, jeweler. 
Mattoon C B, gunsmith. 
Mayhew John H, general store. 

Nelson J R, physician. 
Nicholson George H, livery stable. 

Olirer db Co, (Andrew and George Oliver and 
John Philhps), cabinet makers. 

Parker Thomas J, blacksmith. 

Pennock J M Mrs, milliner. 

Pollard William J, flouring mill. 

Pratt Benjamin, justice of the peace. 

Bossmon Alby, machinist. 

Rossmon A Feke, (Alby Rossmon and Wins- 
low Feke), foundry. 

Roymer Daniel B, hotel. 

Simpson J, insurance agent. 

Soy H S, physician. 

Stone George W, justice of the peace. 

Stone J W, insurance agent. 

Streeter James B, dentist. 

Taylor J Rice Rev, (Episcopal). 

Thew Joseph, lawyer. 

Thompson David, harness maker. 

Tyler George W, mason. 

Vosburg Henry, jeweler. 

Waldo L F Rev, (Congregational). 

Weeks A M Mrs, milliner. 

Wetmore Joseph H, justice of the peace. 

Wiggins John, carpenter. ' 

Wilkes Charles R, hardware. 

Williams dt Bro, (George W and Wilson H), 
harness makers. 

Williams A Pritchard, (William B Williams 
and Benjamin D Pritchard), lawyers. 

Wilson Albert, cooper. 

WilsoD J Ob 11, cooper. 

Wilson Ward, cooper. 

York &. Comstock, (John N York and Levi 
M Comstock), lawyers. 



AL-LEN. 

A township of Hillsdale county. Popula- 
tion 1,600. Post office, •' 8ykf(mu»:* 

' A1-L.ENOAL.E. 

A post office of Ottowa county. 

AL-MA. 

A township of Tuscola county. Popula- 
tion, 800. 

ALMA. 

A post village in Gratiot county, situated 
on Pine river, 80 miles north of St. Johns, on 
the Detroit and Milwaukee railroad, and ISO 
miles north-west from Detroit. Fare on trav- 
eled route, $4.85. The country around is 
represented as being exceedingly fertile. A 
plank road is building from Alma to Saginaw 
City, 84 miles distant. Mail once a week. 
Fo8tma$Ur — James Gargett. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICEBB. 

8uperv%9or — ^W. Nelson. 

Town Clerk — Lyman S. Brooke. 

Treaturer — Joseph Backus. 

lilst of Prof)M«loiui, Trades, etc. 

Adams Henry, boot and shoe maker. 

Baughman D W, physician. 

Barns Albert A, cooper. 

Barns J W, physician. 

Bijur Daniel, gunsmith. 

Case William, flour and saw mill. 

Chafleld Charles, carriage maker. 

Clark William W, machinist. 

Ely Townsend A, livery stable. 

GARGETT JAMES, real estate agent. 

Gargett Louisa Mrs, milliner. 

Grover Thomas, blacksmith. 

Hillson James, boot and shoe maker. 

Holiday Lorton, hotel. 

Hulbert Horace B, general store. 

Jennings George W, justice of the peace. 

Kingsly Alonzo £, saloon. 

Rogers Almon C, carpenter. 

Rogers William N, blacksmith. 

Turk William, lumber dealer. 



AL.MENA. 

A township and post village of Van Buren 
county, 160 miles west of Detroit. Fare, 
$8.80. It contains a Methodist and a Chris- 
tian church, a saw mill, flour mill, and two 
stores, and is Ave miles fi'om Mattawan, on 
the M C R R, by way of which place goods 
should be sent. Population of township, 800. 
Fottmasier — Simeon Brown. 

TOWKBHIP OFFICBBS. 

Supervisor — Silas Breed. 
Town Clerk— 'E. Wai'ner. 
Treasurer — Chauncy B. Palmer. 



172 



ALM 



CHABUBB V. CLAXK'B 



ALT 



Iilst of ProftMloBSi TnUlea, etc* 

Abbott Chauncej, Justice of the peace. 

Bonfi-07 AlansoD, grocer. 

Brewer Lawrence, saw mill. 

Brown Simeon, shoe maker. 

Dyre Horace, cooper. 

Fish Stephen W, flour and saw mill. 

French Warren F, carpenter. 

Herron Ashbel, justice of the peace. 

Manchester John, carriage iha^er. 

Plumb Miron, mason. 

Bhodes Oren, cooper. 

Rhodes Peter, cooper. 

Rhodes Zenas, cooper. 

Strong William, mason. 

Teed Philip N, carpenter. 

Wilson Jesse, justice of the peace, 

A L. MONT. 
A township and post Tillage in the county 
of Lapeer, situated on the stage route from 
Almont to McPhersonyille, Utica station, on 
the Grand TrunlL railroad, 60 miles from De- 
troit. Fare on traveled route from Detroit, 
|2. It contains three churches, Tic : one Con- 
gregational, one Baptist, and one Methodist; 
one masonic lodge, six general stores, and a 
number of mechanic shops. The merchants 
receive their goods by the Grand Trunk rail- 
road to Ridgeway ; thence by wagons. It 
has a daily mail. Total population, 2,800. 
J*oiimaster — Daniel W. Richaidson. 

TOWKSHIP OFFICBKS. 

Supervisor — John B. Hough. 

Town Clerk — Denison £. Hagan. 

Treamrer—k* C. Dickerson. 

lAKi of ProftMloBs, TraAeti ete« 

Andrus James H, general store. 

Baker Stephen K, boot and shoe maker. 

Berry & LongstafT (James Berry, Mark Long- 
stafiT), harness makers. 

Bessey Samuel Rev, (Methodist). 

Borden E W Rev, (Congregational). 

Bostick E C, physician. 

Burrows James, blacksmith. 

Cherryman Thomas, general store. 

Cohoe Henry, carpenter. 

Cook Amasa P, mason. 

Corey Egbert W, lawyer. 

Corliss Aldin S, carriage maker. 

Currier & Walker, (Frederick P. Currier and 
Abel D. Walker), blacksmiths and ma- 
chinists. 

Fitch Hiram D, jeweler. 

Ford John, merchant tailor. 

Ch>odrich (Jarry, hotel. 

Harris John N, general store. 

Hewson William, physician. 

^ibbler George, cabinet msker. 

^ough John B, justice of the peace. 

Jenness John S, general store. 

Johnson James S, cabinet maker. 
• Mair John, blacbsmith. 



Marshall 8 D, ndoon. 

Moses J &> Co, (Joseph Moses, Frederick P. 
Currier and Abel D. Walker), carriage 
makers. . 

Murdock John, boot and shoe mAkn'. 

Nichols William, cooper. 

Payne F J & £ £, (Francis J andEE), flour- 
ing and saw mill. 

Pierce Davis, gunsmith. 

Porter dk Stuart, (Andrew Porter and Geoi|^ 
Stuart), livery stable. 

Proal Albert, mason. 

Race Darius, hotel. 

Rattray John, justice of the peace, 

Redmond Nathaniel H, lawyer. 

Richardson &. McEntee, (Daniel W Richard- 
son and Charles R McEntee), grocers and 
druggists. 

Sanderson Nelson, boot and shoe maker. 

Shaw David R, lumber dealer. 

Steele Elisa P, milliner. 

Stephens Henry, general store. 

Stone Addison R, j^ysician. 

Stroleridge Oliver P, physidan. 

Symon Joseph, carriage maker. 

Vail Evaline &, Elizabeth, millinors. 

Whitehead WilUam, saloon. 

Whitney A J, physician. 

Wilcox HoraUo, carpenter. 

Williams A D Rev, (Baptist). 

Williams &. Moss, (Leonard WiUSanu and 
Palmer J Moss), general store. 

Witt Arthur B, harness maker. 

Wright J & Co, r John Wright and Henry 
Stephens), haraware. 

ALPINE- 
A township and post office, in Kent coun- 
ty, situated five miles north of Grand Rapids, 
and 165 miles westerly from Detroit, — fore 
on traveled route from Detroit |4,75. It 
contains about 1400 inhabitants, uid is one 
of the most productive towns in the county. 
It contains one Baptist church, three Metho- 
dist societies, one Catholic church and one 
Universalist society. Mail every other day. 
Poi<iNtf«(«r~Egbert B. Hill. 

lilat of Pro0M8loB% Tra4le«| ete. 

Bailey Warren, blacksmith. 
Colton &. Ellis, flour mill. 
Hill Egbert B, grocer and hotel. 
Norton John, justice of the peace. 
Itoot Joseph, blacksmith. 
Shackelton Jeremiah, blacksmith. 

Toms Rev . 

Underhill Alford, Rev. 

Waterman Charles, justice of the peace. 

ALTO. 
A post office of Kent county. 

ALTON. 
A small post village of Kent county. 



AXN 



STATE GAZKTTEER. 



ANN 



115 



^won bom in Ann Arbor. Rev. William 
•aijp wa-s tlie first Presbyterian clergyman. 

h\ 1833 the villajce was incorporated, and 
u isol a ciiv charter was obtained. The 
»T»'Si*iit population of the city proper in 
ilu»ut ftix thousand, and of the township, 
[turvde the city limits, about three thonsand, 
linking a total of nine thousand inhabitantH. 
wliifh is proliably a low estimate. The U. 
S. i.'t'iisuH of 1850, (iuTariably too low in its 
Mums of population,) gives the following 
fisuivs : 







Vo. of 


Whole 


m 

1 


TUIITSBIP Aan> CTTT. 


Vo of 
Bomam. 


Foml- 

liM. 


No. of 

Ihhsbl- 








UBt«. 


V 


Atih Arbor (township) 


81)0 


421'2.05r» 


85 


FiMWard (dty),... 


248 


263 1,852 


5 


Second Ward " ...• 


193 


209 1,134 


7 


Third Ward " .... 


147 


141i 871 


15 


F'.nrthWard * .... 


20(5 


222 1,01H) 


27 


F.fthWard " .... 


125 


140. GOO 


8 


Totil 


1.316' 1,8% 7,102 


92 



Tb«re should be tdded to this, a floatini; 
pf'pulation of about one thousand, comi>oscd 
loinlyof the UnlTerslty students. 

.\rm Arbor derives a larj^e share of her im- 
portance fWmi Uie Michigan State University, 
I rioTv generally acknowledged to be one of the 
In-iiDg educational institutions in the conn- 
try.) which was locatetl hero in 1887. and 
vj.icb is now in a most flourishing condition. 
Many of the professors are authors of stand 
iri works in the difTerent departments o^' 
fcience and literature, and are quoted as nu- 
tljorities in most of the collef^es and scIiooIk 
tlirou shout the country. The University 
1 iilMinss are handsome and imiiosins struc- 
tRn<. commandingly situated and surroun<led 
hy tastefully laid ont grounds, b nirrod with 
lK>sat:ful sluute trees. *' The Medical College 
iiA Otmervatory are remarkably fine build- 
ings, and reflect great credit on the Stale 
Goremment and the city of Detroit, who pm- 
ciired their erection. In 1863 a scientiflc 
crkiirse was added, giving all who wish sn 
KpTKirtunity to study any or all of tlie higher 
branches of English science or mode>n lan- 
cua^e, without studying t%e dead lansuagC'^ 
0.- entering the claaeical icolleaiite coune. In 
the literary and acientiflc departments tht* 
Tear begins about October Ist and, with a 
vai*ation of a week for the holidavn, eiid> 
ibout July Ist, and any person qualifhd can, 
It any time enter the scientific cl'ss and 
pursue any studies' in which it is then en- 
::4:;el. Immediately foMowinj onr skctcli • f 
t}.e town and list of otflcers will be found an 
extract frdta the Annual Report of the Uni- 
Toreitv, for 1862, which gives full particulars 



with regard to the ^rking of the institution, 
its organization, etc. 

The educational advantas:es of this city are 
unsur])asKe<l, there being, inde]>endent of the 
University, a large number of excellently 
manafved schools, both public aud private. 
The " Union School," an engraving which we 
give on another i>aG;e, is a beautiful structure, 
having a front of one hundred, with a de])th 
of fifty feet, and a hall <>ne hundred by forty 
feet, and twenty IV et high ; the building will 
accommodate four hundred pupils. 

The city enjoys a flourisbinET trade and 
contains man> fine stores, together with ex- 
tensive manufactories of flour, machin<>ry, 
iron, leather, pa|)er, malt liquors, etc. (The 
carriages manufactured here are not sur- 
passed, for elegance and durability, by 
any in the country). It has three private 
banking hou.«iC8, five hotels, nine churches, 
Masonic, Od<i Fellows, and other societies, 
four newspapers, bettides \nt'i(>iis institu- 
tions, a tull list of which will b^ found 
at end of this notice. Among the must enter- 
]>rising of the citizens of Adh Arbor are the . 
Ge>man ie9tidents, to whose industry aud 
public spirit the town owes much of its im- 
portance. Many of the larg»st stores and 
finest buildings in the city are owned by the 
Germans. 

We know of no city in the Statp tli.it offers 
stronger inducements to iMiterprisin^ mechan- 
ics and business men thnii Ann Aibitr, and 
none that combin(;s great «»r ailva?ita:n»s to 
men of industrious habits but of slen<ier 
means 

The ** Washtenaw Asriculturnl Society," an 
associati4»n of the county farnn is, ha^ done 
much to dcvelope the tine fanning c.i|ia1)ilitics 
of this se tion, while the aniuinl fairs have 
awakened a connnendal>le spirit of emulation 
tint cannot fail to advance its nintf^rial pros- 
perity. The Rf»ciety owns, within the city 
liniitN. a finely fitted uj) fair ground, of 
twenty-one acres, with all th^ n«»ccssary 
buildings for their annual cxhibitio: s, 6iv. 

The estimated value of real isiat«», for tlie 
entire city, is within a fraction of ^2 (KKMmio. 
Ab«)Ut ;V>.(XM) barrels oi flour an* maniif.u'- 
tined annually The value of uKuiut.ictured 
a'ticl'S ofallkindsis upward of 8'i'«h.(n)0 

Distance from Detroit, 'M iiii <*s, im'o, 
$1.(10 ; from Chicago, *J47 miles, la*- ?7.m') ; 
a? d by stage routes, from Jlowell. :{0 miles, 
fare $l.o(>; from Fentonville, 40 - -iles, fare, 
$'2.tX); distance from Lansing, •'»] niilcs. 

Following the <lescription of the Siat«» Uni- 
versily, will be found a coniplei" '>t i^\ t'le 
vari(Mis wnrieties, churches, hu»»in'"»s men, 
citv otiicers. ^ic. And in another p:i i oi iho 
work a beautiful steel engraving ot iln» Uni- 
versity and grounds. 



CQABLEB F. CLABK'B 



ANN 



STATE OAZBTTBBB, 



ANN 



177 



Germany. In the University of Michigan, it 
is a cardinal object to maice this correspon- 
dence as complete as possible. Hence it is 
proposed to make the stndies here parsued 
not only introductory to professional studies, 
and to studies in the higher branches of sci- 
ence and literature, but also to embrace such 
studies as are more particularly adapted to 
agriculture, the mechanic arts, and to the 
industrial arts generally. Accordingly, a dis- 
tinct Scientific Course has been added, run- 
ning parallel to the Classical Course, and 
extending through the same term of four years, 
embracing the same number of classes, with 
the same designation. In this Course, a more 
extended range of Mathematics and the Nat- 
ural Sciences, together with English Language 
and Literature, is substituted for the Greek 
and Latin Languages. Students who have in 
view particular branches, as connected imme- 
diately with their pursuits in life, and who do 
not aim at general scientific or literary study, 
are admitt^ to Optional Courses. 

The design of the Regents and Faculty is, 
to make the Collegiate or Gymnastic Depart- 
ment as ample and rich as possible, and to 
adapt it to the wants of all classes of students 
that properly come within its range. 

The Classical Course and also the Scientific, 
whether full or partial, are conducted by the 
University Faculty of Science, Literature and 
The Arts. 

But the Regents and Faculty cannot for- 
get that a system of Public Instruction can 
never be complete without the highest form 
of education, any more than without that 
primary education which is the natural and 
necessary introduction to the whole. The 
undergraduate Course' after all that can be 
done to perfect it, is still limited to a certain 
number of years, and necessarily embraces 
only a limited range of studies. After this 
must come professional studies, and more ex- 
tended studies in Science, Literature and the 
Arts ; which alone can lead to profound and 
finished scholarship. In such a system of 
education, that which forms the culmination 
of the whole cannot be discarded. An Insti- 
tution cannot deserve the name of a University 
which does not aim, in all the maiiriel of 
learning, in the Professorships which it estab- 
lishes, and in the whole scope of its provisions, 
to make it possible for every student to study 
what he pleases, and to any extent he pleases. 
Nor can it be regarded as consistent with the 
spirit of a free country to deny to its citizens 
the possibilities of the highest knowledge. 

The University Course is already, in part, 
opened in the Department of Science and 
Letters, where courses of lectures are given 
for those who have graduated at this or other 
institutions, and for those who in other ways 
have made such preparations as may enable 
them to attend upon them with advantage. 



These lectures, in accordance with the educa- 
tional system of Germany and France, will 
form the proper development of the University, 
in distinction from the College or the Gymnap 
sium now in operation. Such a scheme re- 
quires, in addition to the Observatory, already 
erected, a large increase of the library and 
philosophical apparatus, and a gradual in- 
crease of the number of Professors. A 
great work, it will require great means : but 
when once accomplished, it will constitute the 
glory of our State, and give us an indisputable 
preeminence. 

The Medical and Law Departmentty already 
established, belong to the University 
proper. Here instruction is carried on by 
lectures ; and it is presumed that students, by 
the aid of these lectures, — the design of which 
is to present to them a complete outline of 
Medical and Legal Science, and to direct 
them in their studies, — by the study of learned 
works, and by availing themselves of all the 
preparations made for the thorough study of 
their profession, shall be enabled to compose 
the thesis and pass the examinations which 
are to test their scholarship, and prove them 
worthy of being admitted as ** Doctors of 
Medicine, " and " Bachelors of Law." 

A citizen of Michigan having ofiered to 
give one hundred dollars annually for the en- 
dowment of Scholarships in the University, 
provided the Board of Regents would appro- 
priate a like sum to the same object, and the 
Regents having voted such appropriation, 
there will be open to students applying for 
admission to the Freshman Class of the ap- 
proaching College Year, the following seholar^ 
tkipa: 

1. Two Scholarships of fifty dollars each, to 
be awarded to the two students who shkll 
pass the most satisfactory examinations in 
the studies preparatory to the Classical De- 
partment. 2. Two Scholarships of fifty dollars 
each, to be awarded to the two students pass- 
ing the most satisfactory examinations in the 
studies preparatory to the Scientific Depart- 
ment. But no award will be made to any 
applicant whose acquirements are lower than 
the standard agreed upon by the examiners. 
The Classical Scholarships have been named 
the Woohey Seholarahip and the Barnard Sehtl- 
arah^. The first is in honor of the services 
rendered to Classical Education by President 
WooLSET, of Yale College; the second in 
honor of the Hon, Hb5bt Babn abd, President 
of the University of Wisconsin, who has done 
so much to promote the cause of Popular 
Education. The Scientific Scholarships have 
been named the Sottffhtim Seholarahip and the 
Pieree Seholarahip, The first, in remembrance 
of the services rendered to the State and the 
University by the late Douglass HotroHTon, 
M. D. ; the second, in remembrance of the de- 
votion to the oaose of Education in Mlchigaa 



178 



ANN 



CHA.BLES F. CLABK's 



ANN 



shown by the Hon. Johh D Pibbcb. The 
Scholarship Examinations will be held during; 
the first month of the first semester. One- 
half the sum due each successful competi- 
tor will be paid after he shall have attended 
the studies of ihe first semester, and the re- 
maining half after attending the studies of 
the second semester. 

Disapline--The rules of the University re- 
quire that every student should be in his 
place, at all stated exercises, from the open- 
ing to the close of each semester. Every in- 
stance of absence, tardiness, or failure in 
recitation, unless satisfactory excuse be ren- 
dered to the proper officer, at or before the 
time of its occurrence, is reported to the 
Faculty. Absences are excused after their 
occurrence only by vote of the Faculty, satis- 
factory explanation being made in writing, 
either by the student or by his parent or 
guardian. All unexcused delinquencies are 
registered ; and when the number amounts 
to five, or any number more than five and less 
than ten, notice thereof is given to the stu- 
dent, and to his parent or guardian. When 
the number of unexcused delinquencies 
amounts to Un^ the student ceases to bo a 
member of the University. Students are also 
dismissed whenever, in the opinion of the 
Faculty, they may be pursuing a course of 
conduct calculated to be detrimental to them- 
selves and to the University. Students who 
are not in their places at the opening of the 
semester, must present written excuses from 
their parents or guardians for the delay. 
Students are not allowed to absent themselves 
firom town without permission fh>m the Presi- 
dent. The Undergraduate Students are re- 
quired to attend prayers daily in the College 
Chapel, and public worship on the Sabbath 
at any one of the churches in the city of Ann 
Arbor which their parents or guardians may 
select. 

Libraries, — ^The University Library is loca- 
ted, at present, in the North Building, and 
contains nearly eight thousand volumes. An 
annual appropriation is made for the purchase 
of books and periodicals. The Library is 
open daily for consultation. The Law Lil)rary 
has been placed, temporarily, in the South 
Building, and is open to students in the Law- 
Department ten hours each day. Rules for 
the regulation of the room have been adopted, 
which render it a convenient and suitable 
place as well for consultation as for regular 
study, to those who desire to occupy it for 
that purpose. In May, 1858, the " Christian 
Library Association of the University of 
Michigan" was organized for the purpose of 
procuring, by donation and purchase, with- 
out expense to the University, a Free Circu- 
lating Library of moral and religious works, 
for the use of all members of the University. 
Id affidn ar« to be managed Ij a Board of 



Directors, of which the President of the Uni- 
versity is President ; two Directors are chosen 
by the Board of Regents ; two by the Facul- 
ties ; two by the Students' Christian Associi- 
tion ; and two by the ChrisUan Library Ano- 
ciation, from persons not connected withtite 
University. 

Jktroii Obtervatory, — This Observatoiy, t 
donation of the citizens of Detrcnt, is now 
entirely finished. It is situated half a odie 
from the University ground, on a hill 160 feet 
above the Huron river, fh>m which is pre- 
sented one of the most charming views in tbe 
country. The building consists of amaio 
part, with a movable dome 21 feet in diame- 
ter, and two wiugs, one of which contains the 
rooms for the observer, while in the other the 
splendid Meridian-Circle, presented by H. N. 
Walker, Esq., of Detroit, is mounted. This 
instrument, which is one of the largest and 
best of its kind, was imported fh)m Beriin. 
The focal length of its telescope is eight feet; 
the aperture of the obJecUglass, six French 
inches. It is furnished with two circles, a 
little more than three English feet in dkme- 
ter, and with eight microscopes, by which the 
divisiojks of the circle can be read as near as 
one-tenth of a second. The same room con- 
tains a siderial clock, made by Tiede, in Ber- 
lin, and two collimators north and souUi fron 
the Meridian-Circle, for the determinatioo of 
the error of collimation. In the dome, a 
large telescope, with an object-glass of thir- 
teen English inches in diameter, is mounted. 
This instrument, which, in size, is surpassed 
only by the telescope in Cambridge, Mass., 
and by that in Pulkova, in Russia, was made 
by Mr. Fitz, of New York. 

Students who make Astronomy an optional 
study during the Senior Tear, or in tlM Uni- 
versity Course, will have instruction in the use 
of the instruments, and will have an oppor- 
tunity to participate in the obsenrationa. 

The Mutettm. — The University Museum em- 
braces the following valuable collections, 
illustrative of Science, Art and History: L 
Natural Hibtobt. 1. A choice collection 
of Minerals, embracing over six thousand 
specimens, principally European. This col- 
lection was purchased of the late Baron 
Ledercr, and is called the " Lederer Colleo- 
tion." 2. A rich collection of the Mineral 
Species of Michigan, including all the varie- 
ties of Copper Ore and Associated Minerals 
from the difierent localities of the Lake Su- 
perior district. This collection is partly the 
fruit of the State Geological Survey, and 
partly the result of the subsequent labors of 
Professor Douglass. 8. The collection in 
Geology, consisting of the large and complete 
series of specimens brought together by the 
State Geological Survey ; to which Professor 
Winchell has added his own collections of Cre- 
taoeona and Tartiaiy FohUi, with ezamplea 



ASS 



STATE OAZETTESB. 



ANN 



179 



from other fonnatioDS; together with the 
frnite of exchanges with the duplicates of the 
State Collection. 4. A rery large Zoological 
Collection, connsting, 1st, of a complete suite 
€f the Birds which visit Michigan, with most 
of the Mammals of the State ; a nearly com- 
^te series of the Reptiles found east of the 
Eocky Mountains ; two thousand species of 
Uollnsca, embracing all the land and fresh- 
water forms of the Northern and Western 
States, and a considerable collection of 
Joshes and Radiata. 2d, Professor Winchell's 
coUectioos, embradng Land and Fresb-water 
Shells, from all parts of the United States, 
and fhun Jamaica, W. I. ; osteological and 
ndcroacopical preparations, and two thousand 
specimens of Insects. 8d, The " Trowbridge 
Collection." This is an extensive series of 
ipecimens in all the classes of the Animal 
Kingdom, made by Lieut. Trowbridge (late 
Professor in the University), upon the Pacific 
coast of our country ; it fiamishes a complete 
iDostratioD of the Fauna of that coast, and 
will raise the University collection to a rank 
anung the very first in the country. 6. An 
Herbuiun, illustrative of the Flora of the 
State, cootaining about fifteen hundred spe- 
cies, arranged and labeled, to which have 
been added about four hundred species from 
Ibe Southern States, and two hundred and 
twoity-flve from Germany. 

Muasmc of the Medical Dbpabtment. — 
The Anatomical Museum has been selected 
and prepared with direct reference to teach- 
faig Although it is not deemed necessary to 
cnnmerate particularly its contents, a few 
nay be nanied, to indicate the character of 
the conectlon. Besides containing a number 
of Adult Skeletons, articulated and separate, 
of the most perfect description, there are 
preparatioiis illustrating its various stages of 
development and change, from its first rudi- 
ments of foetal life to extreme old age ; 
and a variety of partial or complete skeletons 
of inferior animals, to exhibit its various mo- 
diiicaticMis. It contains, likewise, beautifully 
prepared Skulls and Teeth, to illustrate first 
and second dentition, and others showing 
many of the diseases to which they are sub- 
ject. Vanoos Arterial Preparations^ com- 
plete and partial, afford good facilities for 
iladying die vascular system. Several hun- 
dred Alcobcdlc Preparations of healthy and 
dieeeaed etmctures — ^human and comparative 
— Aimiah important aid in illustratiog Phy- 
siology and Pathology; while models in 
plaster aod papier-m4cb6, with a valuable 
collection of Plates, Splints, and Surcical 
iDstrameDta, meet the wants of the more 
inctical bnnchee. An important addition 
to theae meami 6f illustration has recently 
besQ made hy an importation from Europe, 
tf great iNMiiity and vidue ; among which are 
teoQectioD of bones, of the head, disarticu- 



lated and mounted, and an extended collec- 
tion of Wax Models, illustrative of various 
anatomical and pathological conditions, in- 
cluding representations of the anatomy of the 
pelvis and its contents, of several varieties of 
hernia, of Ppecimens of small-pox and the 
vaccine disease, and of a large number of 
cases in ophtha'mic surgery, etc. The 
Department of the Museum illustrative of Ma- 
teria Medica consists of a very complete suite 
of Crude Organic Medicinal Substances, em- 
bracing between five and six hundred speci- 
mens, imported from Paris, put up in beauti- 
ful glass-covered half-gallon jars of uniform 
appearance, finely displayed, arranged ac- 
cording to their order in Natural History, and 
labeled in both French and £nglish ; besides 
about one thousand other specimens of Sim- 
ple Mineral and Vegetable Substances and 
Pharmaceutical and Officinal Preparations, 
Active Principles, etc., arranged in groups 
convenient for study ; and altogether com- 
prising a collection which, in amount, variety, 
and adaptness to the purposes of instruction, 
it is confidently believed is not equalled by 
any of a similar character, even in the older 
Institutions in this country. Besides these 
actual specimens. Medical Botany is illus- 
trated by between one and two hundred large 
and finely-colored Plates, framed and glaz^, 
and displayed for observation. A full suite 
of instruments used in Diseases of Females, 
is deposited in the Museum, illustrating the 
surgical processes required in this class of 
cases; and the magnificent Portraits of Cu- 
taneous Diseases, by Dr. Erasmus Wilson, 
and the no less useful collection by Dr. Rob't 
Willis, illustrate very fully this department 
of Pathology. 

The Fine Arts ano Histobt. — This col- 
lection was commenced in the year 1856, by 
Prof. Frieze, and at present comprises — 1. A 
Gallery of Casts, in full size and in reduction, 
of the most valuable Ancient Statues and 
Busts. These were mainly executed at the 
Imperial modeling ^establishment of the 
Louvre, by Desachy, of Paris, and by the 
Brothers Micheli, of Berlin. 2. A gallery of 
more than two hundred Reductions and 
Models, in terra cotta, and other materials. 
These represent the i)rincipal Statues, Por- 
trait Busts, Vases, and other Antiquities in 
the Museo Borbonico, and other European 
Museums. They were executed at Naples. 
3. A Gallery of Engravings and Photographic 
views, executed in Italy and Greece, illus- 
trating especially the Architectural and 
Sculptural remains of Ancient Rome, Pom- 
peii, Paestum, Athens, and Corinth. 4. The 
Horace White Collection of Historical Medal- 
lions, comprising, Ist, Four hundred and fifty 
casts from Antique Gems in the Royal Muse- 
um at Berlin, illustrative of Ancient History ; 
2d, Over five hundred Caste illustrative of 



180 



ANN 



CHABLES F. CLARK'S 



ANN 



Mediseval History, and of the Renaissance 
Period ; 8d, 'About four hundred Medallion 
Portraits of Leading Personages in Modern 
History. These portraits were derived from 
authentic sources, and reduced with fidel- 
ity, and the whole were cast by Eichler, of 
Berlin. Not included with the above are 
several copies of Modern Busts and Reliefs, 
by Thorwaldsen, Canova, Powers, and oth- 
ers. 

All the above collections are now arranged 
in connected Galleries, for the purpose of 
rendering them attractive, as well as accessi- 
ble, both to students and visitors. The Uni- 
versity thus affords a secure deposit for ob- 
jects of value or curiosity, where they can 
be classified and exhibited to the best advan- 
tage, and be productive of the greatest 
amount of good. It is to be hoped, there- 
fore, that the Museum will receive accessions, 
not only through the direct action of the 
Board of Regents and of the Faculties, but 
also by donations from individuals, whether 
graduates or other friends of the institution. 
Valuable donations of this kind have already 
been made. The members of the class of 
1869, shortly before graduation, imported 
from Paris, for the Gallery of Statues, a 
splendid copy of the LaOcoon, of the ftill size 
of the original ; thus leaving within the halls 
of the University a noble monument of their 
public spirit, and for their affection for Alma 
Mater, as well as an honorable example for 
those who shall hereafter fill their places. 
No token of grateful remembrance, whether 
bestowed by a class, or by an individual 
graduate, can be more acceptable to the 
University — certainly none more beautiful 
and appropriate — than an accurate copy of 
one of the great master-pieces of Ancient or 
Modern Sculpture. 

Expenses. — The only charge of the Institu- 
tion (from whatever part of the country the 
student may come), is an admission fee of 
t-en dollars, and an ^unual payment of five 
dollars. The fee of ten dollars entitles the 
student to the privileges of permanent mem- 
bership in any Department of the University. 
Each Medical Student is required, on matri- 
culation, to deposit with the Steward one 
dollar, to be returned to him at the close of 
the term, less the amount which may have 
been assessed upon it to defray damages not 
individually accounted for. There are no 
dormitories, and no commons, connected 
witli the University. Students obtain board 
and lodging in private * families, at prices 
varying from two to three and a half dollars 
per week. Clubs are also formed, by which 
the price of board is much reduced. Includ- 
ing board and washing, the necessary ex- 
penses of a student for a year will not vary 
from one hundred and twenty-five to one 
hundred and fifty dollars. 



In the department of Literature, Scienoe, 
and the Arts, there exist now three pre- 
scribed courses of study: the Classical, in 
which students are graduated as Bacbelon 
of Arts ; the Scientific, in which stadenta are 
graduated as Bachelors of Science ; and the 
Course of Civil Engineering, in which the 
students will receive the diploma of Civil 
Engineer. In addition to t^e above, elective 
studies are introduced, so that students, after 
having completed one year of the courses Ibr 
graduation, can proceed, not only to one or 
both of the others, to study the branches 
which peculiarly belong to them, but can 
select, also, particular sciences or subjects of 
prolonged study, extending through two, 
three, or more years, accordkig to the nature 
of the science selected, or the degree of per- 
fection at which they aim. The old idea of 
crowding all the science and literature into 
four arbitrary years is thus abrogated. 
Courses of four years' study are, indeed, stfll 
prescribed, since the state of our preparatoiy 
schools does not admit of an entire revolution 
at once ; but the amount of study allotted 
to each is only what experience has decided 
to be practicable within that period. But if 
any student fail in the stated examination, he 
will be required to fall back to a lower class, 
and to review his studies as much as bis case 
requires. The popular character of the Uni- 
versity is worthy of notice. It is a prevailing 
opinion that the common school is the most 
popular of all our institutions of learning. 
This would be true, did the common school 
meet all the educational wants of the people, 
and were it the only one open to them. But 
it certainly can not be true merely because 
the common school is the lowest grade of 
education, unless we adopt the monstrous 
principle that the people are entitied only to 
the lowest grade. All civilized countries, and 
especially those having popular forms of 
government— where the people share alike, 
the sovereign power, and are eligible to the 
civil ofiSces — require a great numW of highly 
educated men. Indeed, the more widely the 
higher degrees of education are diffused, the 
better. But, where the higher institutions 
of learning are so constituted as to be acces- 
sible only to the rich, and to privileged 
classes, they can not be popular institutions. 
Now, the University of Michigan is popular, 
in the strictest sense, whether we consider its 
course of study, or the fact that it is freely 
opened to all the people, without distinction. 
If any wish to give their sons a classical edu- 
cation, with a view of introducing them into 
the Learned Professions, they find here the 
requisite course of study. If any wish to 
give their sons a purely scientific education, 
or to introduce them to branches connected 
with the Mechanical Arts, with Manufactures, 
with Commerce, with Agriculture, or with 



CHABLBB 7. CLABK'S 



182 ANN CHARLES p. CLABK^S ANN 



Methodist — (Qerman), corner of Liberty and Dean A Co.'s, Main street, works near nil- 
Division, Rev. Bertrams, pastor. road depot. Charles Tripp, Pretidemi ; James 

Frcxbt/teHan—CoTueT Huron and Division, Clements, Secretary and Trea9urer ; Chailet 

Rev. Lucas D. Chapin, pastor. Tripp, S. H. Douelas, James Clements, E. W. 

St. Thomas^ CaHwHe—^orih, between State Morgan, C. H. Millen, JHrectcri. 
and Division, Rev. Thomas Cullen, pastor. _ . . _ -».^^^,_^ _. ^. , 

^a;>/t»i— Catherine, Rev. Samuel CorseUus, *-"• *' ProftMlon% XrMM, ele. 

pastor. Abel Sylvester, lawyer, Haron. 

Colored Church^^\M\a. Allaby William, boots and shoes, Main. 

Ambrose George W, lawyer, court house. 

PUBLIC HALLS. ^^^8 Albert W, agt American Express Co 

Hangstefer's Hall^42x76, 18 feet high), and periodic»als, Ann. 

south-west comer Main and Washington. Aray James W, (col'd), barber, Huron. 

J\>mf»'«J7tf//— Corner Huron and Fifth. Arksey Nichohis, carriages, Detroit, 

Agricultural JSTatt— Junction Fourth and ^^^ ^ Pierson, (Phillip Bach, Isaac 8 Rer- 
])etroit. B^^)> ^^y goo^s and groceries, cor Main 

NBW8PAPBBS. ^^^ HurOU. 

,_. , . J ,--- , , V A^ ir/^ Banfield Henry, boot and shoemaker, Ann. 

M^h^an Argus^yfeMy) $1,60 per year, fiarstow Hiram T, propr PrankUn House, cor 
Published every Friday mommg, on the cor- ^^^^ ^^^ ^^;^^ *' 

ner of Mam and Huron streets, by Elihu B. Batchelder Don C, marble worker, Huron. 

Pond Editor and Proprietor. Democratic. g^^es Hiram J, lawyer, Huron. 

Mtchtgan State A «r#-( Weekly), $1.60 per g^^i Andrew, grJ)cer, cor Main and Washing- 
year. Published everv Tuesday mommg, in ^^^ ^ 

City Hall Building fliron street, by Lorenzo ^^^^ ^Wles, grocer, Main. 

Davis, Editor aiid Proprietor Republi«tn. BonhBm Nelion, proper Washtenaw House, 

Peninsular Coftrier— (Weekly), $1,50 per lower town 

year. Published every Tuesday morning, on Besimer W H & Bro, (William H and Anson 
Huron street, near cormr of Mam by Clark, j^) g^loon. Fourth. 

Wiltsie & Holmes, Editors and Proprietors. ^^^^^^ q jj^^Vy, saloon, Main. 

Republican. , ,^ ^i , ., .^ Bliss C D & Co, (Calvin D BUss, Hum- 

Ann Arbor Jouf'nal-^(W^k]y\ $1,60 per j^ ) watchmakers and jewelers, Main, 

year Published every Wednesday morninrr, godwell A M, agricultural implementi, No 8 
on the corner of Maine and Huron streets, by Buchoz block 

Seaman & Cole, Editors and Proprietors. Re- 3^^,^^ ^f m, livery stable, Huron, 

publican. Brooke Charles, painter, Huron. 

SOCIETIES. Bross Frederick, wagon-maker. Washing- 

Ann Arbor Lodge, Xo. 85 F. ^ A. Masons — ton. 

Meets Wednesday evening preceding each Brown John, livery stable, Ann. 

full moon, at Masonic Hall, Main st. Brown William 8, lawyer, Franklin House. 

Chapter Xo. 6 P. ^ A. Masons — Meets Mon- Buchoz Louis R, lumber dealer, cor Detroit 
day evoninjr preceding each full moon, at and Fifth. 

Masonic Hall, Main street. Buell George, match manuf r, lower town. 

Washtenaw Loitge No. 9 1. ofO. F. — Meets Buell Jacob W, lumber dealer, foot of Law- 
every Friday evening, at Odd Fellow's Hall, rence. 

Mitin street. Burleson John H, insurance agent, se oor 

Washtenaw Encampment No. 7 /. 0. ofO.F — Ann and Fourth. 

Meets on first and thini Fridays in each Burnett Asa, wagonmaker, Main cor Cathe- 
month, at Odd Fellows' Hall, Main street. rine. 

Young Men's Literanj Association — Meets Carroll John, grocer, lower town, 

every Thurhday evening, in Court House. D. Chapin, Wood & Co, (Norman Chapin, A B 
S. Twitchell, President ; Hamilton J. Dennis, Wood, Volney Chapin, Charles A Chapin), 
Vice President ; G. W. Ambrose, Secretary ; paper manufacturers, lower town. 

Alexander Shand, Treasurer. Christman Paul, stoves and tinware. Main. 

Wtfshtenaw AgriciUtural and IJorticidtural Clancy John, general store, Huron. 

Society — Henry Warner, President ; Secretaries, Clark Martin, grocer and baker. Main. 

B. Green, M. H. Goodrich. Annual fairs are Clark The Misses, (Mary H and Chloe A), 
held in October, at the Society's Grounds, young ladies' school, cor Fourth and 
near University buildings. North. 

American Bible Society — Depository for Clark, Wiltsie A Holmes, (Charles Q Clark, jr, 
Washtenaw county, at store of Agent, John Wendell D Wiltsie, David C Holmes), 
W. Hartw*-!!, Main street. editors and propr's Peninsular Courier, 

Ann Arbor Gas Litfht Company — Organized Huron. 

April 2d, 1858. Capital $30,000. Office at Collier Oren, boot and shoe-maker, Ann. 



ANN 



8TATB OAZETTEBB. 



ANN 



183 



Cook 80I0D, prop'r Cook's Hotel, Hnron. {See 

mlr.) 
Corkins Abner A, prop*r Exchange Hotel and 

billiard saloon, Main. 
Cojle Lake, grocer, Ann. 

Dslton Matthew, wagon maker, Detroit. 
Dalton & Gauss, (M Dalton and John Qanss), 

carriage manof rs, Detroit. 
Danforth Geo, lawyer, cor Ann and Fifth. 
DaTis Lorenzo, editor and proprietor State 

News, City Hall. (See adv.) 
Dean & Co, (James Clemens, ScNigwick Dean), 

crockery and honse furnishing goods, 

Hangsterfer*8 block. Main. 
DeForreat Andrew, grocery and crockery, 

Main. 
DeForest David, lumber and lime dealer, De- 
troit. (See adv.) 
Dennis Hamilton J, lawyer, Fourth. 
DeTany Michael, cigar maker, Huron. 
Donelly Patrick db Joseph, general store, 

Huron. 
DonoTan Patrick, general store, lower town. 
Doty Alonao M, boot and shoe maker, lower 

town. 

Earl Edward, saloon, Ann. 
Earl Thomas, general store. Main. 
Eberbach C 6k Co, (Christian Eberbach, 
pamnnAl Maou), druggists. Main. 

FSntle Charles, dry goods. Main. 

Fddi Alphens Hon,, lawyer, Huron ccr 

Feorth. 
Fekh Sabin, shoe maker, lower town. 
Fisdier George, meat market, Huron. 
Fohey William, grocer. Fourth. 
Freeman John A, barber, Main. 
Freeman Thomas B, (ool'd), barber, Main. 
Fritz Louis, meat market, Huron. 
Gates DaTid L, carriage maker, Detroit. ■ 
Gauss John, blacksmith. Liberty. 
Godfrey, Henion & Gott, (Darid Godfrey, S 

Kewell Henion, James a Gott), dry goods, 

cor Main and Huron. 
Goodrich Cornelius D, stoves and tinware, 

Main. 
Gott James B, lawyer, (and of Godfrey, 

HeoloD A> Gott), Huron. 
Gott J<^ N, lawyer, Huron, cor Fourth. 
Granger Bradley F Hon, Rep 1st Dist U S 

Congress, Huron. 
Green Byron, fivery stable, rear Franklin 

House. 
Greenman W B tf& Son, (William B and John 

B), match manufrs, lower town. 
Omrory Edgar M, prop'r Monitor Hotel, 

Huron* 
GreeDTille d& Fuller, (George Greenville and 

John T Fuller), druggists. Main. 
GuftemaD H Sl Co, (M Gniterman and S 

Soodbeim), clothing. Main. 
Owinner Jacob F, machinist, Washington. 
Gwimier F A Co, (Frederick and Charles G), 

meat market, Wadiiiigton. 



Haarer John, daguerrean artist, cor Main and 

Liberty. 
Hale Benjamin F, (botanic) physician, cor 

Ann and Fourth. 
Hale L D, broker. Main. 
Hale Reuben, grocer and baker, Main. 
Hangsterfer Jacob, confectioner, cor Main 

and Washincrton. 
HARTWELL JOHN W, hardware. Main. 
Hauser Gottlieb F, city brewery, First. 
Haviland &> Rhodes, (Tertellus A Havilaod 

and Lewis F Rhodes), blacksmiths and 

machinists, lower town. 
Hawkins Olney, lawyer. Fourth. 
Henning David, cooper, cor Detroit and 

Fifth. 
Herz August, grocer, lower town. 
Hesse Bernhard, physician, cor Main and 

Liberty. 
Herbert Mary A Miss, millinery. Main cor 

Ann. 
Hill George D, Surveyor General, Dacotah 

Territory, ofBce, Main. 
Holmes William D, car|)enter, Fayette. 
Hooper Richard & Son, (Frederick), Ann Ar- 
bor brewery. State. 
Hulme (jeorge, iron founder, lower town. 
Hmit John W, hardware. Main. 
Uuss George, shoe maker. Main. 
Huston James T, blacksmith. Main. 
Hutzel & Co, (Adolph Hutzel, Christian El>er- 

bach, Emanuel Mann), grocers and dealers 

in paints and oils, Main. 
Hyland Charles, grocer. Main. • 
Irish Thos, physician (eclectic), lower town. 
Jacckle Joseph, watchmaker and jeweler, 

Huron. 
Jedele Martin, shoe maker, Washin^on. 
Kayser C & Co, (Christopher Kayser, Anton 

Shaparle), harness makers, Main. 
Keenan John, grocer, lower town. 
Kelly John C, tailor, lower town. 
Kettner John, lumber dealer, ss Ann bet Di- 
vision and Fifth. 
Kingsley George, lawyer, es public square. 
Kingsley Sl Morgan, (James Kingsley, Elijah 

W Morgan), lawyers, es public square. 
Krause ^nry, leather and hides, Main. 
Kruger Albert, cigars and tobacco. Main. 
Lawson &. Wurster, (Joseph W Lawson and 

Frederick Wurster), carriage makers, 

Fourth. 
Lender Irwin G, architect, Buchoz block. 
Loeb A dt C, (Alexander and Cauffman), cloth- 
ing, Huron. , 
Leonard Chester, shoe maker, cor Fifth and 

Liberty. 
Lewitt Dr William, Division. 
Loomis & Tripp (William L Loomis, Charles 

Tripp), machinists and iron-founders, 

Huron. 
Lutz George F, saloon. Main. 
McCreery William, leather and shoe findings, 
Bfain. 



184 



ANN 



CHABLBS F. CLARK' S 



ANN 



Mclntyre Donald, banker, cor Ann and 

Fourth. 
McMahon & Hall, (James McMahon, Edmond 

F Hall), groceries and prorisions, cor 

Main and Ann. 
Mack & Schmid, (Christian Mack, Frederick 

Schmid), general store, cor Main and 

Liberty. 
Maile Louis, shoe maker, Liberty. 
Mann Solomon, agent, tailor, Main. 
Martin Oliver M, furniture, Main. 
Matthews Roger, meat market, Ann. 
Maynard John H, general store. Main. 
Maynard John W, late merchant, Mam. 
Maynard William S, late merchant, real estate 

dealer. Main, cor Ann. 
Millen C H & Co, (Chauncey H MUlen, Chas 

B Thompson), dry goods and groceries, 

Main. 
Miller, Davis &, Webster, (John F Miller, Gil- 
bert F Davis of N Y, and Stephen M 

Webster), bankers, Main. (See adv.) 
Mills Addison P, general store, Huron. 
Moore & Loomis, (Alanson Moore, Qeorge L 

Loomis), boots and shoes. Main. 
Mowrey Israel, cooper, opp M C R R depot. 
Mull Lucius F, carriage maker, lower town. 
Muelilig Florian, cabinet maker. Main. 
Nootz William, meat market, lower town. 
North George W, dentist. Main. 
Nye Nelson B, livery stable. Main, cor Cathe- 
rine. 
O'Brien Martin, grocer, Ann. 
O^Hara Williaai, clothing. Main. 
O'Neal James, grocer, Detroit. 
Pack Clarkson L, boots and ^oes. Main. 
Parker FrankUn L, lawyer. Main. 
Phelps Harriet N, millinery. Main. 
PITKIN & WILTSIE, (Edward P Pitkin, 

WeiuloU D Wiltsie), lawyers, Exchange 

block, Main. 
Pond Elihu B, editor and publisher Michigan 

Argus, Huron. {See adv.) 
PORTER CHARLES B, dentist, Huron. 
Prudden N A, cooper, Detroit near Fifth. 
Quinn Patrick W, tailor, Fourth. 
Reinhardt John M, shoe maker, Main. 
Rettich Frederick, saloon, Washingtop. 
Reyer & Brehm, (John Reyer, Peter lirehm), 

lager beer brewers. Great Western Brew- 
ery, West Fourth. 
Risdon & Henderson, (Louis C Risdon, John 

S Henderson), hardware and stoves. Main. 
Rogers Moses, dealer in and manufacturer of 

agricultural implements, " Agricultural 

Hall," cor fourth and Detroit. 
Roller & Rupp, (John Roller, David ^Rupp) 

cabinet makers, Huron. 
Root Charles M, hats and caps. Main. 
Root Erastus, boot aiid shoe maker, Huron. 
Rose John, grocer, Ann. 
RuoffFrederick, proprietor Bavarian brewery, 

on railroad. 
Saunders William W, groceries, lower town. | 



Schairer John G, shoe maker, Second. 
Schlittler Frederick, painter, Washingion. 
Schlotterbeck Herman, confectioner, Main. 
Schneider John, wagon maker and black- 
smith. Second. 
Schoff (& Miller, (Nelson M Schoff, John F 

Miller), books and stationery, Main. 
Schumaker Christian, blacksmith. Second. 
Schuyler R, general agent M C R R. 
Scott John M, daguerrean artist. Main. 
Seaman &, Cole, (Ezra C Seaman, James M 

Cole), props Ann Arbor Journal, Huron. 
Seaman &, Root, (Ezra C Seaman, Tracy W 

Root), lawyers, Huron. 
Sinclair & Swathel, (William M Sinclair, John 

T Swathel), merchant millers and dealers 

in grain, lower town. 
Sipfle J Frederick, meat market, Midn. 
Slawson 6l Geer, (Luman R Slawson, John B 

Geer), groceries, Huron cor Fourth. 
Smith Ann £ Mrs, dress maker, Main cor 

Ann. 
Smith George W, boot and shoe maker, Main. 
Smith Louis Mrs, &ncy goods, cor Main and 

Washington. 
Smith Wellington D, boots and shoes, Huron 
Smith Willard B, physician. Main. 
Sorg Frederick, painter, Washington. 
Spalding & Fleming, (Ephraim H Spalding, 

Edward Fleming), stoves and tinware, 

Main. 
Sperry George F, grocer. Main. 
Sperry & Flynn, (Lyman Sperry, Jas Flynn), 

blacksmiths, Catherine. 
Spoor Charles, saddlery and harness ULaker, 

Main. 
STEBBINS & WILSON, (Frank L Stebbms, 

Uriah B Wilson), general store, cor Main 

and Ann. 
Storms Jacob, boot and shoe maker, Fourth. 
Storms Hiram, grocer and woolen manufkc- 

turer, lower town. 
Stubbs Laurence, cigar maker, Main. 
Sutherland Andrew J, (Sutherland & Wilmot) 

gunsmith, Huron. 
Sutherland S G & Son, (Samuel G and Charles 

G), grocers, Main. 
Sutherland &> Wilmot, (Andrew J Sutherland 

and Charles T Wilmot), sewing machines, 

Huron. 
Swift F, proprietor Ann Arbor city mills. 
Taylor Joseph C, justice of the peace, lower 

town. 
Teats Hermann, barber. Main. 
Thompson John I, postmaster, office cor Ann 

and Fourth. 
Thompson & Son, (John and Clement R), pro- 
visions and groceries, Huron. 
TOOKER T DANIEL, photographer. Main. 
Traver A jr, proprietor Traver Mills. 
Truair J L & A J, (John L, Andrew J), da- 

guerreian artists, cor Ann and Fourth. 
Twitchell &, Frazer, (Daniel S Twitchell, Robt 

£ Frazer), lawyers, court house. 



ABB 



STJLTB OAZETTEEB. 



ARL 



186 



Tandercook Daniel H, sashes and blinds, 

lower town. 
Yandawarker Jacob, boots and shoes, Main. 
Tolland Jacob, harness maker and lime 

dealer, Huron. 
Wagner William, tailor. Main. 
Wall Patrick, grocer, Ann. • 

Ward Alfred Q, physician, lower town. 
Ward Thomas 6, manufacturer agricultural 

implements. Main cor Catherine. 
Watts J C A Brother, (Joseph C and Benjamin 

F) , watch makers and jewelers. Main. 
WEBSTER JAMES R, book store and paper 

hangers, Huron, opp Franklin House. 

WeU J A Brothers, (Jacob, Marcus, Moses, 
Leopold and Solomon), 68 Ferry, New 
York, dO Market, Chicago, and Huron, 
Ann Arbor, dealers in wool, hides and 
furs, and manufacturers of leather and 
morocco. 

Wells Ebenezer, physician. Main. 

West John, boots and shoes, and hats and 
cape, Main. 

Wheeler,Ooodall dt Henley, (Munson Wheeler, 
Norman C Goodail and John Henley), 
grocers and bankers, Washington. 

Wheeler John M, lawyer, Huron. 

Wheeler & Moore, (M Wheeler, Charles J 
Moore), bakers and confectioners, Wash- 
ington. 

Widenmann Augustus, hardware and coal, 
oor Washington 2nd Main. 

Wildt Emanuel G, saloon, Huron. 

Wines & Co, (William W Wines, Daniel His- 
eock), general store. Main. 

Wines, Hafiock & Douglas, (Daniel £ Wines, 
John T Hallock, Leyi H Douglas), steam 
planing mill. Fifth. 

Wood D L & Co, (Daniel D Wood, William Q 
Foster), dry goods. Main. 

Woodruff Dr F (homoe). Division. 

Woodruff Thomas M, tailor, Main« 

Zeeb Jacob, bcULer, Second. 

Qegler Frederick, wagon maker. Second. 

ANTRIM. 
A township and post village of Shiawassee 
county, situated on Looking Glass river, 26 
miles east from Lansing, and 60 miles uorth- 
HMt from Detroit. 



ANTRIM CITY. 
A post office of Antrim county. 

A N T \A/ E R P. 
A township of Yan Buren county, on the 
Ificbigan Central Railroad, 166 miles from 
Setroit Population 1200. ,(See *" Mattawan:') 

ARBELA. 

A township of Tuscola county, having ex- 
ciDeDt fuming land and heavily Umbered. 
Population 000. 



ARCADIA. 

A township in Lapeer county, situated in 
the centre part of th^ county, containing 
250 inhabitants. The post office, known as 
Arcadia, has been discontinued, and mail 
matter designed for this town is sent to 
Lapeer. 



ARGENTINE. 

A township and post village in the county 
of Genesee, situated four miles west of Linden 
station, on the Detroit and Milwaukee Rail- 
road, and 55 miles north-west from Detroit,-— 
fare on traveled route from Detroit $1,55. 
It contains 950 inhabitants ; one saw mill, a 
flouring mill, and several mechanics' shops. 
There is a large water power in the village. 
The country around is covered with oak 
openings, and well adapted to raising wheat. 
It has a daily mail. PortmasUr — James H. 
Murray. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICBBB. 

Supervisor — John B. Corcoran. 
C7ferA5— David N. Roberts. 
Treasurer — Franklin Bradley. 

Iilst of ProftMloiui, Trades, ete* 

Austin Abel C, physician. 

Bradley Franklin, hotel. 

Britton Richard, dry goods. 

Brooks David, justice of the peace. 

Cale John, blacksmith. 

Cummins Matthias, justice of the peace. 

Fletcher Lorenzo C, justice of the peace. 

Gore Stephen, carpenter. 

Green Charles C, boots and shoes. 

Howley Warren, carriage manufacturer. 

Lobdell Thomas, &» Co, blacksmiths. 

McEnight A C, blacksmith. 

Murray James H, general store. 

Murray John, news dealer. 

Murray & Roberts, (James H Murray and 
David N Roberts), flour and saw mill. 

Newman Asahel, boots and shoes and har- 
ness maker. 

Shonk Jacob, mason. 

Shout Jetho, carpenter and cabinet maker. 

Sutherland George G, machinist and carriage 
maker. 

Topping James L, justice of the peace. 

Warner Henry, cooper. 

Wise Joseph, jr, dry goods. 

Wixom Isaac, physician. 



ARL.AND- 

A post office of Jackson county. 
Cauling James, blacksmith. 
Gould Sidney S., boot and shoe maker. 
Loomis Amasa D, cooper. 
Barker Seth, cooper. 
Southworth John C, grocer. 
Western John, flouring mill. 



186 



ARM 



CHABLBS F. CLASK'S 



ASS 



ARLINQTON. 

A township and post office in Van Buren 
county, situated on the mail route Arom Paw 
Paw to South Haven, and 180 miles west of 
Detroit. It has a semi-weekly mail. Fost- 
mmtUr — George H. Colhurn. 

T0W98HIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — Emory 0. Briggs. 
Clerk — Calvin J. Bigelow. 
Treasurer — ^William A. Bnrlingame. 

I«lst of Prof^sstons, Tmdea, etc* 

Adams Homer, justice of the peace. 
Bierce & Coomhs, (James M Bierce and An- 
drew Q Coombs^, saw mill. 
Brewer John Rev, (Methodist). 
Briggs E 0, real estate agent. 
Brink George W, blacksmith. 
Earl Henry, justice of the peace. 
Heath A, justice of the peace. 
Nichols James A, blacksmith. 
Tucker Ebenezer J, cooper. 
Woodward Marquis, justice of the peace. 



ARMADA. 

A township and post village in the county 
of Macomb, situated on the post route f^om 
Ridgeway to Romeo, 40 miles north from 
Detroit, — fare on traveled route from De- 
troit $1,63. The township contains 1600 in- 
habitants, and has a daily mail. It has three 
churches — Baptist, Methodist and Presby- 
terian, — a number of general stores, and 
mechanics' shops. Pottmatier — Crowley P. 
Dake. 

TOWHBHIP 0FFZCBB8. 

Supervisor — Charles Andrews. 
Clerk — Nathan Adams. 
Treastirer — Crowley P. Dake. 

lAmt of Prof^MAonSi Timdes, «te« 

Adams L Rev, (Baptist). 

Baird Robert Rev, (Presbyterian). 

Balcom Charles C, saloon. 

Baringer Nathaniel, blacksmith. 

Barton Samuel, carpenter. 

Beardsley 8 T, physician. 

Chase John, prop. Armada Exchange. 

Clark Benjamin Rev, (Methodist). 

Clark Wm H, general store. 

Cowles Lorenzo D, jeweler. 

Curtis Lyman, cabinet maker. 

Dake Crowley P, flour mill. 

Garlick Henry, prop. Garlick House. 

Gleason Joseph, carpenter. 

Hall John P, carriage maker. 

Harrington Abner P, gunsmith. 

Hinchman Theodore £ James, general store. 

Kimball Benjamin, carpenter. 

Lathrop Charles A, general store. 

Lyon Marcus, machinist. 

McDaniels Floyd, blacknuitlL 

MUls Martin, blacksmith. 



North George, blacksmith. 
Seely Burton W, grocer. 
Smith Cyrus, carriage maker. 
Snell Hiram M, physician. 
Spencer Horace H, Justice of peace. 
Tibbetts Marcus A, shoemaker. 
Trollope Henry, foundry. 
Weirs Michel R, justice of peace. 
Youngs Wm, blacksmith. 



A 8 H. 

A township in Monroe county, 28 mflei 
south south-west from Detroit, contidning t 
popuUtion of about 2300, including Clark 
City, which is a post village in the town. 
(See "Clark CUy:') 

TOWHSHIP OFFICBRB. 

Supervisor — John G. Hood. 
Ciirk — Joseph Moores. 



A8HL.ANO. 

A township and post village in Newmyso 
county, situated on the Newaygo and Noru- 
port road ; 160 miles from Detroit. — Fare on 
the traveled road f^om Detroit, $7.00 ; cos 
mail per day. It contains a Methodist and 
Baptist church, and several mechanics* diopc. 
PostmasUr — John Betts. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — Alfred F. Armstrong. 
Clerk — Nathaniel H. Brown. 
Treaturer'-EdwtLTd ELeating. 

List of ProltoMloma, TnUto% etcw 

Armstrong Alfred F, carpenter. 
Bisard A, mason. 
Brittan Zachanah, cooper. 
Carver John B, machinist. 
Downing David, justice of the peace. 
Kreger Michael, saw mill. 
Simons Elihu, justice of the peace. 
Turner John, blacksmith. 
Wheeler WilUam Rev, (Baptist). 
Wheat Richard, carriage maker. 



A8HUEY- 

A post office of Kent county. (See 
"GratUm"). Postmaster^F. Presoott. 



ASSYRIA- 

A township and post office of Barry county, 
180 miles west of Detroit. About one fourth 
of the township is heavily timbered, the bal- 
ance in oak openings, with excellent solL 
The town contains a Methodist church, three 
hotels, two saw mills, one store, a lodge of 
Good Templars, and several mechanics. Po- 
pulation of township 1000. Two mails are 
received per week. Merchants ship goods 
f^om Detroit via Battle creek, over M. C. B, 
B. PofftRiuiif^— Cornelius W. Tompkins. 



188 



AUG 



CHABLB8 F. CLABK'S 



AUB 



been eclipsed by its thriTing neighbor, the 
city df Pontiac. There are now in operation 
one saw and one grist mill, and two or three 
stores. Postmaster — Eugene T. Smith. 

List of ProftMlonfl* Trmdem, etc. 

Adams Henry J, carpenter. 

Allen John, mason. 

Austin Anson, pump maJcer. 

Austin Justus S, flour dealer. 

Butler Wells, cooper. 

Dodge David C B^y, (Christian). 

Dodge Elizabeth C, milliner. 

Dunning Warren, Justice of the peace. 

Duvant Samuel, blacksmith. 

King Mary Mrs, groceries. 

Martin John Rev, (Baptist). 

Miller & Baylis, flour mill. 

Percy Robert, shoe maker. 

Quartermass Robert A, saw mill. 

Byckman Harmon, carriage maker. 

Smith Eugene T, physician. 

Smith John J, hotel. 

Torrey Charles, saw mill. 



AUCHVILLE- 

A small village of Tuscola county, on the 
eastern shore of Saginaw Bay. 



AUQU8TA. 

A post village of Ross township, Kalamazoo 
county, on the Michigan Central railroad, 130 
miles west of Detroit. Fare, $3,95. The vil- 
lage contains two general stores, a Baptist 
and a Congregational church, three hotels, 
two saw mills, one flouring mill, and numer- 
ous trades and professions. Population, 200. 
JPoitmaster — A. 8. Sprague. 

lilfit of Professions) Trades^ ete* 

Brown Luther J, general store. 

Church Horace, blacksmith. . 

Cock Charles W, insurance agent. 

Cock & Thomas, (Henry Cock, Alfl^ Thom- 
as), flouring mills. 

Day Volney, justice of the peace. 

Douglavss Richard, saw mill. 

Elliott Thomas, merchant tailor. 

Fisher John H, physician. 

Foster Joseph Mrs, milliner. 

Gay Edward, carriage maker. 

Gero E, blacksmith. 

QeTO E Mrs, milliner. 

Hoag A, justice of the peace. 

Hovey Spencer H, harness maker. 

Howland Simpson, justice of the peace. 

Jones Tiiomas W Rev, (Congregational). 

Kenyon Thomas, hotel. 

Kilmer David, blacksmith. 

Labor Alauson, boot and shoe maker and 
dealer. 

Lane James W, grocer. 

Lawton David Mrs, milliner. 



McCord Frederick, hoteL 
Mason Martin, physician. 
Pool Foster, blacksmith. 
Sanders George, carriage maker. 
Smally Seth Rev, (Presb3rterian.) 
Smith Oliver B, justice of the peace, 
Sprague Alonzo S, general store. 
Yanvliek John, hotel. 



AUREL.IU8. 

A township and flourishing Tillage sf 
Ingham county, on the stage route fh>m Ml* 
son to Onondaga, 100 miles northwest of Bs- 
troit,— fare |3,50. The township was setQid 
m 1837, and has now 280 voters and a popu- 
lation of 1200. Population of village 300. 
The soil is well adapted to agriculture, and 
is well watered by Grand river, which crosses 
the northwest comer of the town, and by 
numerous small streams tributary to thai 
river. The village contains four churches, 
representing the United Brethren, Congregar 
tional. Baptist and Methodist denominattom^ 
one hotel, two shingle mills, two saw miUi, 
several good schools, and three stores. Four 
mails are received per week. Detroit hmt- 
chants ship goods to Aurelius by the Midii- 
gan Central railroad, via Jackson. PmimMUr 
— Robert Hayward. 

TOWNSHIP 0FFIGBB8. 

Supervisor — Barney G. Davis. 
Clerk— C. Marion Jennings. 
I^eMurer — Enos Blanchard. 

Idst of ProftoMloma, Trade*, ete» 

Barns John A, justice of the i>eace. 

Chase F Rev, (Methodist). 

Coughey William F, blacksmith. 

Gilmore B Smith, carriage maker. 

Hayward Abner, physician. 

Hayward Robert, general store. 

Hazelton Alice, milliner. 

Hazel ton Ellen, milliner. 

Hazelton William, saw mill. 

Heath Linden A, hotel. 

Holley Alfred J, justice of the peace. 

Huntley George, carpenter. 

Jennings Charles, justice of the peace. 

Mclntyre Arthur, carpenter. 

Marshall Solomon, carpenter. 

Nelson Hiram, blacksmith. 

Norton Hiram, saw mill. 

Potter David, saw mill. j 

Pratt Darius, carpenter. 

Sawtell Benjamin E, physician. 

Shaw Rev, (Congregational). 

Shepard Rev, (Baptist). 

Stark Byron W, general store. 

Swartwout George W, physician. 

Toles Jehial W, saw mill. 

Turbush William, carpenter. 

White James, justice of the peace. 

Toungs Charles, mason. « 



BAI 



STATE OAZXmCKB. 



BAN 



180 



AU SABLE. 

A post office of Iosco conntj, ntnaied at 
the month of the riTer Aa Sable, on the 
western coast of Lake Huron. 



AUSTERLITZ. 

A post Tillage of Kent coonty , in the town- 
ship of Plainfield, on the Grand Rapids and 
Qmnrille stage ronte, 190 miles north-west 
of Detroit. The village contains an Episco- 
pal chorch, one hotel, one saw mill, two 
general stores, and seToml mechanics' shops. 
Four mails are recdred per week. Detroit 
merchants ship goods to Aosterlitz ria Grand 
HaTen, orer the Detroit A> Milwaukee Rail- 
road. Chicago and Milwankee merchants 
ship by water to Grand Earen. 



BALDWINS' MIL.LS. 

A post office of Jackson county, 80 miles 
west of Detroit. Pottmatter—n, H. Uam- 
mond. 



BAL.I- MOUNTAIN. 
A post office in the township of Pontifle, 
Oakland county, on the Pontiac and Lapeer 
stage route, five miles from the city of Pon- 
tiac 



Barrows Asahel, justice of the peace. 

Chipson Joseph, justice of the peace. 

Crawford James, blacksmith. 

Curtis Charks H, mason. 

Srans Thomas J, blacksmith. 

Frost Jerome B. blacksauth. 

Gonles J B. mason. 

Hacy Charles, carriage maker. 

Hyaer William, druggist. 

Hyser William, physician, botte and atatioo- 

ery, azid jnetke of the peace. 
Rookie Robert & Co, saw milL 
Miller William H Mrs, miUioer. 
Muxiztf James K. mason. 
Pelto£i ChaniiceT. general store. 
PoUock John. takKio. 
Scott William, boou and shoes. 
Tefi Eyck J'js^eph S. general st^jre. 
Wil**>L Peber B. ia-vyer aiid jostaoe of the 



BALTIMORE. 
A township and post office of Barry coun- 
ty. Population 700. 

BANQOR. 
A township and small post village of Vm 
Buren county, on the stage route from Pair 
Paw to South Haven, IHO miles west of D^- 
troit, — lare |6.00. The village contains 
churches of the Methodist, Christian, AA- 
ventist and Spiritualist denominations, 000 
lodge of Good Templars, one flour mill, tmo 
saw mills, one store and several mecfaaaiei. 
There is a village of this name in Bay 
ty. F«$tw»aMUr'^i, H. Xyman. 

Towvsjnr orpicBsa. 
Sm p e rv wor — Samael A. Tripp. 
CZ^i^Xoble S. Taylor. 
TreoMT^r— i'lsaac Catt. 



peace 
Wood Kvl 



B«T, ^pacr.^jai^ 



AUSTIN. 
A post c«f5ot A <AMJMzA cvci::t. 



pope a:.i.*i. ctf ^^J^J. 



AUSTIN. 

onmy, ccmajnjag 



AVON. 

A p:«: c<f5ae 'A I'.»iix* c.^acy. 



A tiJrtiT 



A VOf^. 
? a j^ojujiiiy:. of l»lilO. 



BAII^BRIDQE. 

A "I'«wii*.l':; and yjsi \if^'Jt vS 
cwnCT 'j'jir^zmig a yu;*rjacJi*L v! KKA. 



Briggs M M, Uwyer. 

Funk Chrisuan, law milL 

Got* Aiamjtk. carpenter. 

Barrey Ephraim P Rev, ^Chrittaan). 

HniAt PbiiA^yier A, boot and ^*p: usker. 
' McLacLiiL .IrdtiitaJd J. carpetJUrr. 
, M<:N'eu J'/bi. carpeccter. 
; MilW Jo«>ah G, 
t Mooii H iliiam. phy 

I Xyman Jokepb if. flouring and atw milL 
■■ fyr^T^Mx Uarrey S. juatkse ol ti*e pesoe. 
I stujth LysBan T.. boot and fh«>>r uoiker. 

TL<>fidL« LkisyetMr W. btorkamttii. ' 

\\iA.'zkiKi l^iiiei. jmaioe of up: peace. 

Wkixiiift Jungat Rtrr, (Aduitttiitij. 

VitikiiA J'Aiix- euytauuer, 
. W«ri«iser WiiiiitiiL. jxtmiat of tiie ytskfjt. 

! BANOOR. 

A amajl rillase oi: ttie w^k: badk *A the 

' Sa^pukv rrrtr. in Bay c^/Birtj. '.-lit 21:-' > be- 
iow B«T Chy. Ii i» a plaoer' «.if '^'xue^iiiieraiie 
iffi^^'jratiioe a^ a Icniber Ay^/f. 'vijfr*: Uvaag 
Jvcr imiiift-uM> Kveasxi saw h^Jj* IrAV?^ bene, 
rii JE r. Livjiiifctid f . captVie .! v-ra 
i.'M'/M' ft*?: •-•f JcillV!-' pw **5fcb'.»i '> 
I/'.«n3u >;.*M.«.'»J»^.» Baxis*^ mi-*: i ii. 7ty>r;, 
«>#iU.W.* ax*Q Mo^«f* IknrJ; A C. > >rMl«L 
fen*TaJ bkh vttrk* aw* pr'.<}#*»wi ii**'*- tjvi^ 
iiui« are j« <rjxiAnKaed. ' Set iu.> .^ • hmfi' 



190 



BAT 



CHABLE8 F. CLASK'S 



BAT 



BARRY. 

A township of Barry county. (See "Btek- 
wry Comer 9,^^) 

BARRYVILLE. 

A post village of Barry county, in the 
township of Castleton, on the Bellevue and 
Hastings stage route, 156 miles west of De- 
troit. It has three churches, two saw mills, 
and a grjst milL PoHmaster — ^A. Whitcomb. 

Iilst of ProftsaloiM, TimdeSf ete* 

Adams Joseph H, shoe maker. 
Bear George 6l Bro, saw mill. 
Barribault Jeremiah D, blacksmith. 
Buchanan Qeorge A, sash and blind maker. 
Cance Perry, Justice of the peace. 
Clendenon Stephen R, blacksmith. 
Frighner Henry, lumber dealer. 
Lathrop & Corsette, (Melathiah J Lathrop 

and Sherman Corsette,) general store. 
Mullen, William Rev, (Methodist). 
Palmer Clark H, justice of the peace. 
Phillips Alanson, cabinet maker. 
Powers Samuel, blacksmith. 
Pierce Isaac, cooper. 
Potter Amon J, machinist. 
Riggs Isaac B, justice of the peace. 
Scott Carlos 0, physician and J. P. 



BASE LAKE. 

A small post village of Washtenaw coun- 
ty, on the Iluron river, 12 miles f^om Ann 
Arbor and 45 ft'om Detroit. It contains a 
general store, hotel, saw mill and grist mill, 
together with several mechanics. 



BATAVIA. 

A township and post office of Branch coun- 
ty, on the Michigan Southern and Northern 
Indiana Railroad, 109 miles southwest of 
Detroit, — fare $4. Three mails per week. 
Population 1200. FoBtnuuter — Wm. Barnes. 

TOWNSHIP 0PFI0BB8. 

Supervuor — Harrison Carey. 
Clerk — Luther C. Stone. 
Treasurer — Randolph Bonney. 
liUt of ProfbssloiMi, Trades, etc* 

Bonney Marshall, justice of the peace. 

Bonney Randolph Rev, (Methodist). 

BurghdufrAn)ert, carpenter. 

Cri|)i)en Philo, saw mill. 

Field Sidney, carpenter. 

Green Da\id W, saw mill. 

Luce Edwin, mason. 

Noyes Austin, mason. 

Koyes Gates, boot and shoe maker. 

Noyes Gates P, mason. 

Olmstead Albert Rev, (Methodist). 

Shoecraft James, hotel. 

Sprague Philander, justice of the peace. 



Stone Luther C, physician. 
Sweet N, justice of the peace. 
Whitacker Abram, cooper. 
Woodward Samuel, carpenter. 



BATH. 

A townsldp and small post village of Clin- 
ton county, 90 miles northwest of Detroit. 
The Amboy, Lansing and Traverse Bay BiQ- 
road passes through the town. Farefrw 
Detroit, via Lansing, over Detroit and UBr 
waukee railroad, |d,10. The town conttioi 
three churches, — Freevrill Baptist, Uniled 
Brethren and Methodist — and one holeL 
Population 500. A weekly mail reoeifBi 
PoituMEf/er— Charles W. Smith. 

TOWNSHIP OPFICRBS. 

Supervisor — Thomas J. Woodman. 
Ci^Jlr— Washington Youry. 
TreoMuror — Isaac Fletcher. 

Iitot of ProftoasloBs, nraAea, etc* 

Baker Edward, hotel 
Brindle John G, justice of the peace. 
Cole Samuel, justice of the peace. 
Culver James L, carpenter. 
Daniels Almeron, carpenter. 
Fletcher Isaac, boot and shoe maker. 
Norton William R Rev, (Baptist) 
Thompson William, blacksmith. 
Woodman Thomas J, justice of the peace. 



ATTLE CREEK. 
A township of Calhoun county, containing 



a portion of the incorporated city of the 
name. The present population of the town- 
ship, exclusive of the city, is 1,200. (See 
''BatiU Creek" city). 

TOWNSHIP OPPICBBB. 

Supervisor — Charles Coy. 
C/<tA>— Frederick P. Peet. 
Treatwer-^ohn Q. Harris. 



baYtle 



CREEK. 



An important and flourishing city of 
Calhoun county, on the Michigan Central 
Railroad, at the junction of Kalamazoo River 
and Battle Creek. Distance from Detroit 120 
miles west, fare ^3,55 ; 164 miles east firom 
Chicago, fare $4,85. The Kalamazoo river 
at this point fiirnishes a magnificent water 
power, which has been parlially improved by 
the erection of several extensive flour mills 
and other manufactories. The soil in the 
vicinity is remarkably productive, and the 
city ei\joys an extensive reputation as a mar- 
ket, for grain, wool, fVuit, and other products. 
We learn firom authentic sources, that for the 
year ending July 1st, 1862, there were shipped 
from this point 177,101 bushels of wheat, 66,- 
000 barrels of flour, 200,000 pounds of wool, 



BAT 



STATE 6AZETTEEB. 



BAT 



191 



1150,000 worth of agricnltural implements, 
110,000 worth of pumps, and upwards of 
1500,000 worth of miscellaneous manufactured 
irticlea and a^cultnral products. The city 
contains five large flour nulls — one of the 
largest belonging to Thomas Hart, Esq., one 
of the pioneers of the place — and two toL. C. 
Kellogg, Esq. — the enterprising banker, to 
wfaofe energy and public spirit the city owes 
much of its importance; Arnold's pump 
(kctory, one of the most extensive establish- 
mcDts of the kind in the State, with machinery 
capable of turning out upwards of 1,000 
pomps per annum, besides a large amount of 
water pipe ; three manufactories of agri- 
caltural implements — one of which mauSic- 
tnres, alone, upwards of $60,000 worth of 
implements annually; one woolen factory, 
five carriage shops, a plaster mill, tannery 
and saw mill, four banking houses, four 
hotels, one monthly and three weekly news- 
papers, three Union schools, eight churches, 
about fifty stores and a large number of 
mechanical trades. The buildings of the city, 
although well suited to the wants of the com- 
munity, are not noticeable for architectural 
beauty. Among the best buildings in the 
town are the Union schools, Wakelee's and 
Voble^s blocks. Peninsular and Stuart's halls, 
md the Seventh Bay Adventist's Publishing 
House, the latter being a fine brick establish- 
ment on Kain street, erected in 1861, at a 
cost of $6,000. Many of the private residences 
are costly and elegant, surrounded by orna- 
mental grounds, which are preserved with 
idailrable taste. The principal streets are 
handsomely paved, and arrangements are 
being made to have the town lighted with 
gis. The educational, mercantile and manu- 
&ctoring facilities of Battle Creek are of such 
i character as to present a strong inducement 
to men of capital as well as to mere working 
men Its large undevelop^ water power, its 
healthy situation, and the remarkable pro- 
dncUveness of the surrounding country all 
conspire to render the city one of the most 
desirable locations in interior Michigan. 

In June, 1831, Sands McCamly, in company 
with George Re!dfield, visited the site of the 
present city of Battle Creek,' and determined 
to secure an interest there, by purchasing 
the hind immediately A*om the Govem- 
nent, but upon arriving at the Land 
OiBoe, at White Pigeon, he found that J. 
J. Guernsey had also fixed his attention 
upon tbe spot, and that Lucius Lyon and 
Sobert Clark, Government Surveyors, had 
also marked it in their list of desirable loca- 
tions. The latter rivals waved their right to 
Irid against the others, upon the receipt of 
^00. It was then agreed that J. J. Guernsey 
ikould enter 887 40-100 acres, all lying in 
the township aflerwaards called Battle Creek, 
nd oovwing aH tiw DMded water power, 



with the understanding that Judge and Daniel 
G. Gurnsey were to each equally share it 
with him, upon the payment of their propor- 
tion of the cost. They, with their families, 
were to meet in Detroit the following Octo- 
ber, when the original purchaser was to quit- 
claim to the other two, and give them each 
the title to an undivided third of the whole. 
This arrangement was never perfected, and 
soon afterwards the original patentee trans- 
ferred his claim 'to Phineas P. Sackett 
and Ezekiel B. Gurnsey, while McCamly, 
disappointed in the failure of the Gumseys 
to comply with the terms of the agreement, 
settled, for the time being, upon Nottawee 
Prairie. « 

In February, 1832, Samuel Convis, by 
virtue of an interest in the Gurnsey purchase 
erected a log house on the spot where D. 
Leggest's house now stands, and toas the 
oideat settler in the original Battle Creek. Be- 
fore this, however, in Oct. 1831, Doct. Foster 
had built a house, a little east of the side of 
the old Methodist Church, where William 
Brown's dwelling now stands. Foster in- 
tended to settle on the Gurnsey tract, but by 
mistake, his house was built on the land re- 
served for the University. But the first 
settler upon the Corporation limits, aa now 
extended, must have been Isaac Tolland, who 
settled on the river, near the head of the 
present mill pond, in September, 1831 

Mr. Convis* fkmily arrived on the 3d of 
July, 1832. and a few weeks afterwards, 
Daniel G. Gurnsey and Polladore Hudson with 
their families joined the settlement. Gurnsey 
moved into the Foster house, and Hudson 
put up a log house further east, near David 
Coy's place, and occupied it. Nebediah 
Angel and Nathaniel Barney were added as 
neighbors to the new colony early in the 
spring of 1833. The first public house was 
kept by Daniel G. Gurnsey, in the house oc- 
cupied by him on the seminary claim, but he 
removing west the following summer, Barney 
built a house on the hill near the junction of 
the rivers and kept tavern for several years. 

In September 1888, Moses Hall, having 
purchased, in the summer of the preceding 
year, a quarter section on the east side of the 
plain reserved for the University, built a 
shanty and moved into it, procuring the 
boards for covering it at Comstock. 

Tolman W. Hall and Ezra Convis joined 
the settlement in June, 1834. Vespucius 
Young came the same spring. Warren B. 
Shepherd came in the fall of the same year 
and taught the district school the following 
winter, and this was the first schoolmaster 
in Battle Creek. The next teacher was Miss 
Sarah Phelps, who taught the summer term. 

Judge McCamly having bought an equal 
and undivided half of the Gurnsey purchase, 
and Gen. Convis having control of the other 



CHABUDB V. CI.1SK.'B 



BAT 



STATE OAZETTEEB. 



BAT 



198 



street, (west side), Rer. James White, pastor. 
dlortd MtihcdUt Church — Marshall street. 

PUBLIC HALLS. 

Peninsular Hall — Main street. 
Siuarft JBW^T— Main street. 
Firemen* 8 ZTnf/— Jackson street. 
Mascnic Sail — Main street. 
Odd FeOows' JTo/T— Main street. 

HEW8PAPEB8. 

Battle Creek /d«nw^Weekly), $1.60 per 
year. Published every Friday, in Wakelee's 
block. Main street, by W. W. Woolnough, 
editor and proprietor. Rqmhlican. 

Weekly Review and Battle Creek City News. 
(Weekly), $1.60 per year. Published every 
Saturday, on Maple street, by Nathaniel 
Potter, editor and i>roprietor. Repub.ican. 

Advent Review and Sabbath Herald — 
(Weekly), #2.00 per year. Published every 
Tuesday, on Main street, by the Seventh 
Day Adventist Publishing Association, Rev. 
James White, editor. Adventist. 

Youth's Instructor — (Monthly), 2o cents 
per year. Published on the first of every 
month, on Main street, by the Seventh-Day 
Adventist Publishing Association, G. W. 
Amadon, editor. Adventist. 

SOCIETIES. 

Battle Oretk Lodge, No. 12, F. ^A.M.— 
Meets Tuesday on or before each full moon, 
at Masonic Hall. 

Battls Creek Chapter, No. 19, i?. ^ A, Jf.— 
Meets Thursday on or before each full moon, 
at Masonic Hall. 

Zabud CouncU, No 9, F. % A. Jf.— Meets on 
first Wednesday in each month, at Masonic 
Han. 

BeUOe Creek Lodge, No. 29, /. 0. of O. F.— 
Meets every Wednesday evening, at Odd Fel- 
k>ws' Hall. 

Battle Greek Lodge, No. 78, Good Templars— 
Meets every Friday evening at Odd Fellows' 
HaU. 

Agricultural and Mechanical Association of 
BetOe Creek. — Organized Idth of Aug., 1859. 
Annual fairs at Society's grounds in the city 
of Battle Creek, in September or October. 
Regular meetings, second Monday in Janu- 
tryand June. 

President — Simeon Baker. 

I^eaeurer—V. P. Collier. 

Seeretury — D. B. Bumham. 

The Battls Creek Morticuliural Society— Or- 
ganiied 18*56. Annual meetings on second 
Monday of January in each year. 

President — H. P. Penniman. 

Secretary — ^Isaac C. Mott. 

Treasurer— John Meacham. 

Miekigan Central Course Association — Or- 
8ttizedl8t>9. The Association owns a beau- 
tiftil odle track, within the city limits, Meet- 
bgi are caUed by tlie committee. 

C ' 



President— V, P. Collier. 

Secretary — Chandler Ford. 

Treasurer — L C. Kellogg. 

The Seventh Lay Adventist Publishing Asso- 
ciatiofi — Incorporated May 3d, 1801. Pub- 
lishes the periodicals, tracts, and denomina- 
tional works of the Seventh Day Adventists. 

President — Rev. James White, 

lilst of Professions, Trades, etc. 

Adams Samuel, sewing machine agent and 

gunsmith, JelKerson. 
Adams & Smith (Marcus Adams, John W 

Smith), carrianje makers, East Canal. 
Aldrich & Morris (David Aldrich, James 

Morris), eatiii<( saloon, Main. 
Araadon G W, editor Youth's Instructor. 
Amberg Isaac, clothing, hats and caps, 

Main. 
Andrus William, insurance agent. Main. 
Andrus & Ilelmer, (William Andrus, John 

Helraer), drugs and books. Main. 
Andrus Henry G, drugs and books, Main. 
ARNOLD ADAM C, pump and water pipe 

manufacturer, Canal. 
Arnold Amos W, boot and shoe maker, Jef- 
ferson. 
Averill, Briggs & Co, (Justin P Averill,George 

G Briggs, Elias C Manchester), general 

store, Main. 
Avery Albert F, watches and jewelry. Main. 
Babcock Josei)h, justice of the peace and 

insurance agent, Main. 
Banta William H, watches and jewelry, 

Main. 
Barber J C &. Co, (John C Barber, Theodore 

Pixley), livery stable, Canal. 
Barker & Crane, (Peleg Barker, Dwight R 

Crane), manufrs grain measures, Canal. 
Barnes Philander- H, blacksmith, Jackson. 
Bartlett Charles E, dentist and insurance 

agent. Main. 
Bathrick Freeburn W, physician, (homoe), 

Main. 
Baxter George W, telegraph operator, M C 

R R depot. 
Beach Emmett A, prop'r Battle Creek House, 

Main. 
Bolting Thomas, upholsterer. Mill. 
Bottomly Wriglit, crockery and groceries, 

Mafh. 
Boughton Enos, bodts and shoes, Main. 
Brooks William, banking and exchange office, 

Main. 
Brooks W & F W, (William & Frederick W), 

hardware, stoves, and tin ware. Main. 
BROWN ISAAC M, dentist, Main. 
Brownell & Mavis, (Oscar Brownell, John 

Mavis), bakers and confectioners. 
Buck & Hoyt, (Darwin D Buck, Joseph G 

Hoyt), planing mill. Canal. 
Bunker Hollis P, photograph gallery. Main. 
Bumham Dorr B, agricultural implements, 

Jefferson. m. 



194 



BAT 



CHABLBS F. CLABK S 



BAT 



Burrall & Wakelee, (George P Burrall, Theo- 
dore Wakelee), groceries and provisions, 
Main. 

Bush A Rev, rector Episcopal church. 

Campbell William, physician, Main. 

Carder Edwin A, furniture, Main. 

Champion Henry J insurance, Main. 

Chappell Jacob R, farrier and boarding sta- 
ble, West Canal. 

Clapp Elijah, blacksmith and wagon maker, 
Jefferson. 

Cobb & Pettee, (Charles L Cobb, Silas B 
Pettee), general store, Main. 

Collier Victor P, hardware, Main. 

Conine & Kistler, (Peter Conine, John C Kist- 
ler), saddle and harness makers. Main. 

Cox Edward, physician, Main. 

Craig William, cooper, Lydia. 

Crane Dwight R, lumber yard. 

Davies E L Rev, pastor Presbyterian church. 

Dibble Leonidas D, lawyer. Main. 

Doane Artemus. physician, McCamly. 

Downs David J, livery stable, Jefferson. 

Doy John, physician, (homoe). Main. 

Dunn E C, physician, Green. 

Emmerson Phillip H, lawyer, Main. 

Emmons Damaris H Miss, millinery. Main. 

Etheridge Leander, saw mill, Coldwater. 

Evans John J, (col'd), barber. Main. 

Fisher & Matthews, (Samuel £ Fisher, Lem- 
uel Matthews), wagon makers, Jefferson. 

Ford Chandler, dry goods, groceries, etc.. 
Main. 

Freusdorf Henry, clothing. Main. 

Frey George, saloon, Canal. 

Frink & Co, (Warren Frink, Joseph M Ward, 
A L Skinner, George P Burrell, Clement 
C Wakelee, Chandler Ford, Victor P Col- 
lier, Charles C Hodges, James W Oakley, 
Theodore Wakelee, and Richmond King- 
man, of N Y), bankers. 

Frisbio & Russell, (Hanson Z Frisbie, Fre- 
derick G Russell), dry goods, groceries, 
etc., Main. 

Gardner Beriah P, blacksmith. Canal. 

Goudy S &. Sons, (Sylvanus and John), 
groceries and provisions, Main. 

Graves Benjamin F, lawyer. Main. 

Green Ogden, city sexton. Main. 

Greene Perkins H, crockery and groceries. 
Main. 

Green William H, meat market, Jefferson. 

Hall Tolman W, postmaster, office on Main. 

Halladay James, prop'r McCamly House, 
Main. 

Hamblin Alexander C, banker and exchange 
office, Main. 

Hamblin Elvira C Miss, millinery, Main. 

Harrington D Rev, pastor Baptist church. 

Hart Thomas, flour mill, Canal. 

Hattendorf Henry, vtailor and saloon, Mill. 

Hickman George D, blacksmith, west Canal. 

Hinman B F & H T, (Benjamin F and Henry 
19, general store, Main. 



Hirschmann Joseph, saloon, Canal. 

Hixson James P, merchant tailor, Main. 

Hodges & Wakelee, (Charles C Hodges, 
Charles M Wakelee), drugs and bo^ 
Main. 

Howe Elba D, telegraph operator C B B 
depot. 

Howell Horace, painter, Jefferson. 

Hummel John H, photograph gallery, Main. 

Jennings R J Rev, pastor Methodist Epis- 
copal church. 

Jones & Tillman, (col'd), (Joseph H Jonei, 
John Tillman), barbers. Main. 

Joy Myron H, lawyer and insurance agent, 
Main. 

Kellogg James P, broom factory. Main. 

Kellogg Loyal C, banking aiid exchange 
office. Main. 

Knights, Hoyt & Co, (George C Knights, 
Joseph G Hoyt, Darwin D Buck), sash 
and blind makers. Canal. 

LaBar James, furniture, Jefferson. 

Leon Charles M, insurance agent at Ham- 
blins' exchange ofiSce, Main. 

Leonard James V, boot and shoe maker, 
Jefferson. 

Livingston L L &. Co, (Leavit L Livingston, 
William C Dumphry), boots and dices, 
Main. 

Loomis William, dry goods and groceries, 
Main. 

Lothridge James, wagon and carriage shop, 
Jefferson. 

McCamly Sands, ex-judge, south side Kala- 
mazoo river. 

McCrea Samuel W, groceries and provisioDS, 
Main. 

McDonald W A &Co, (Wright A McDonald, 
Oris Bamum, Theron A Chadvrick, Abel 
Hungerford), I cabinet makers. Canal, 
wareroom, Mi^n. 

McEgan John, cooper, Lydia. 

McGrane George, eating saloon, Jefferson. 

McKinstry Hugh, saddle and harness, Jeffer- 
son. 

Mabley & Co. (William Mabley, Christopher 
R Mabley), ready made clothing, Main. 

Mapes Alonzo, painter, West Canal. 

Mapes S H, clocks,watches and jewelry, Main. 

Meachem John, justice of the peace. Main. 

Mead & Co, (George Mead, ) meat 

market, Main. 

Merrill Samuel C, watches and jewelry. Main. 

Morton G S & Co, (George S Morton, Am- 
brose T Roe), saloon and eating house, 
Canal. 

Morton Oliver S, lawyer and insurance agent. 
Main. 

Mott Isaac C, grocer, Jefferson. 

Neale Bros, (Michael, Maurice H and William 
F), boots and shoes, Jefferson. 

Nichols &. Shepard, (John Nichols, Edwin C 
Nichols, David Shepard), manufacturers 
of agricultaral implements, Canal. 



BAT 



STATE GAZSTTBKB. 



BAY 



195 



Morton Egbert A, meat market, Main. 
Oakley &. Badgley, (James W Oakley, Samuel 

L Badgley), leather and findings, and tan- 
ners and carriers. Main. 
Owen John, boots and shoes. Main. 
Parker Charles B, hats and caps, Main. 
Parmalee William £, groceries and provisions, 

Main. 
Pearsall A B, painter, West Canal. 
Peebles J M Rev, pastor Independent (Spi- 

ritnal) church. 
Pettee Silas G, carpenter, Jackson. 
Pittee Lyman, carpenter and manufr. of sash 

and blinds, Jackson. 
Pitts £lisha, house mover, McCamly. 
Potter Nathaniel, editor and prop'r Battle 

Creek City News. 
Purple N P Miss, physician. Main. 
Putnam Lyman, dry goods, Main. 
Raymond Isaac B, prop'r Raymond's hotel. 

Railroad. 
Raymond Stephen, boots and shoes. Main. 
Raymond William H, groceries, provisions, 

boots and shoes. Main. 
Rhines Levant C, lawyer, Main. 
Robinson Leonard A, harness maker, Jefferson. 
Robinson William, blacksmith, Jefferson. 
Rogers Smith, physician, (homoe). Main. 
Russell Moses B, justice of the peace. Main. 
Saunders William Q, physician, Main. 
Sautford J W, ice dealer, near mill pond 
Shafer J H &. M 0, (John H & Marcus C), 

marble works. Main. 
Sheffield Silas, cooper, Lydia. 
Sherman Nelson £, lawyer. Main. 
Skinner Aaron L, dry goods, groceries, etc, 

Main. 
Skinner William H, cashier Frink & Co's 

exchange office. 
Slater Z C, physician. Main. 
Smith Gideon F, lumber yard, Jefferson. 
Smith Sl Barbour, (John J* Smith, Lyman 

Barbour), groceries and provisions, Slain. 
Smith 6l Gardner, (Enos N Smith, Beriah P 

Gardner), wagon makers. Canal. 
Spencer Joseph V, physician, (homoe), Main. 
Stewart Leonard H, lawyer and insurance 

agent. Main. 
8till»>n Eli L, lawyer. Main. 
Stone Willard L, prop'r Stones' hotel, Rail- 
road. 
Stone & Hyatt, (Horace A Stone, George W 

Hyatt), dry goods, groceries, crockery, 

etc, Main. 
Stuart Sl Son, (John and John F), hardware, 

stoves, tin ware, etc, and agents American 

Express Co, Main. 
Sweet Lucius C, grocer, Jefferson. 
Titus Richard F, flour mill. West Canal. 
Tomlinson Mark, physician. Main. 
Trwy Theron H, 8up*t Arcade Mill. 
Upton James :^, manufr of thrashing ma^ 

chines and agricultural implements^ Jack- 
son. 



Upton Stephen, watches and jewelry. Main. 
Vedder S & G, (Simon & Garrett), wagon and 

carriage shop, Jefferson. 
Wakelee Clement, dry goods, groceries, etc, 

Main. 
Wallace Wallam, woolen factory, Jefferson. 
Ward Joseph M. commission merchant and 
^ custom miller, Jefferson. 
Warring & Rilley, (Charles Warring, John P 

Rilley), wagon and blacksmith shop, 

Jackson. 
Waters J C, physician, Jackson. 
Waters Mary M Miss, millinery. Main. 
Weignant John Adam, saloon, Jefferson, 
Whitcomb Almond, station agent, M C R R 

depot. 
Witcomb & Leggett, (Kilbourn Whitcomb, 

Stephen W I^ggett), plaining shop, Canal. 
White A A, lawyer. Main. 
White James Rev, editor Advent Review, and 

pastor, Adventist Church. 
Whitney Albert A, baker. Main. 
Wilkinson Rufus, bli^cksmith. Canal. 
Williams E S, prop'r Michigan Central 

Nursery. 
Wolf A £ Miss & Co, milliners and dress 

makers, Main. 
Wood worth Horatio P, photograph gallery, 

Main. 
Woolnough Walter W, editor and prop'r 

Battle Creek Journal. 
Zang Nicholas, saloon, west Canal. 



B AY CI T Y. 

An important and flourishing post city, 
the seat of justice of Bay county, pleasantly 
situated upon the east bank of the Saginaw 
river, five miles from its mouth, and 16 below 
the city of East Saginaw. It is connected 
with Detroit by a semi- weekly line of steam- 
ers (fare $3.00), and with East Saginaw and 
Saginaw City by steamboat, three times each 
day (fare 50 cents). This town was laid out 
in 1836, and for upwards of twenty years was 
known as " Lower Saginaw ^^ and remained 
during that time a small and insignificant 
village. Since 1856 it has taken an on- 
ward movement, and now bids fair to become 
one of the most important towns in the State. 
A large number of extensive steam saw mills 
are in operation in and about the city, while 
enormous salt manufactories are going up on 
every hand. The river is navigable here for 
the largest vessels on the lakes, and in this 
respect Bay City possesses an important ad- 
vantage over the towns further up. The lo- 
cation is elevated and healthy, and the soil 
peculiarly rich and productive. The city 
now contains six churches, representing the 
Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, Lutheran, Epis- 
copal, and Presbyterian denominations; a 
Masonic Lodge ("Bay City, No. 129,") a 
Good Templar's Lodge ("Ba}^ City, No. 



CH ABIDES V, CI.ABK'3 



lOB "), a weekly newspaper, ("Bbj City Press 
«lld Times "), iaaued every Tliursday.ftt 11.50 
per year, by W. A. Bryce ; tbirteeo salt works 
now in o|)oration, and sereral in process of 
ereclion, three slave factories, two barrel 
factories, ods machine shop, one iron foan- 
dry, one saw manufactory, one shingte mill, 
three carriage mann factories, seven boteui, 
einhteen steam saw mills, and about fifty 
■bops and stores. There are bnt fevr, if any, 
towns in Klichigan with fairer prospects of 
■ucceas than this place, and none where capi- 
tal can be invested to better advantage. As 
an evidence of the immense lumber and salt 
bnsinfBS carried on at this point, we subjoin 
a list of the various manufactories in Hay 
City and vicinity, with the annual capacity of 
eacb, tjie list haring been prepared for this 
work by Mr. H, S. Raymond, the present 
postmaster of tbe city. 




Frank FItihuah 

■W.O. FUke *Co 

Tib EitanA Uenhon... 

PorUiDonlh SaitUunrif 

A. C. Braadoei"* ci" ! ! 

W.W.Cluk * Co 

I>ols«D A Uo 

Total DOW In operation. 



A daily mail is received. Present popnla- 
Uon about S.OOO. Detroit mercbaote ship 
goods to B^ City by steamboau or sail vea- 
Hls, diiecl. 



lilat of ProftaaloBa, Tradss, ete. 

Alvord H H, ship builder, 
Arnold FredericV, baker, 
Barclay Frederick, saloon. 

Bay City House, . 

Beckwith Luther, lawyer. 

Binder &, Co, general store. 

BIRNET JAMES, Uwjer and judge 10th 

Bligh & Yaoderburgh, (Theodore M Bligh, A 
C Vanderburgh), druggists, 

Bloedon Lewis, cabinet maker. 

Bonsteel A R, physician, 

Bowerman David, mason. 

Brooks John, mason, 

Bryce W A, prop'r Bay City Pr«aa and Times. 

Burden John, machinist. 

Carpenter Qporge, ship builder. 

Chandler John KI, harness maker. 

Cbarboneaux J F, saloon. 

Clark Harvey, black^itb. 

Cook Henry, cooper, 

Cumminss R W, pbysician. 

Dsglish William, lawypr, 

De Bauemfleiid T, saloon, 

Drake John, Insurance agent, 

Eddy Samuel L, blacksmith. 

Emericb Jacob, boot and shoe maker. 

Essex Ransom P, justice of the peace. 

Fanners' Home, . 

Fay William L, jaFtice of the peace. 

Felker Amos, carriage maker. 

Forest City House. . 

Freeman Chester B, lawyer. 

Freeman Mrs, milliner. 

Frost Herry, mason. 
Oahan T R, Krocer, 
QrierTC, lawyer. 

Hagy John, gunsmith. 

Ilaisted Joseph, Justice of the peace. 

Hart & Monroe, general store. 

Hogan & Moniour, blacksmiths. 

Jennison C E & Bro, general btore. 

Jennison H W, insurance agent, 

Johnson Frank Rev, (Baptist). 

Judson J S, insurance agent. 

Judson & Stanton, merchant tailon and 

clothiers, 
Keith J M, saloon. 
Kfilh John, confectjoner. 
Kinderraan Constantino, physiciao. 
Lake &, Brotber, grocers. 
Little J H, general store. 
McDowell John, machinist. 
McDowell J &, Son, founders. 
Marslon Isaac, lawyer. 
Mast C, cabinet maker, 
Mather M S Mrs, milliner. 

fell A C, lawyer, 
Michie William, cooper, 
Munger & Cook, general store, 
Nichols John J, carpenter. 
Palmer Peter L, blacksmith. 
Park EdwlD, livery liable. 



BED 



CHABLES F. CLABK'S 



BEL 



197 



PeiTott Patrick, ceoper. 
Philip John, hiacksmith. 
Putnam John W, livery stable. 
Raymond H S, bookseller and insurance ag't. 
Reynolds Charles H, physician. 
Schuerman Charles, insurance agent. 
Schutzes H J H Rev, (Catholic). 
Shaddick Conrad, carriage maker. 

Sherman House, . 

Sherman William L, lawyer. 
Sherman W T, banker. 
Simons Jane Miss, milliner. 
Smith George, physician. 
Smith George E, general store. 
Spindler T W Rev, (Lutheran). 
Stewart E J Rev, (Presbyterian). 
Stoddard John, cooper. 
Strigl J, saloon. 
Trembly Joseph, ship builder. 

Union Hotel, . 

Walthausen F V, physician and druggist. 

Washington House, . 

Watkins George, carpenter. 
Watson James, stave dealer. 
Weber Philip, harness maker. 
Weed Jtjhn A, carriage maker. 
Wells William, saloon. 
Wisner James, lawyer. 

Wolverton House, . 

Woods John, merchant tailor. 
Wortley Jacob C Rev, (Methodist). 
Zanner L G, physician. 
Zehner T Nicholas, jeweler. 



B EAR R I VER- 

A post office of Emmet county, in Bear 
Creek township, Little Traverse Bay district. 



BEAVER CREEK- 
A post office of Gratiot county. 



BECKER VILLE. 

A small village in the township of Crock- 
ery, and county of Ottawa, on Grand River. 
It has a large steam saw mill and a general 
store, both owned by Vroman Becker, also a 
steam saw mill owned by William Thompson. 
Goods are shipped by water from Chicago, 
direct to Beckerville, or by D. & M. R. R. 
from Detroit, via Nunuica. (See "Aunnica.'') 



BEDFORD. 

A flourishing post village of Calhoun coun- 
ty, in the township of the same name, situ- 
ated on the stage route from Battle Creek to 
Hastings, and distant 1:27 miles west from 
Detroit. The Michigan Central railroad 
passes through the townshij) five miles south 
of the village. A good water power is fur- 
nished by Bascon creek, a branch of the 



Kalamazoo river. This place has been set- 
tled but six years, and has now a populaticm 
of about 250, and as the soil is very product- 
ive, and the inhabitants industrious farmers, 
(mostly from the State of New, Fork), the 
village is in a very thriving condition. A 
daily mail is received. It contains four 
stores, one hotel, one grist and two saw mills, 
and a number of trades and professions ; also 
a lodge of Good Templars. Eastern mer- 
chants ship goods, via Battle Creek, by the 
Michigan Central railroad. Population of 
township, 1,800. Postmaster — Silas H. Cor- 



wm. 



TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 



Supervisor — Henry Harmon. 
CVrrA— Frank A. Ford. 
Treasurer — Stephen Hunt. 

lAut of Profeielons, Trades^ ete. 

Austin Charles, boots and shoes, and justice 

of the peace. 
Austin John, cooper. 
Brower Aaron, hotel. 
Chambers E C Rev, (Methodist). 
Corwin & Foster, (Silas F Corwin, William H 

Foster), general store. 
Fisk Ethan A, blacksmith. 
Fish Maria, milliner. 
Gardner J Wilkinson, blacksmith. 
Halsteai Jonathan &> Son, carriage makers. 
Jones L F Rev, (Congregational). 
June Abner, cooper. 
Marvin Hunter M, general store. 
Marvin William, grocer. 
Prescott Frank, mason. 
Reynolds John, carpenter. 
Scougale Alexander, carriage maker. 
Watson Henry, physician. 



BELLE RIVER. 

The post office name of the village of 
•' Newport ^'' St. Clair county, 60 miles north 
of Detroit, 



BELLEVILLE. 

« 

A township of Eaton county, containing the 
post village of ^'Beilevue." Population of en- 
tire township, 1,000. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — Henry A. Hunsicker. 
Clerk— yf&\l B. Morgan. 
Treasarer — Norman S. Booth. 



BELLEVILLE. 

A post village of Wayne county, in the 
township of Van Buren, four miles south of 
the Dentons' Mills station, on the Michigan 
Central railroad, eight miles from the city of 
Ypsilanti, and 80 miles west of Detroit. It 



CBABLSB F. CLABK*B 



BER 



BER 



199 



T0WV8HIP OPFICBRl. 

8upertisor—J>, K. Stowell. 
CUrk — Emmons Blackeslee. 
Treasurer — Willard Lyon. 

IJst of ProfbmiOBs, TnUles, etc* 

Back Ebenezer W, stave dealer. 
Hammond Stephen F, justice of the peace. 
Hin Cortland, real estate agent. 
Kneeland Benjamin F, saw mill. 
Laihrop Joseph, carpenter. 
Lathrop William D, carpenter. 
Messineer S S, pbvsician. 
Richards David, carpenter. 
Sbddon Benjamin J, stave dealer. 
Weitmejer George W, boot and shoe maker. 



BENNINQTOM. 

A township of Shiawassee county, on the 
Looking Glass, 80 miles north-west of Detroit 
river, and ten miles sooth of Corunna, on the 
Detroit and Milwaakee railroad. The post 
office of ^'Pittsburg '■' is situated in this town- 
ship. Population 900. 

T0W58HIP OFFICBBS. 

Sttpervitor — Isaac Gale. 
Clerk— Qonez Pond. 
TreatMrtr — William Train. 



BENONA. 
A post office of Oceana county, 

BENTON. 
A pott village of Washtenaw county. 

BENTON. 

A township of Berrien county, near the 
mouth of St. Joseph river. Population 1100. 



BENZONI A. 
A post office of Leelenaw county. 

BERLIN. 

A post village of Ottawa county, in the 
township of Wright, on the Detroit and Mil- 
waukee railroad, and on Sand Creek, nine 
miles west of Grand Rapids, and 1C7 miles 
north-west of Detroit, — fare $5. It has three 
churches, Methodist, Adventist, and Catholic, 
a manufactory of potash, a flour mill, steam 
saw mill, general store, hotel, etc. Population 
200. A dailv mail is received. Potimatter — 
Robert B. McCulloch. (See "WV^A/.") 

lAmt of Professions, Trades, etc* 

Bigelow Samud, Rev, (Methodist). 
Button Brookins, mason. 
Dayton John T, lawyer. 
Dowd Oren, boot and ihoe.maker. 



> 



Everfaart Samuel, carpenter. 
Finclair Jacob, mason. 
Furgison William G, hoteL 
Hastings Walter, cooper 
Koon Sherman, physician. 

McCULLOCH ROBERT B, general store. 
Morgan Enos C, livery stable and cooper. 
Nichols*, (Leonard 6l Lyman T), aahery. 
Nolker Joseph, carpenter. 
Norton Henry A, carriage maker. 
Taylor John A J, gunsmith. 
Tuitle John, cooper. 
Young Truman, blacksmith. 



BERRIEN CENTRE. 

A small post village in the township and 
county of Berrien, 188 miles south-west of 
Detroit. It contains two saw mills, one store, 
one hotel, and five chorches, representing the 
United Brethren, Method*st, and Union de- 
nominations. Berrien Springs is four miles 
distant, in the same township. PottwuuUr^^ 
Isaac Murphy. 

Ust of ProftasloBa, Trmdes, «tc. 

Barton Nathan, carpenter. 

Bertholine John, physician. 

Boon John, Rev. 

Defeals John, grocer. 

Fisher Joseph, saw milL 

Garrett Samuel, mason. 

Hand Michael, justice of the peace. 

Hartsook Francis N, mason. 

Havener Alfred, carpenter. 

Kibler John A. blacksmith. 

Kibler Ruhama A, milliner. 

McCumber Paddock, hoteL 

Mack Baltis, boot and shoe maker. 

Marrs Thomas, saw mill. 

Murphy George E, justice of the peace. 

Murphy Harvey R, carpenter. 

Murphy Isaac, blacksmith. 

Snow Oren D. justice of the peace. 

Vanaxin Alfred, stave dealer. 

Webster F F, carpenter. 



BERRIEN SRRINaS. 

Berrien Springs is a thriving and handsome 
post village, the capital of Berrien county, 
situated on the St. Joseph river, 25 miles 
from Lake Michigan, and 200 miles west of 
Detroit, on the stage route from South Bend, 
Ind., to St Joseph, Mich , and on the steam- 
boat route from St. Joseph to NUes. Distance 
from Chicago by water, 85 miles — fare $1,60; 
fare from Detroit % 5,20. Berrien Springs is 
situated in the centre of one of the best farm- 
ing districts of the Sute. the soil being of 
the richest character, and producing sure and 
abundant crops of winter wheat, of best qua- 
lity, com, rye, oats, potatoes, fruit, etc., 
which, owing to its proximity to the Cliieago 



200 



BER 



CHABLES F. OLABK'S 



Bia 



market, sell readily for cash, at the highest 
figures. Timber of all the varieties found in 
this section, is very abundant. The steamer 
"St. Joseph" makfs tri-weekly trips, during 
the season of navigati'ii, between Niles and 
St. Joseph, and there connects with the 
steamers plying between the latter place and 
Chicago, rendering commnnication with that 
city easy and direct. The merchants here 
purchase their goods mostly m Chicago, 
though some are »>hipped from the East, via 
the Michigan Central Railroad to Niles, 
thence by boat to this place. Two daily 
mails are received. The village has a popu- 
lation of about 1000, and is the seat of con- 
siderable trade. It has one Methoditit Epis- 
copal, one United Breth'en, and one Free 
church, a Masonic lodge, (Western Star, No. 
39), several schools, a public library, a steam 
flouring mill, several saw mills, and a large 
number of ston>s and mechanical trades. 
Postmaster — Lyman A. Barnard. 

TOWXSniP OFPTCEBS. 

Supervisor — Joseph W. Howe. 
Clerk — John Boal. 
Treasurer — Jacob Ewalt. 

I«Ut of Professions, Trades, etc. 

Andrews James, broom factory. 

Armstrong Stephen G, physician. 

Bainton & Pierce, (William Baintonand 

Pierce), flour mills. 
Barber Darius, carpenter. 
Barnard Lyman A, druggist. 
Beal James, jeweler. 

Benson J & A, (Joel and Asa), livery stable. 
Boal John, shoe maker. 
Boal Peter, shoo maker. 
Boon Jacob, blacksmith. 
Bowles Alfred, mason. 
Case [5 Franklin, grocer. 
Claar Giorge, tin and copper smith. 
Delitld Mary Mrs, hotel. 
Dougherty William, general store. 
Eidson William B, broom factory. 
Essick David, mason. 
Essick James, carpenter. 
Gardner Clift in, carpenter. 
Granger James, carpenter. 
Guyberson Enoth, harness maker. 
Hall Nelsjn, carpenter. 
Hathaway Carter D, lawyer. 
Hinckley Edwaid, mason. 
Hyde John, shoe maker. 
Kephart Phillip, general store. 
Lamb Etusly Rev, (United Brethren.) 
Love Townsend, saw mill. 
McCallister Charles Rev, (Methodist.) 
Marquisse Louis, grocer. 
Mars Andrew W, hotel. ^ 

Nichols Charles D, justice of the peace. 
Parce Leonard, justice of the peace. 
Piatt 6l Bro, (James M and David W), general 

store. 



Reed Worden, cooper. 
Rennie Robert, carpenter. 
Reynolds George, carriage maker. 
Smith Sylvester, carpenter. 
Stem Henry, carpenter. 
Thompson Manna, jeweler. 
Vinton Harlo, blacksmith. 
Webster John, tailor. 
Wilcox Hiram, physician. 
Wilkinson Thomas L, cabinet maker. 



BERTRAND. 

A fractional towtiship and small poet viD- 
age of Berrien county, on the St. Joseph 
river, between Soath Bend, Ind., and NUeeJ 
Mich. The township borders on the State 
of Indiana, and is distant 190 miles south-west 
from Detroit. The village contains a Catho-^ 
lie and a Methodist church, one store, a di»^ 
tillery, a grist mill, two hotels, and several 
professions and mechanical trades. It is 
beautifully situated and is in a thriving con- 
dition. Population 800; township, 1600. 
Postmaster — J. M. Serrard. 

I«lst of Proftsslonsy TrmAem^ ete« 

Browni David, flouring mill. 

Faulkner William, cooper. 

Fenton James, tailor. 

Higboe D C, carpenter. 

Hilton James, justice* of the peace. 

Jones Benjamin F, grocer and physician. 

Martin H, cooper. 

Merritt E D, cooper. 

Rhodes Jerry mason. 

Ryan William, cooper. 

Seward J M, hotel. 

Swaringer L, cooper. 

Vary C, caq)enter. 

Whipple Caleb, blacksmith. 



BETHEL-- 

A poat office of Branch county. 



BIQ BEAVER. 

A post village of Oakland county, 16 miles 
from Detroit. 



BIG BEAVER. 

An island in Lake Michigan, off the north- 
west coaat fA the lower peninsula. It forms 
a part of the county of "Manitou" which see, 
under the head of ''Counties" Population 
500. 



BIG PRAIRIE. 

A post office of Newaygo county. 

BIQ RAPIDS. 

A post village and capital of Mecosta 
county, situated on.the Muskegon river, 170 



6TATB QAZSTTEB^ 



202 



BLE 



CHASLE8 F. CLABK'S 



BLO 



Patch Truman, blacksmith. 
Partridge & Beard slee, blacksmiths. 
Poppleton OrrJD, general miTcbant. 
Raynale Ebenezer, physician. 
Sherman Palmer, carriage maker. 
Simpson L, car]>enter. 
Sloat A A, justice of the peace. 
Smith Mortimer, foundry. 
Toms David C, justice of th<* peace. 
Torrey William, lumber dealer. 
Trowbridge Rowland E, flour mill. 
Vane very, James,*jnstire of the peace. 
Warren S E Rov, (Methodist). 
Whinney Samuel M, harness maker. 



BL.ACKMAN. 

A highly productive agricultural township 
of Jackson county, a small portion of which 
forms one half the city of Jackson, An ex- 
tensive bed of bituminous coal underlies a 
large portion of the township. (See ^'Jaekton 
County^). 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Suprrvisor — Joseph P. Sammons. 
Cierk — Benjamin Porter, jr. 
Treasurer — Jonathan C. Hastings. 



BLENDON- 

A township and small post village of Ot- 
tawa county, 171 miles north-west of Detroit, 
14 south-west of Grand Rapids, and three 
miles south of Grand River. The soil is a 
clayey loam, well adapted to agriculture. 
Considerable swamp land exists, but can be 
all redeemed by a pro[)er system of drainage. 
The village contains a Metho<list church and 
two saw mills. Population of township 400. 
One mail per week. Foshnaster — William S. 
Woodruft*. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICEBS. 

Supervisor — Carlton L. Storrs. 
Clerk — Edwin Thayer. 
Treasurer — William 0. Graves. 

IaImI of Professions* Trades, ete* 

Blendon Lumbering Co. (Frederick B. Leon- 
ard, Jonathan Whipple and Thomas Brins- 
maid), saw mill. 

Benham Silas E, justice of the peace. 

Chapman William, carpenter. 

Darling Ephraim Rev, (Methodist). 

Eckles John, cooper. 

Gilbert Almou, carpenter. 

Graves, William G, justice of the peace. 

Noyes Samuel R, agent Blendon Lumbering 
Co. 

Shurbume Samuel W, justice of the peace. 

Storrs C L & Co, (Carlton L and Charles E 
Storrs), saw mill. 

Woodrufr William S, justice of the peace. 



BL.I88FIEL.O. 

A township and post Tillage of 
county, 70 miles south-west of Detroit and S 
miles nofthwest of Toledo, Ohio. Tbetovfr 
ship contains the villages of ^*BUuJUU* ni 
'"DeerJieU" Blissfleld contains two churdBi» 
(Presbyterian and Methodist), a Masonk 
lodge, a tannery, broom factory, saw ni^ 
flour mill, ten stores of different klnds^ tM 
hotels, and the usual number of profc 
and ttades. The Toledo and Adrian ~ 
of the Michigan Southern railroad 
through the village. A daily mail is 
ed. Population of the village 600 ; entin 
township 2,000. JPof/suwItfr— Myron I, 
Knight. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — Archer H. Crane. 
Clerk — George V. Bailey. 
Treasurer — Hiram T. Fife. 

lilst Of Proftestona, Tni4ea« ale* 

Beagle Frederick G, gene<ml store. 

Bliss & Knight, (William W. Bliss and MyTQi 

E. Knight), general store. 

Bliss William C. carpenter. 

Bowen George D, physician. 

Cannon Frederick, carriage maker. 

Carpenter Joel, attorney and insoranoe igBBt 

Clark Charles 0, carpenter, 

Clark William A, grocer and dmggisi. 

Cornell Frederick, blacksmith. 

Daley Patrick, carjienter. 

Dewey Fitch, general store. 

Eaton Frederick L, lawyer. 

Ford Joseph, shoe maker. 

Furman Walter, harness maker. 

Oilman George H, carriage maker and black- 
smith. 

Gil mo re Charles H, blacksmith. 

Jipson H & Bro, (Ilenry and Orin), floor and 
saw mill. 

Knapp Miles W, cooper. 

Kedzie James T, general store. 

Moore William, mason. 

Newcomb Roland B C, physician. 

North Guy F, boots and shoes. 

Parker George, grocer. 

Payne John, blacksmith. 

Ricker John, boots and shoes. 

Rodgers William F, shoe maker. 

Sheldon Horace J, boots and shoes, and J P. 

Small Martin, cabinet maker, etc. 

Steams Milo, mason. 

Vaud Lot, boots and shoes. 

Wheeler Barney H, hotel and livery. 

Woodward Horace P, physician. 

Young John, hotel. 

BLOOMER. 

A township in the south-east comer of 
Montcalm county, containing the post oflice 
of " Bloomer Centre." Population 700. 



STATE QAZErnSKB. 



204 



BRA 



CHARLKS F. CLABK'S 



BBE 



BONA^NE. 
A township and post office in the sonth- 
eaHt comer of Kent county, six miles south 
of Lowell station on the Detroit and Milwau- 
kee railroad, 140 miles north-west from 
Detroit. There are within the township three 
churches, two saw mills, and a flour mill. 
Population, 800. One mail per week. I*ost- 
wuuUr — David M. Skidmore. 

TOWNSniP OFFICERS. 

SupervUor — James Truax. 
Clerk — J. R. Brown. 
Treaiurer — Levi Stone. 

Eilst •! Prof es«i«ns9 TraAeSf etc* 

Anderson , flour mill. 

Anderson J, blacksmith. 
Chai»el I B, justice of the peace. 
Drai>er J, blacksmith. 
Hull Sylvanus, mason. 

Lintf Rev , (Presbyterian). 

McNitt F, carpenter. 
Myers H, carpenter. 
Myers John, gun smith. 
Myers J, blacksmith. 
Pardee 0, Justice of the peace. 
Richardson J M, saw mill. 
Sherman N P, saw mill. 
Sinclair John, mason. 
Skidmore D M, blacksmith. 
Stone Levi, justice of the peace. 



BRADLEY. 

A Bmall post village of Allegan county, 167 
miles westerly from Detroit. It contains two 
churches, two stores, a flour mill, and seve- 
ral mechanics. Population, 200. 

BRADY. 

A township and post village of Kalamazoo 
county, on the Little Portage branch of the 
St. Joseph river, 14 miles south of Kalama- 
zoo, the county seat, and 155 miles west of 
Detroit. Fare, $4.15. Same distance and 
fare from Chicago, Has a daily mail. Two 
hotels, three saw mills, a Congregational 
church, and four stores. The ea.st half of 
the township is heavily timbered, the west is 
oak openings, with a deep and rich soil 
Population of township, 1,200; of village, 
200. Detroit merchaiite ship goods by the 
Michigan Central railroad, via Kalamazoo. 
Postmattcr — Russell Bishop. 

TOWNBHIP 0FFICBB8. 

Sttpervisor — Charles Brown. 
CUrk^WiXWum Best. 
Treasurer — Charles Eberstine. 

lilat or Prof)Msloiis, Trades, ete« 

Beebe Elizer W, physician. 

Beebe Peter A, justice of the peace. 

Bishop John C, lawyer. 



Bishop dt Long, (Boflsell Bishop, John LoBg^ 

general store. 
Briggs &L Anderson, (Asa S Briggs, Danid P 

Anderson), flour and saw milL 
Boughton John, cooper. 
Brown John W, justice of the peace. 
Burdlck Silas, justice of the peace. 
Burke John S, carriage maker. i 
Cowles Hiram, justice of the peace. 
Doming Elbridge G, carriage maker. 
Finley Thomas W, blacksmith. 
Fisk Samuel, blacksmith. 
Hill Norman A, physician. 
Ilurson Uriah, blacksmith. 

Kingsbury , hotel. 

Lemon Joseph S, drugs and groceries, 
Richardson Solomon, tobacco and oigan. 
Smith Ezra, physician. 
Smith Leonard L, hotel. 
Stratten James, cabinet maker. 
Strong James A, gunsmith. 
Taylor Preston Rev, (ConsjegationaL) 
Waters Alft^d, general store. 



BRANCH. 

A small village of Branch county, in the 
township of Cold water, three miles west <tf 
the city of that name. This was former^ 
the county seat, and was once a place of con- 
siderable importance, having a weekly news- 
paper, the " Michigan Argus," a large hotel, 
and several stores. It now contains but four 
dwellings, a blacksmith shop, saw mill, own- 
ed by. Frank Warren, and a smalll whisky 
distillery, owned by Robert Linn. One mile 
north of Branch village, on the west branch 
of Coldwater river, is one flouring and one 
saw mill. Post offi(# discontinued? Address 
''Coldwater:' 



BRANDON. 

A township and small post village of Oak- 
land county, 38 miles souUi-west l^om Detroit. 
Population of township 1,400. 



BREEDSVILLE. 

An incori)orated village of Van Buren 
county, on Black river, and on the stage 
route from Paw P>iw to South Haven, 180 
miles west of Detroit — fare $6/S0, and 18 
from Decatur, on the Michigan Central Rail- 
road. It contains three churches (Methodist, 
Baptist, and Spiritualist), two shingle mills, 
two saw mills, two tanneries, one liotel fluod 
two stores. Population 300. Two mails 
received per week. Postmaster — John B. 
Hudson. 

Uet'of ProftesloiM, Trmdee, ete« 

Allen &L Ly tie, (Howard S. Allen and Aleii 
aoder Lytle), saw mill. 



BRI 



BRI 



206 



Chapnuui Uriel H, bljkclomith. 

Clow Samuel C, boot and Kboe maker. 

Dodd Banholomew, carpenter. 

Eastmauu Ahira G, blacksmith. 

HadsoD John B, lawyer. 

Himserf«>rd Albert W, carriage maker. 

Ladd H Xewell, grocer. 

Ladd Truman A W, lawyer. 

LaffertT Alexander, bot^it and shoe maker. 

Niles Gide^.tn P, boot and ^hoe maker. 

Page Thomas P, hotel. 

Pahiter, 6i Gray, (L<irenzo D. Painter and 

James M. Gray), general store. 
Randall Sarah X, milliner. 
Beed Charles D, eaqienter. 
Richards James. C(X»per. 
Van Wick Anthony J Rer, Methodist. 
Vincent Horace, physician. 



BREST. 

A tmall post village on Lake Erie, at the 
month of St<>ny Creek, in the township of 
Frenchtown. 35 miles south of Detroit. This 
place was originated about thirty years ago, 
by an incorporated company, who hnprored 
the harbor, erected extensire piers and ware- 
houses, and laid the foundation of what was 
dengned to be the '* great commercial centre 
of the west,*' but like many similar enter- 
prizes, the scheme proved a failure, and the 
Tillage, if village it can be called, now con- 
tains a fKtpoiatiun of less than 100. 



BRIDQERORT CEMTRE. 

A post village of Saginaw coonty, in the 
township of Bridgeport. It contains two 
stores, a hotel, church, steam saw mill, etc 
Population 200. 

BRIDQETONA^N- 

A township and post office of Newya^ 
county. Population 300. 



BRIOQE>VATER. 

A township and post office of Washtenaw 
county, on the stage route from Saline to 
Manchester, 4S miles west from Detroit. 
There are within the township two saw mills, 
one dour mill, one general store, and one 
church. (Lutheran). Population 1.400. One 
mail per week. Pmtm^si^r — Jacob Blum. 

TOWSSHIF OFFICERS. 

Stiperrimtr — Daniel LeBarron. 
Clerk— D. W. Palmer. 
Tremturtr — Henrv Pancher. 



BRENA/ERSVILLE. 

A post office of Van Buren county. 

BRIOaEPORT. 

A small p«>*t village of Saginaw county, ■ 
in ihe.i«.»wri«b-p of the same name, on the 
sooth side "f the Ca«s river, eight miles from 
Saginaw City, and f<i miles north-west from 
Detroit. Th-? village has two stores, two 
hotels, arid a saw mill. Population 500. A 
dailv mail is receive^l. Fo$ wwier — William 
L. Cooij. 

TOW5SHIP OFFICEBS. 

Sypfrrisor — D. A. Petabour. 
CUrl- — Ira Whitney. 
Treastner—H A. Hill. 



£«ist •! Pr«fesaittmsf TimAeSf etc. 

Armbrust John, merchant tailor. 

Bannorm . merchant tailor. 

Bailharg John J Rev, (LiUheran). 
Brand Carl, physician. 
Clark & Rees. saw and flouring mills. 
Cole H. justice of the peace. 
Fleeman William, carriage maker. 
Hause John, carpenter. 

Kelhr . cooper. 

McDousle Michael. Justice of the peace. 
Miller Charles jr. carpenter. 
Noies Peter, grocer. 
Norri« John, saw mill. 
Palmer D W, insurance agent. 
Ran«i!e Rossel, justice of the peace. 
Riddle A, ju*stice of the peace. 



Ust of 

Aral J«»hij. b^xit and shoe maker. 

Beach H N. justice of the peace. 

Bradjihaw A Rev. 

Coale William L. hotel 

Foster Daniel F. s^rieral store. 

Lull Charles A. lK>tel and general store. 

Me^mt^r G. blacksmith. 

Whitney Ira. ju->tice of the pe«oe. 

Woodward Silas, cooper. 



BRIGHTON. 

A township and post village of Livingston 
county, on Ore Creek, aini on the l>etr«>it, 
Howell and Lansing Plank Road. 40 miles 
north-west of Detroit — fare by stage, $2.00. 
The village contains four churche*. repre- 
senting the Baptist, Catholic. Me:hrKiist,And 
Presbyterian denominations, seven stores of 
different kind.«t. two hotels, one floor mill and 
one iron found'-y. Population oftvilla^^e -ViO; 
of township 1200. A daily mail i? rei^-eived. 
Detroit merchants ship goods to Brighton, 
via the Ltinsing Plank Road. FostmatUr — 
Stephen K. Jones. 

TOWHSHIP OFFlCKftS. 

Superruor — Lvman Judson. 
C/^ri&— William J McHench. 
IVMincrfr— Stephen K. Jones. 



206 



BRO 



CHUtLBS F. CLABK'8 



BRO 



liiat of FroreMioB% TmAe*, ete. 

Acker Frederick D, carpenter. 

Albright & Thomson, (Egbert F Albright and 

Chester Thomson), flouring mill. 
Allison Nathan T, merchant tailor. 
Babcock Oscar W, harness maker. 
Bancroft John Rev, (Methodist) 
Barnes Roswell, justice of the peace. 
Birch Joseph C, carpenter. 
Birge Lyman W, carriage maker. 
Brigham Robert, hotel. 
Case Ira W, justice of the peace. 
Case S N & Bro, (Spaulding M and Ira W), 

general store. 
Chiuiwick Eliliu P, insurance agent. 
Clark Benjamin F, lawyer. 
Cobb William R, general store. 
Colburn Andrew K, jeweler. 
Goodno Isaiah, physician. 
Jenks George W Rev, (Baptist). 
Jones Stephen K, druggist. 
Kennedy &. Duane, (Nicholas Kennedy and 

John Duane), grocery. 
King William, hotel. 
Krouse John, boot and shoe maker. 
Lee J B & Co, (James B Lee and John £ 

Wicheras), general store. 
McCarthy Richard G Rev, (Presbyterian). 
McEwen Sarah, milliner. 
McHench William J, physician. 
Marsh Daniel C, lawyer. 
Martin Thomas, boot and shoe maker. 
Naylor William H, hardware. 
Pipp & Benker, (Henry Pipp and John Ben- 

ker), carriage makers. 
Sowle Henry, harness maker. 
Stei berger Frederick, blacksmith. 
Thomson David, foundry. 
Willson John K, mason. 



BRISTOUVIL.LE- 
A small post village of Barry county. 

BROCKWAY. 

A township and post village of St. Clair 
County, 66 miles north of Detroit. It is con- 
nected by stage with Port Huron, on the 
Grand Trunk railway, by way of which the 
fare to Detroit is ^2.26. The village con- 
tains one Methodist, one Congregational, and 
one Baptist church, a saw mill, flour mill, 
chair manufactory, general store, and hotel. 
Population of township 800 ; village, 100. 

TOWNSHIP 0PFICBB8. 

Superviwr — Samuel 0. Welch. 
Cierk — John Griswold. 
Treasurer — Orin P. Chamberlain. 
lilst of Professions, Trades, etc. 

Arzeno "E M, stave dealer. 
Palmer Stephen, blacksmith. 
BoyceJamesJ, general store. 



Brown David Rev. 

Darcey William, carriage maker. 

Davidson James, carpenter. 

Gordon Jacob, machinist. 

Gushman Henry, mason. 

M' Allen John, mason. 

Nichols Thomas. Rev. 

Schryver A, hotel. 

Washburn Clark, justice of the peace. 



BRONSON. 

A township of Branch County, on the Ifi- 
chigan Southern railroad, and containing ths 
small post village of *' Bronton^t FnSritJ' 
Population, 1,200. 

TOWNSHIP OPFICBB8. 

SupervUor — Darius Monroe. 
Clerk — George F. Gillam. 
IV«i*urer— Augustus Pixley. 



BRONSON'S PRAIRIE. 

A small post village of Branch County, ii 
the township of Bronson, on the MicbigiB 
Southern railroad, 140 miles south-west of 
Detroit. The village contains a Baptlrt 
church, wagon shop, shingle mill, seven 
stores, four saw mills, and two flour mills. 
Population, 800. A daily mail is received. 
Postmaster — Marshall Morrill. 

I^lst of Professions, Trades, etc 

Bartlett Jacob K, cabinet maker. 

Bressmer Ira, general store. 

Benedict C M, saw mill. 

Burns Warren, physician. 

Carpenter George, saw mill. 

Carter Horace, saw mill. 

Clark Milo, druggist. 

Clark Stephen T, physician. 

Colyer Mrs, milliner. 

Compton William H, lawyer. 

Coon Henry, cabinet maker. 

Cornell Moses G, mason. 

Crane Isaac C Rev. 

Garrison Charles R, general store. 

Higgins John H, grocer. 

Hodsky Lester C, grocer. 

Holmes J & D, flouring mill. 

Kelley Miss, milliner. 

Miner Austin, cooper. 

Monroe Darius, justice of the peace. 

Morgan Anson R, justice of the peace. 

Morrell Marshall, general store. 

Nett John M, carriage maker. 

Nichols Oscar B, carpenter. 

Pixley Augustus, general store. 

Russell Nelson, justice of the peace. 

Sliaw Almetus, saw mill. 

Shepard Jason, flouring mill. 

Smith George W, carpenter. 

Thompson Mary A, hotel. 

Wetherby James, citrriage maker. 



BRO 



8TATB GA£ETTEBB. 



BRO 



207 



Wheat P S, hoteL 

Whitaker Darid H, harness maker. 

Wood Smithy justice of the peace. 



BROOKFIEL.D- 

A township and post village of Eaton 
connty, about 100 miles north-west of De- 
troit and 15 north of Albion station, on the 
Michigan Central railroad. It has two 
diorches, (Methodist and United Brethren), 
a staTe factory, shingle factory, and saw mill. 
One mail per week. Fosttntuier — T. D. 
Bryan. 

TOWHSHIP OFFICBSS. 

Sapertiaor — Jesse Hart. 
Clerk — Horace B. Perry. 
treasurer — Thomas D. Bryan. 



Uat of Profeaalons, Trades, etc. 

Dewey Harlow, Justice of the peace. 

Dutton Enos, lumber dealer. 

Fisher Pardon H, justice of the peace. 

Gilbert George, cooper. 

Hart Jesse, justice of the peace. 

Knapp Adam, justice of the peace, 

Miller E C, blacksmith. 

MiQer Elias, blacksmith. 

Pnwms Moses, blacksmith. 

Thomas Isaac, physician. 



BROOKL.YN- 

A thriving village of Jackson county, on 
the line between the township of Napoleon 
and Colnmbia, mostly within the latter. It 
is 70 miles westerly from Detroit and four 
miles south of Napoleon station, on the Jack- 
son Branch of the Michigan Southern and 
Northern Indiana railroad. It contains three 
churches, (Episcopal, Baptist, and Presbyte- 
rian), two stores, one hotel, one saw mill, 
one flour mill, and an iron foundry. Popula- 
tion uf village, 200. A daily mail is received. 
Fodmaster—^H, C. Clark, Esq. 

I«Ut of Profemtona, Trades, ete* 

Ambler William H, justice of the peace. 

Blanchard John G, justice of the peace. 

Butterfield John L, flour and saw mill and 
insurance agent. 

CLARK HENRY C, Attorney at law. 

Cook Addison P, real estate agent. 

Cook, Austin & Sherman, (George P Cook, 
8 L Austin and Walter B Sherman), gen- 
eral store. 

Crowell J R, physician and insurance agent. 

Dwight Louise Miss, milliner. 

Pelt George H, foundry, 

Foster Oscar, saddle and harness. 

Oriswold George P, lawyer, 

Harrison Woodthorp, hotel. 

Jones Day, lawyer. 

Jones L M, phyaiciaa, (homoe). 



Kline Frederick, merchant tailor. 
Lamb T G Rev, (Baptist). 
Lampham Edwa d P, justice of the peace. 
Lyster William N Rev, (Episcopal). 
Marsh Augustus Rev, (Presbyterian). 
Pitcher William H, carriage maker. 
Prior H S, photographer. 
Rider Dr, physician. 
St John Jason, mason. 
St John Smith, carpenter. 
Sheridan Michael, news dealer. 
Thompson &. Swain, (Barzillia Thompson, 
Sardius B Swain), blacksmiths. 



BROOKLYN- 

A small village in St. Joseph county. (See 
" Three Rivera:') 

BROOKS. 

A township of Newaygo, containing the 
village of Newaygo. Population, including 
village, 600. 



BROOKS. 

A township and thriving post village of 
Newaygo county, on the Grand Rapids and 
Newaygo stage route, 197 miles, north-west, 
from Detroit. (Fare^ ^6.80.) There are lo- 
cated in the village four stores, two hotels, 
three saw mills, one flour mill, a carriage 
manufactory, stave mill, and shingle mill. 
The Congregational and Methodist societies 
have each a church. There is, also, a lodge 
of F. and A. Masons, and a lodge of Good 
Templars ; also, a 'weekly newspaper, the 
" Newaygo Republican," published by James 
H. Muze. The surrounding country is gently 
rolling, and covered with a heavy growth of 
excellent timber — soil good. Population 600. 
Detroit merchants ship goods to this place by 
the Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad, via 
Grand Rapids. Three mails are received per 
week. Foetifiaater — W. Irving Latimer. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — W. P. Adams. 
Clerk — W. Parsons. 
Treasurer — ^J. E. Latimer. 

List of Profesatons, Trader, etc. 

Adams Warren P, lawyer. 

Brooks John H jr, hotel, (Brooks House). 

Cummin Jacob, stave dealer. 

Cummin L A, stave dealer. 

Day Aurelius P, carpenter. 

Folger John P, hotel, (Newaygo House). 

GIDDINGS AUGUSTINE H, lawyer. 

Graves Gideon D, general store. 

Gray Edgar L, lawyer. 

Howell William T, lawyer. 

Latimer Isaac E, blacksmith. 

Leonard Charles W, physician and druggist. 



208 



BRO 



CBABLKS F. CLABK'S 



BUC 



Muze James H, editor and proprietor Neway- 
go Kepublican. 

Riblett Solomou K, general store. 

Rienlon J F H, cabinet maker. 

Staiuli.sh John H, lawver. 

Swift William J Rev, (Methodist). 

Sykes L*»vviH E Rev, (Congregational). 

Tatman John, physician. 

Utley William S, justice of the peace. 

Wo(mI, Henderson &, Comwell (Eliphalet 
Wood, Julias Henderson and William I 
Cornwell), general store. 



BRONA/NSTONA^N- 

A township and post office of Wayne coun- 
ty, 25 miles south of Detroit, in which is sit- 
uated tho villages of '• Black Rock" and "Gib- 
ralter." l$rownstown post office is situat«»d in 
the former village, two anda half miles north 
of the northern division of the Michigan 
Southern and Northern Indiana railroad. — 
The township has an excellent soil and is 
well eullivateil. Population 1,500. (See 
''Ilttt Rockr) 

List of ProfesslODS, Trades^ etc* 

Aspinwall William, hot<»l. 

Carson (i<»orge, justice of the peace. 

Chatten<l«»n Lewis, grocer. 

Cone Jt)hn, justice of the peace. 

Flint Richard, cari)enter. 

Garret son Freeland, boot and shoe maker. 

Garret son Garret, boot and shoe maker. 

Oavulson Mrs, milliner. 

Harnden Enos, cooper. 

Hooper William H, stave dealer. 

Hosmer Alln'rt jr, lawyer. 

Lawrence Henry, carriage maker. 

Lawn 'lice William S, carriage maker. 

Lobdel Hiram W, physician. 

Merry II Henry B, airriago maker. 

Miller .John, justice of the i)eace. 

Kitirey Willet S, general store. 

Murray Romeyn B, lawyer. 

Kail James Rev, (Congregational). 

Near John L, physician. 

Osborn William, blacksmith. 

Pierson Benjamin W, carjMMiter. 

Pierson Joseph A, general store. 

Ransom Kussell, general store. 

Sherhurn Charles, blacksmith. 

A'reelaiid W Seward, flouring mill. 

Waklin Th(»mas Rev, (Methodist). 

Wallace David, general store. 

Walt»Ts William L, hotel and livery stable. 

Warden Marcus, mason. 



BROWNSVILLE- 

A small post village of Cass county, 175 
miles s«)uth-west of Detroit. It has three 
stores, a tlour mill, and saw mill. Postmaster 
— Lewis Cowgill. 



Iiist of Professloms TmAef, cCe. 

Banks Aaron 0, general store. 

Boughti»n Judson, physician. 

Cowgill Lewis, boot and shoe maker and gro- 
cer. 

Easton &> Co, (Martin Eastman and Amin 
Wilcox), saw mill. 

Garwood Levi J, carpenter. 

George Elizal>eth, milliner. 

Gregg Phineas, pliysician. 

Inglintr Ellas, carpenter. 

Lee Hiram, cooi)er. 

Ia^ John, i)oot and shoe maker and grocer. 

Williams Weslev, blacksmith. , 

Wricrht & Chess, (James N Wright and P 
Chess), flouring mill. 

BUCHANAN. 

An important and flourishing incorporated 
post village of Berrien county, situated on 
McCoy's creek, a branch of the St. JoMpk 
river, and on the Michigan Central railroad, 
1U7 miles south-west of Detroit, and 96mllei 
s<»ut h-east of Chicago. Fare f^om the former 
place, ^l.'K); from the latter, |2.25. The 
villaii;e is pleasantly located in the midjt oft 
rich larming country, and eqjoys a consider- 
able trade. It contains Ave churches, (rep- 
resenting the Methodist, Adveutist, Presby- 
terian, Disciples, and United Brethren denom- 
inati<)ns,) one lodge each of the Odd Fellows, 
(iood Templars, and Masons, one weekly 
newspaper, (the '* Buchanan Independent," 
issued on Thursday, at $1.00 per year), two 
flour mills, one iron foundry, two hotels, to- 
gether with steam manufactories of sashes, 
doors and blinds, shingles, laths, bent felloes, 
etc. Population, 1000. A daily mail is re- 
ceive<l. The Niles and St. Joseph steamboat 
touches at Buchanan Landing, mouth of Mc- 
Coy's creek, each trip ; fare to St. Joseph 50 
cents ; to Niles, 25. Postmaster — Williun B. 
Perrett. 

Iittit of Proreaalons, Trades, etc. 

Albert John N, lawyer. 

Altixander Lorenzo P, insurance agent. 

Alward Cyrus M, lawyer. 

Anderson John, physician, 

Atwood & Mowry, (Stephen Atwood, Hiram 
Mowry), blacksmiths. 

Baker William, saw mill. 

Bennett Alonzo, lawyer. 

Black & Sohram, (Horace Black, William 
Sohram), lath and shingle factory. 

Binns Joseph P, cabinet maker. 

Bishop Svlvester, saloon. 

Boswell '& Terriere, (William G Boswell, 
Pklward Terriere), boot and shoe manu- 
factory. 

Brainton William, flouring mill. 

Broadhurst Levi, flouring mill. 

Buchanan Independent. 



BUC 



BUE 



2M 



'ChaiMfler Jodih, bent lidloet. 
Churchill Cynw B, jeweler. 
Crofoet Mana S, milliner. 
Deannond &. FtQiodX John Devmood, Thomas 

Fnltoo), general store. 
Dodd Erasmus S, physician. 
Dombleion Sl Co, masons. 
DottoD Maria, milliner. 
Edmonds Rer, (Methodist). 
Eply Samuel W, merchant taflor. 
Fancher Jonathan, cooper. 
Foster Andrew, physician. 

Grain Louisa, millinn'. 

Gfiyberson Andrew B, harness maker. 

Hafan Jacob F, cabinK maker. 
HEMINGWAY GEORGE F, lawyer. 
Hess Michael, carpenter. 

Ingersol Philo T, Uacksmith. 
KeUey John, blacksmith. 
Littlefield Charles G, general store. 
McKinnev C V. da^nerreotypist. 
Mansfield' Daniel Rer. 
Martin Henry, saloon. 
Mead Mvron L, foondry. 
Merrill WimaB S, justice of the 
MiOer A, mason. 
Idler John D. carria^ maker. 
Kewtcm John, jnstioe of the 
FaKlon Wmiam T, mason. 
Post Jotm K, hoteL 
Price James, saw milL 

Redden Jl McAd, (Ssmnel W Redden, John a 

MeadV grocer?. 
Roe Eli Si Co. sash and blind factory. 
Roe Charles, saw milL 
Roe J Hsrrey, drngzUt. 
Roe John N. physScian. 
Roe William ReV. 
Rook wmiam, cooper. 
Ross Eijoch. lawyer. 
Russell Jnfins U. lirerr stable. 



Sheppardson Sl Penwell. (Ira 

Eli PenweD). saw ndlL 
Skater J^mdnzf, carriage makei 
Snider Charles. TnMscm. 
Strone Hiram F, boc<t and shoe 

Wearer Darid, saw mill. 
Wearer Eli. saw ndlL 
W€«T«T it Fox- rPhiiander M W- 
der P Fox), hardware. 




BUCHANAN. 

A towmhip of Bernesi coimty, 

an inoc'Tpontod rillase of the 

Poptilaiic^ of wwnfthip. exclnsre oi village, 

800l Ii coDXains ax saw auBs. 

rowxssip omcKBS. 

5iyi I rimr — John Kewion. 
Ow-i— William T. MerrilL 
rr— H< 
D 



BUCK CREEK. 

A post Tillage of Kent coimty, in the town- 
ship of Boms. 160 miles north-west from De- 
troit, and 10 miles sooth of Grand Rapids, on 
the stage route from that place to Kalamazoo. 
The TiUage contains one church (Catholic), 
two stores, and a saw milL Population, 100. 
A weekly mail recdred. PmtmagUr — ^Amoa 
Corey. 



Coats Nelson, general store. 
Corey Amos, general store. 
Dailey J<rfm, carriage maker. 
Ewing Henry D, blacksmith. 
Foote Peter 8, justice of the peace. 
Gibbs Cahrin, cabinet maker. 
Hariland Daniel 8 Rer. 
Ide Edwin, jnsCaoe of the peace. 
Kibbee Hanrey, physician. 
Kelson Lyman B, carpenter. 
Pelton James M, jastace of the peaee. 
Smith Zenas, justice of the peace. 
Sbnons Joseph, mason. 
Toby Charlea, saw milL 
WHUams John Rer. 
G, 



BUEI.I.. 

A township and post ofllce of flanilae 
ty, 90 miles north-east of Detroit, and 
■dies east of Lexington, on the Lapeer road. 
Fare from Detroit by steamboat, lia Lexing- 
ton, fSilO. The township has two Vytek, bat 
no stores or mannfactories. Soil clayey, 
mixed with light ssnd. Popnlation, 200. 
Pi 



TOWSSKIF OFFICKBS. 



Trmmrw — ^Lerions Tanramp. 



Donelly Patrick, jnstice of the 
ErikiD John, justice of the peace. 
Gailbey James, sUf 
Hnlrerson Halmrr, 
King Williaai, carpenter, 
Xorman James 
Potts J<^ hotel, 
Sutton Jaaaes. jnstiee of the 
Tc^by Mia, BuUiner. 
Tancamp Joseph, saloon. 
Tancamp Lerioos, jnstioe of the 

hoteL 



BUENA VISTA. 

A towBihq» erf* fla^naw eonmy, contaising 
the fl omi ri iiu g city of East Sa^^uaw. ~ 
of the iuaaslilii is aaostiy in 
and is low, level, and 



210 



BUR 



CHASLBs F. Clark's 



BUR 



this township, outside the dty limits. (See 
^^Eatt Saginaw" also the accompanying map 
of the Saginaw valley). 



BUNKER HILL. 

A small post village of Ingham county, 75 
miles north-west from Detroit. 



BURCH VILLE. 

A township and post office of St. Clair 
county, bordering upon Lake Huron. Total 
population, U,000, mostly engaged in fishing 
and lumbering. The small fishing village of 
" Milwaukee" is also located in this township. 



BURK'S CORNERS. 
Now called '^Armada" 



BURNS. 
A township and post village of SUawas- 
\ see coimty, 70 miles north-west of Detroit^ 
and 6 miles north of the Detroit and BfUim- 
kee railroad. The township also contiiBi 
the village of Byron. A daily mail is receiv- 
ed. Population of entire township, 1,100l 
Foatmaster — John J. Gaylord. 

TOWNSHIP OFPIGEBa. 

Supervisor — John Close. 
Clerk— N. Gulick. 
Treasurer — I. S. Bamum. 

lilst of ProfessloMSy Tr«4esf ele* 

Barr John, Cooper. 

Cudney Reuben, blacksmith. 

Davis John, physician. 

Fisher Daniel, flouring mill. 

Oaylord John J, postmaster. 

Place Alexander F, saw mill. 

Reeves Thompson H, justice of the peace. 

Walcott Henry J, carpenter. 



BURLINGTON. 

A township and post village of Calhoun 
County, on the St. Joseph River, 120 miles 
west of Detroit, 14 miles north of the Michi- 
gan Southern, and 16 miles south of the Michi- 
gan Central railroad. The village contains 
one Methodist, one Close-Communion and one 
Free Will Baptist church, a machine shop, 
flour mill, sawmill, and three stores. Popu- 
lation of village, 200 ; township, 1,000. Soil 
sandy loam, surface gently undulating, with 
occasional prairies and timbered openings. 

TOWNSniP OFFICEBS. 

Supervisor — 0. B. Vosburgh. 
Clerk— Fj. N. Edmonds. 
Treasurer — C. S. Olds. 

liist off Proffessionsy Trades^ etc* 

Barns C 0, physician. 
Coddington Henry Rev, (Baptist). 
Davis JefTerson, physician. 
Edmonds E N, general store. 
Howard Leander, carpenter. 
Gratton A H, cooper. 
Houglitaling Dowitt, general store. 

Kelso Rev, (Methodist). 

Leonard John N, physician. 
Ogden William, machinist. 
Parrott George, mason. 
Parrott Gteorge H, blacksmith. 
Rich Hiram, machinist. 
Smith Sheldon, harness maker. 
Spoor John E, flour and saw mill. 
Warren Jacob, general store. 
Wemple Silas, carpenter. 
Wheeler Justin, hotel. 



BURNETT. 
A post office of Genesee county. 



BURNSIOE. 

A new post office of Tuscola county, Damed 
in honor of General Bumside, of the U. 8. 
army. 



BURR OAK. 

A township and post village of St. Joseph 
coiuity, on the Michigan Southern railroad, 
147 miles south-west of Detroit, (fare $4.40.) 
Population of the village, 700 ; of the entire 
township 2,000. The village has a flourishing 
trade, and is the market for the surrounding 
township. It has a Methodist and a Presby- 
terian church, a Masonic lodge, sevenl 
schools, and ten stores, also a sash and blind 
manufactory, a saw and grist mill, an iroo 
foundry and two hotels. Three mails are 
received each day. FosUnasttr — Bliss N. 
Stone. 

Eilst off Professions, TradeSf etc* 

Abbott Theron J, stave dealer. 
Arnold Allen C, grocer. 
Austin John, saw mill. 
Betts Hiram, justice of the peace. 
Bordner George, mason. 
Boyles George, livery stable. 
Butts William, general store. 
Caldwell James, cabinet maker. 
Cowles Oscar L, justice of the Peace. 
Crane Caleb J, flour mill. 
Crane Joseph F, jeweler. 
Cross & Co, (Cyrus J and Asahel Cross), car- 
riage makers. 
Cross Leonard, cooper. 
Dow Uriah, cooper. 
Ellers William Rev, (Presbyterian). 
Ellsworth Norman, carpenter. 
Gamby Casper, merchant tailor. 
Gofi* Dorsett J, hardware. 



BUS 



STATE GAZBITEEB. 



BYR 



211 



Hill Austin N, cooper. 
Horton Alfred F, carpenter. 
Keyes Cyrus J, general store. 
Loomis Ilarvey, physician. 
McConnell C, hotel. 
McMillan Abram, blacksmith. 
Morris William, justice of the peace. 

Nash & Getton, (Aaron J Nash and William 

Getton), carriage makers. 
Nedham Samuel, justice of the peace. 
Parsons Fayette, physician. 

Rayner Henry, general store. 
Robinson Henry, saloon. 
Rose John S, boots and shoes. 
Rowden Philip Rev, (Baptist). 

Schmidt & Thornton (Adolphus F Schmidt, 

Charles Thornton), general store. 
Silverthorn Ambrose, merchant tailor. 
Soule Nathan H, lawyer. 
Strickland George W, blacksmith. 
Stone Bliss N, general store. 

Thompson Julius A, hotel. 
Torrey A W Rev, (Methodist). 
Tower James P, blacksmith. 
Vandicook H C, sash and blind manuf r. 

Waterman J H Mrs, milliner. 
Watson John, foundry. 
White David C, harness maker. 
Wilcox Cyrus, boots and shoes. 



BURT. 

A post office of Cheboygan county. 



BUSHNEL.L. 

A township situated in the southern part 
of Montcalm county, 125 miles north-west of 
Detroit. It contains the small post village 
of ''BunhneU Cvnire." Surface high and roll- 
ing ; soil excellent for grain and grasses. A 
large portion of the township is still covered 
with original forest, mostly excellent hard 
timber. Population, 700 ; 300 occupied farms, 
having 15,000 acres of improved land. The 
township is well watered by several small 
streams, which furnish good water power. 

T0WN8UIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — William Castle. 
Cierk—llenvy Gillett. 
Treasurer — William Townsend. 



BUSHNELL CENTRE. 

A small post village of Montcalm county, 
125 miles north-west from Detroit, and 12 
miles north of Ionia station, on the Detroit 
and Milwaukee railroad. It has one Metho- 
dist and one Baptist church, and several 
mechanics. A weekly mail is received. (See 
''Buthnea:') 



I^lflt of Prof^Mloiu, Trades, etc* 

Bell Smith C, carpenter. 

Castle William, real estate agent. 

Cross Edwin, justice of the peace. 

Edwards Roswell R, physician. 

Gallup Joseph, insurance agent. 

Gillett Henry, justice of the peace. 

Hall David, carpenter. 

Herrington Clark, mason. 

Liuson AsaW, cooper. 

Pratt William, justice of the peace. 

Stearns Otis, blacksmith. 

Tyler Christopher Q, blacksmith. 

Tyler Jeremiah, blacksmith. 

Van Ruran Bouman, physician. 

Webster Inman, cooper. 



BUTLER. 

A township and post office of Branch 
County, 120 miles south-west of Detroit. It 
has one Church (free), one Masonic Lodge, 
one store, one hotel, and saw mill. Popu- 
lation of the township, 1,200. Surface rol- 
ling. Soil clayey loam, very productive. 
Large portion of town heavily timbered with 
oak, beech, maple, walnut, ash, whitewood, 
basswood, etc. FottmaaUr — Francis H. Rose. 

TOWNSHIP 0FFICBB8. 

Supervisor — CJhas. E. Bowers. 
C/rrA:— Richard U. Floyd. 
Treasurer — Jay Taylor. 

I4lst of Professions) Trades* ete. 

Andrews Abiel W K, physician. 
Calkins Moses V, cabinet maker. 
Coon James A, blacksmith. 
Cory Bryant H, carpenter. 

Delamater , mason. 

Hager John C, carriage maker. 
Haight Alonzo, saw mill. 
Hubbard Miles, cooper. 
Needham William Rev, (Baptist). 
Paul John, boot and shoe maker. 
Pierce Stephen V, carpenter. 
Powers Horace B, justice of the peace. 
Ross Francis H, general store. 
Vananthrope Charles Rev, (Methodist). 
Warren Miles, blacksmith. 
Waterman David, mason. 



BYRON. 

A thriving vlUage of Shiawassee county, 
in the township of Bums, on the Shiawassee 
river, 65 miles north-west of Detroit, and 6 
miles south of Gaines station, on the Detroit 
and Milwaukee railroad. Fare A'om Detroit, 
$1.90. The village contains one Presbyterian 
and one Methodist church, a lodge of Odd 
Fellows (Byron, No. 48), numbering 90 
members, a lodge of Good Templars, 40 
members, and a lodge of Masons (Byron, No. 
80), 20 members, seTeral good schools, one 



212 



CAL 



CHABIXB F. CLABK'S 



CAL 



flour and one mw mill, two Aimacat, one 
wagon shop, two boot and shoe shops, one 
gun shop, two hotels, and seven stores. Five 
mails are received per week. Population of 
township 1,100. Goods shipped from Detroit 
via. the Detroit A> Milwaukee Railroad, to 
Gaines station. Pottmagter — D. G. Royce. 

litot of ProfeMions, Trades^ etc* 

Allen Charles L, machinist. 

Barnum Theodore, hotel. 

Benton Jethron, mason. 

Branch E T Rev, (Presbyterian). 

Carpenter George, harness maker. 

Clark A H, carriage maker. 

Cook Horace L, grocer and boots and shoes. 

Gulick £ C Mrs, milliner. 
Qulick Nicholas, grocer. 
Holmes George C jr, foundry. 
Huggins Andrew Mrs, daguerreotypist. 
Joslin William 8, carpenter. 
Kelsey Sullivan R, hardware. 
Layton Chesley D, cabinet maker. 
Lee Harvey T, hotel. 

Lemon A Royoe, (Charles H Lemon and Da- 
vid G Royce), general store. 

Monroe Elizabeth Mrs, milliner. 

Polly Abraham, foundry. 

Polly Charles, blacksmith. 

Reaves Thompson H, Justice of the peace. 

Rowley A T, cooper. 

Rust William, cari)enter. 

Sleeth James, lawyer and physician. 

Southard Horace B, grocer. 

Twiggs W M Rev, (Methodiat). 

Webster Hiram, physician. 

Welch &> Co, general store. 

Whitney George B, blacksmith. 

Whitney William E, foundry. 



BYRON. 

A township of Kent county, containing the 
post village of *'Buek Creek,*' which see. 

TOWNSHIP OPPIOBRS. 

Supervisor — James M Peeton. 
Cierk — Zenus Smith. 
Treasurer— StLmnel A. McKenney. 



CAL-EDONIA. 

A township and post village in Kent coun- 
ty, situated on the stage route between Ada 
and Battle Creek, 160 miles westerly from 
Detroit (fare $6.20). It is intersected by 
the Thomapple river, which affords good 
water power. It contains three churches, 
to wit : one Protestant Methodist, one Meth- 
odist Episcopal, and one Baptist; several 
general stores, mechanic shops, etc. It num- 
bers 850 inhabitants. It has four mails per 
week. Fostmattsr — Oscar B. Barber. 



TOWKSHIP OPPIOBBI. 

Supervisor — Wm. H. Brown. 
Clerk— Vfsjrren S. Hale. 
Treasurer — David Hendershol. 

lAmt of ProreMloiis, Tr»de«« cle* 

Olden Elijah, cabinet maker. 

Barber Oscar B, justice of the peace. 

Briggs William S, justice of the peace. 

Brown William, flouring and saw mills. 

Clark Aaron K Rev, (Methodist). 

Culver Louis M, physician. 

Culver Robert G, justice of the peace. 

Dunham Edward, general store. 

Fairchilds John Rev, (Baptist). 

Farnham Benjamin, carpenter. 

Fox Daniel R, justice of the peace. 

Fox George, physician. 

Hale Warren S, general store. 

Labarge Beigamin, blacksmith. 

Martin Jeremiah, mason. 

Minzie James, machinist. 

Newson William, boot and shoe maker. 

Russell Aladdin, harness maker. 

Steward John, carpenter. 

Streeter Warren S, hotel. 

Thomas Abner D, real estate agent. 

Tobey & Nichols, blacksmiths. 

Wood William I, carpenter. 



CALIFORNIA. 

Is a township and post village in Branch 
county, ftituated ten miles directly south of 
the village of Quincy, on the Michigan South- 
ern railroad, and about 120 miles south-west 
from Detroit. The town contains about 850 
inhabitants. There are four religious denom- 
inations, to wit: Presbyterian, Methodist, 
Baptist and Universalist — but no cbnreh 
buildings. It contains a steam saw mill and 
several mechanic shops. It has one mail per 
week. Fostmatter — H. N. Lawrence. 

TOWNSHIP OPPICERS. 

Supervisor — Harley H. Ellis. 
Cfcrjfc— David Paul. 
Treasurer — Ira Purdy. 

litot of Professloiia, Tmdea, ete« 

Bates Archibald, carriage maker. 

Carsithers William, carriage maker. 

Cass Martin V B, blacksmith. 

Fisk A, mason. 

Greer William, blacksmith. 

Guy George L, physician. 

Hiscock John Rev, (Methodist). 

Judson Henry G, saw mill. 

Lathrop Walter H, cabinet maker. 

Lawrence Henry N, justice of the peace. 

Lawrence Joseph W, blacksmith. 

Lawrence Mrs, milliner. 

Lindsley Joshua N, cooper. 

Merwin Emily E, milliner. 

Nichols William N, carpenter. 



CAM 



STATE OAZETTSEB. 



CAN 



218 



Paul David, justice of the peace. 
Paul James, justice of the peace. 
Tallmadge William, carpenter. 
Thompson Samuel H, cooper. 

CALVIN. 

A township of Cass county. Population, 
1,400. 

CAMBRIA. 

A township in the county of Hillsdale, 100 
miles south-west from Detroit. Population, 
1,500. (See ''Cambria MOU:') 

CAMBRIA MIL.I.S. 

A post office in the township of Cambria 
and county of Hillsdale, 100 miles south-west 
Arom Detroit, on the Reading and Hillsdale 
stage route. Fare from Detroit |8.20. It 
has one Methodist church, a school, hotel, 
saw mill, flour mill, store, etc. Goods should 
be shipped orer the Michigan Southern rail- 
road, via Hillsdale. Population of township, 
1,600. Fastmaater — George F. Haughtby. 

litot of ProfeMlons, Trades, eCe* 

Chapman Hiram B, insurance agent. 
Cook Franklin Rev, (Methodist). 
Fleming William F, carpenter. 
Haughtby 6l Co, (George F and John Haught- 
by), boots and shoes. 
Kelly £dmund, carpenter. 
Kisselring Jacob, cooper. 
McCaine Ira, blacksmith. 
Mangold John, flour and saw mill. 
Neblack James, physician. 
Nichols Tibbets, justice of the peace. 
Phiney Ralph Rev. 
Taylor RotJert, physician. 
Throne Jesse, hotel. 
Wheeler Marion Rev, (Methodist). 
Willetts Richard, justice of the peace. 
Young John F, miller. 

CAMBRIOOE. 

A township of Lenawee county. Popular 
tion. 1,200. 

CAMDEN. 

A township and post village of Hillsdale 
county, bordering upon the States of Ohio 
and Indiana, 100 miles south-west of Detroit. 
It contains one grist mill, three saw mills, 
and a general store. Population of township, 
1,600. Daily mail received. The post office 
of " Edinburgh is also located in this town- 
ship. Postmaster — Frederick Chester. 

TOWNSHIP OFPICEBS. 

SupervUor — Thomas Fitzsimmons. 

C/er*— Eli Alvord. 

Treasurer — Zebulon W, Baker. 

^ 



I«l«t of Protesstons, TimA««9 ote. 

Alvord Nathan &l Eli, general store. 

Babcock William £, blacksmith. 

Braman Stephen W, blacksmith. 

Brown Parly, justice of the peace. 

Chester Eason T &> Son, planing and sawmill. 

Chester Frederick, justice of the peace. 

Clark David G, boot and shoe maker. 

Cough James, physician. 

Day Almond, justice of the peace. 

Goman Christopher, saw mill. 

Hagarman Benjamin A, justice of the peace. 

Hilton John, mason. 

House Seth W, mason. 

Pickerings George W, physician. 

Purdy Ephraim, blacksmith. 

Richmond Alonzo E, saw mill. 

Smith John H Rev, (Methodist). 

Wigen Andrew, mason. 



CAMPBELL.. 

A township and post office of Ionia county. 
Good farming town ; soil excellent and very 
productive. Population, 600. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. • 

Superviior — Alexander H. Bushnell. 
(^k — John Sinclair. 
Treantrer — Elisha D. Jennings. 

List of Proftosstonsi Trades, ete« 

Brunson George, justice of the peace. 
Derby Truman, boot and shoe maker. 
Freeman Darius, blacksmith. 
Gale Ira, blacksmith. 
Genning Elisha D, justice of the peace. 
Gibson Isaac, boot and shoe maker. 
Hays Edward Rev, (Church of God). 
Nash Marcus Rev, (United Brethren). 
Smith William, boot and shoe maker. 
Todd James, blacksmith. 
Whitney Joseph, cabinet maker. 
Wixen Nelson, physician. 



CANADA. 

A small village in the township of Lockport, 
St. Joseph county. (See " Three Riven'') 

CANANDAIQUA- 

An incorporated village of Lenawee county, 
in the township of Medina, containing a 
population of 150. It is situated four miles 
south of the Michigan Southern and Northern 
Indiana railroad, 80 miles south-west of De- 
troit. The village contains two churches 
(Methodist and Congregational), a hotel, saw 
mill, etc. Daily mail received. Postmaster — 
L. R. Bennett. 

lilst of ProDMsloiis, Trmdesy etc. 

Baldwin &. Crouch, carriage makers. 
Bennett L R, general store. 
Brockway M Rey, (Methodist). 



214 CAN CHA.RLBS P. clake's CAB 



CAS 



STATE GAZETTEER. 



CAS 



215 



CARLTON- 

A township and post office in the connty of 
Barry, situated 150 miles westerly from De- 
troit. Fare on traveled route lirom Detroit, 
$5.00. It contains about 750 inhabitants. 
It has four churches, to wit: Baptist, Wes- 
leyan, Episcopal, and United Brethren. It 
has a mail once a week. Postmatter — Tru- 
miD P. Bamum. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

St^rvMor — ^Anson Wood. 
Ckrk — Truman P. Barnum. 

Uflt of Proftoalona, Trades, etc. 

Adolphus Joseph, physician. 

Arnold Seth, physician. 

Bamum Clifton G, saw mill. 

Bamum Philander K, justice of the peace. 

Bamum Truman P, cooper and carpenter. 

Bowen Johnson, carpenter. 

Cazpenter Elisha R, justice of the peace. 

Case Mrs, milliner. 

Cole Lewis, boots and shoes. 

Fowler Alfred, carpenter. 

Fowler George W, justice of the peace. 

Friend James, Justice of the peace. 

Fuller Moses P, carpenter. 

Lucas Thomas, cooper. 

Mosier , mason. 

Parker Allen, saw mill. 
Pillsburg Theodore Rev, (Baptist). 
Runyan John G, boots and shoes. 
8app Daniel F, cooper. 
Smith Albert M, blacksmith. 
Swartout Isaac, carpenter. 
Tapley Obid Rev, (Methodist). 

CAR ROL-TON. 

A small village of Saginaw County, on the 
west side of the Saginaw River, one mile be- 
low the city of East Saginaw. It has six ex- 
tensive salt manufactories, viz: Carrolton 
Mill Salt Co., Carrolton Salt Co., E. T. Throop, 
Potter &. Prentice, Saginaw Valley S^lt Co., 
and the Orange County Salt Manufacturing 
Co., besides several in process of erection 
and others located. It has, also, a large 
steam saw mill, owned by E. C. Litchfield, 
and capable of cutting 8,500,000 feet of lum- 
ber per season. An important town will un- 
doubtedly spring up here in a few years. All 
the present improrements have been made 
since 1859. Population about 300. A small 
steamer plies to and from East Saginaw sev- 
eral tames per day, fare 6 cents. (See map 
of " Sagukuo ValUy.'') 

CASCADE. 

A township and post village in Kent coun- 
ty, on the Thomapple river and Ada and 
Hastings stage route, 150 miles north-west of 
Detroit,and lO milei south-east of Grand Rap- 
ids. Fare from Detroit 94.45. This town 



has one of the finest wator powers in the 
State, as yet unimproved, and is surrounded 
by an excellent farming district. The village 
contiins two churches, Methodist Episcopal 
and Baptist, one hotel, a good school, and 
several stores and mechanical shops. De- 
troit merchants ship goods to Detroit by the 
Detroit and Milwaukee railroad. Four mails 
per week. Pasfmastei' — D. M. Gardner. 

TOWXSniP OFPIGERS. 

Supervisor — Horace Henshaw. 
Clerk — Henry 0. Dennison. 
Treasurer — Edgar R. Johnson. 

liUt of ProfesMlons, Tnidesi etc. 

Blair David A, justice of the peace. 
Cranniger Jacob, justice of the peace. 
Duncan Eben^zer, carpenter. 
EDgle D D Rev, (Methodist). 
Gane Edmond D, mason. 
Gardner Daniel M, general store. 
Henshaw Horace, justice of the peace. 
Holt Henry, justice of the peace. 
Johnson Jonathan, tailor. 
Kilhner Jacob S, carriage maker. 
Lacklin Francis, blacksmith. 
Ogden William L, carpenter. 
Prince Eric Rev, (Presbyterian). 
Waters H T, hotel. 
Woodworth James H, physician. 



CASCO- 

A township and post office of St. Clair 
county. Population, 1,100. 

CASS- 

A post office of Hillsdale county, in the 
township of Wright, 90 miles south-west from 
Detroit. The place contains a Baptist church, 
and two saw mills. 

liUt of Professions, Trades, etc* 

Davis T W Rev, (Methodist). 
Downer S B Rev, (Methodist). 
Emerson G L, justice of the peace. 
Harris David, justice of the peace. 
Hubbard L, gunsmith. 
Johnson E, justice of the peace. 
Preston Caleb Rev, (Methodist). 
Woods L D, justice of the peace. 



CASSOPOL.IS. 

A flourishing village of Cass County, in 
the township of Lagrange, on the stage route 
from Dowagiac to Elkhart, 188 miles south- 
westerly from Detroit ; fare ^0.75. The vil- 
lage is the county seat,- and contains, besides 
the public buildings, two churches, (Presby- 
terian and Methodist), two hotels, and a 
steam flour mill. The " National Democrat," 
a weekly newspaper, is published here by 
Lewis D. Smith, editor and proprietor. A 



216 



CAS 



CHAJtLES F, CLA.BK'B 



OED 



diuly mail is received. Population, 600. — 
FottfnoBier — H. B. Dunning. 

lilst of ProffMsloius TnUlet, ete* 

Anderson Samuel, carpenter. 

Ashcrofb Sanford, carpenter. 

Baldwin Marshall J, hotel. 

Baldwin Murray, grocer. 

Banks & Peck, (Charles G Banks and William 

W Peck), general store. * 

Blackman Daniel, lawyer. 
Brown Isaac, blacksmith. 
Chapman Sylvanus 8, boot and shoe maker. 
Chapman &. Shaffer, boot and shoe makers. 
Clisbe Charles W, lawyer. 
Custard Oren 8, hotel. 
Custard & Garwood, (Morris B Custard and 

Alonzo Garwood), general store. 
Dunning Horace B, druggist. 
Ely G A, blacksmith. 
Garwood Alonzo, physician. 
Glen James B, dentist. 
Glover L H, justice of the peace. 
Graham Joseph, blacksmith. 
Graham Marvin &. Co, foundry. 
Hayden George, blacksmith. 
Hoag Rev, (Methodist). 
Hunt Miss, milliner. 
Jones Daniel S, cabinet maker. 
KINGSBURY ASA, Banker. 
Lamb Alphonso R, gunsmith. 
Looy Ezra B, carpenter. 
McMannus John, cooper. 
Mead B, justice of the peace. 
Miles George H Rev, (Presbyterian). 
Myers John, jeweler. 
Osborn Jared P, harness maker. 
Powers John H, carriage maker. 
Price Jacob Rev, (Methodist). 
Price Miss, milliner. 
Reed S T dt L F, (Sylvader T and Lafayette 

F), general store. 
Shanahan Clifford, lawyer. 
Sherman Irving, jeweler. 
Smith Andrew J, lawyer. 
Smith Arthur, harness maker. 
Teitsort Henry, mason. 
Teitsort Ira, daguerrootypist. 
Tompkins Leander D, physician. 
Tompkins St. Boyd, (Leander Tompkins and 

James Boyd), druggists. 
Turner George B, real estate agent. 
Warner Ezra B, dentist. 
Wilson , physician. 

CASTL.ETON. 
A township in Barry county, containing 
the small post village of Barryville. Popu- 
lation 800. There is no post office of this 
name. 

T0W5SHIP OFFICBRB. 

Supervifor — Isaac B. Riggs. 
Cierk-n. L. Wheder. 
TV^oiwr^^-William Mullen. 



CATO- 

A post office of Montcalm countj. 

CAT VILUE. 

A post office of Wayne county. 

C AZENO VI A. 

A township and post office of MoBkegOB 
county. Population 700. 



A post village in the township of Hope, 
and county of Barry, situated on the oiail 
route from Augusta to Hastinga. 140 mikt 
westerly from Detroit. It contains thret 
churches, to wit : Methodist Episcopal, Old 
School Baptist, and United BreUiren. It hat 
two mails a week. FottmasUr—A. Gardiner. 

lilst off Profeasionat Traces* ete* 
Abrams George, boot and shoo maker. 
Bolyen Fanny, milliner. 
Bowker S Rev. 

Chandler E P, justice of the peace. 
Chapin John L, cooper. 
Clark Philander, general store. 
Cooper James, justice of the peace. 
Doud Solon, lawyer. 
Gester Lewis C Rev. 
Gardnier Abram, general store. 
Hickox Hiram, cooper. 
Jackson J J, physician. 
Jenkins Henry, carriage maker. 
Johnson Hervey S Rev. 
Kellogg Stephen, carpenter. 
Kingsbury F, saw mill. 
Larabee C P, blacksmith. 
Lindenman Thomas, flouring mill. 
McCallun Daniel, saw mill. 
Mosher Thomas, carpenter. 
Mott Alva, cooper. 
Ray L, lawyer. 
Robinson John R, hotel. 
Robinson Thomas V, physician. 
Tillotson S, saw mill. 

Valentine George W, boot and shoe maker. 
West Milo, blacksmith. 

CEDAR FORK. 
A post office of Delta county. 

CEDAR LAKE- 
Is a post office in the township of Fredonia, 
in Calhoun county, about 110 miles west 
from Detroit, and about six miles south- 
westerly from Marshall. Fodmaster — N. F. 
Blossom. 



CEDAR SPRINQS. 
A small post village of Kent county, 180 
miles north-west of Detroit. The settlem^t 



CBN 



STATE GAZETTEER. 



CEN 



217 



VIS commenced about five years since, and 
DOW contains a population of 850. It is snr- 
roanded by a bea^ly timbered country, con- 
taining some of the best fiirming land in the 
state. The Tillage contains two general 
stores, two carriage makers, two hotels, a 
large saw mill, and several mechanics. Two 
maflsare recmved per week. FoMtmaater — 
Charles T. HilL 

lAwt or Profe— tena> TnUle«« cte* 

Bddy Barton, carriage maker. 

Eddy M A ^iin^ milliner. 

Farchild Bei^amin, hotel. 

fmn Thomas B, carriage maker. 

Fofd Chester 8, physician. 

Hin Nicholas R, Justice of the peace. 

ffitt Qrpheos B, boot and shoe maker. 

Jacobs John H, carpenter, 

Kdlogg Francis N, blacksmith. 

Kni^t Hamner L, lumber dealer. 

Pangbom George, blacksmith. 

Pryce Edward, general store. 

Scudder Samuel, saw mill. 

Shaw Nicholas, hotel. 

Stfles L Wright, general store. 



CENTRE. 

A post Tillage of Roxand township, Eaton 
county, 100 miles north-west f^om Detroit. It 
contains two churches, a general store, hotel, 
sawmill, etc. Population, 200. Foitmcuter — 
Anthony Quackenboss. 



MAmt •€ Pr«ffessl«iiS9 Tradesy etc< 

Allen Gardner S, hoteL 

Austin Truman, carpenter. 

Bark Aaron, Justice of the peace. 

Boyer Josiah, cooper. 

Baris Jacob 8, carpenter. 

Gates Sidney B, saw miU. 

Gleason John, grocer. 

Moyer 8 W, physician. 

Osman James, boot and shoe maker. 

Parker Joshua, mason. 

Quackenboss Anthony, carriage maker. 

Reed William, blacksmith. 

Rice Napoleon B, Justice of the pe€u;e. 

Spoor William, mason. 



CENTREVILLE. 

A post Tillage of St. Joseph county, in the 
township of Nottawa, connected by stage 
with White Pigeon and Kalamazoo. Centre- 
Tille is the seat of Justice of St. Joseph 
county, tastefully laid out, with wide streets 
and many fine residences. The soil is a rich 
sandy loam, and is highly cultivated. The 
Prairie river flows through the village and 
furnishes an abundant water power. Dis- 
tance f^om Detroit 189 miles, fore $4,50; 
from ChicaffO, 160 mHea, &re 14.76. It has 
one Methoduat, one Baptift^ one Scotch Pres- 



byterian, and one Dutch Reformed church : 
one Masonic lodge, an iron foundry, sash and 
blind factory, saw mill, grist mill, two hotels 
and six stores. Population 600. Goods are 
shipped from Detroit by Michigan Southern 
railroad, via White Pigeon and Three Rivers. 
A daily mail is receiv^. Foatmaater — Henry 
C. Campbell. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICBBB. 

Sttperviwr — John Rutherford. 
Toum Clerk — Isaac R. Belote. 
Treasurer — Henry C. Campbell. 

lilst of Pi*of^»sloiis« TmdeSf etc. 

ALLISON WILLIAM, lawyer. 

Ashley Daniel D, tailor. 

Bacon Eugene £, jeweler* 

Bateman , physician. 

Beerestecher Charles, cabinet maker. 

Belote & Bro, (Isaac and Asa),cabinet makers, 

Bennett C D, general store. 

Bennett & Trowbridge, (John Bennett and 
Charles P Trowbridge;, physicians. 

Boyer John W, blacksmith. 

Brokaw William C, flour mill. 

Buell Cyrus, carpenter. 

Buell Monroe, lumber dealer. 

Cady Harvey, livery stable. 

Chapin Joy £, cooper. 

Chipman Samuel, Justice of the peace. 

Clark Charles, shoe maker. 

Dressier & Bro, (Benjamin F and James J), 
harness makers. 

Duncan George, mason. 

Eaton Paul J, lawyer. 

Eaton Raymond S, daguerreotypist. 

Gtephard Jonathan, shoe maker. 

Goss Samuel F, hotel. 

Grubber Jacob, carpenter. 

Hasbrouk Joseph, foundry. 

Johnson James E, lawyer. 

Keech George, druggist 

Kershaw WUliam Rev, (Dutch Reform). 

Knox Mary, milliner. 

Laflky William, lumber dealer. 

Lafiay William, hardware. 

McAllister James H Rev, (Methodist). 

McMellin Ithuriel, carriage maker. 

Mason Germain F, lawyer. 

Merriman James Rev, (Baptist). 

Norton A T, hotel. 

Overfleld John £, mason. 

Payne Anna, milliner. 

Piatt Isaac, gunsmith. 

Piatt Samuel W, Justice of the peace. 

Russell James H, dentist. 

Sadler &, Waters, (William Sadler and Oscar 
Waters), lawyers and real estate agents. 

Shaffbr Fisk, cabinet maker. 

Shifi* Simeon, clothing. 

Smith Perin M, lawyer. 

Spitzer Jeremiah W, boots, shoes and gro- 
ceries. 

Starr Henry H, hardware. 



218 



CHA 



CHABLES F. CLABK'S 



CHA 



Stears Edmund, insuraDce agent. 
Talbot Henry J, general store. 
Talbot John W, general store. 
Thorns Charles, blacksmith. 
White Ebenezer, blacksmith. 



CER ESCO. 

A post village situated on the boundry line 
of Marshall and Emmett townships, in Cal- 
houn county, and directly on the Michigan 
Central railroad, and the Kalamazoo river, 
11B}4 miles west from Detroit. It con- 
tains one Baptist church, several stores, me- 
chanic shops, mills, etc. There are two 
mails per day. Population 150. Fostmeu- 
ter — Joseph Baker. 

lilst of ProfeMlons, Trades, etc. 

Baker Joseph, general store. 

Brady Robert, saloon. 

Bamp Jeremiah, physician. 

Hestler John, boot and shoe maker. 

Heston Victor, hotel. 

Hoacr Alva L Rev, (Methodist). 

Hofifman. David, carpenter. 

Hyde Solomon L, carriage maker. 

Kelly Gardner A, carpenter. 

Lewis W, physician. 

McConnell William, general store. 

Mason Frederick, harness maker. 

Mickle Joseph, cabinet maker. 

Morse Elijah & Oo, (Wm. F Morse), flouring 

mill. 
Neal William, saloon. 
Ogden John, blacksmith, turner and hub 

manufacturer. 
Preston Aaron, saw mill and justice of the 

peace. 
Ruddoch Andrew, cooper. 
Smith William, boot and shoe maker. 
Van Valkenburg Leman, blacksmith and 

justice of the peace. 
Warren Edward, blacksmith. 



CHAR LESTON. 

A township of Kalamazoo County, Popu- 
lation, 1,400. 



CHARLESTON. 

A small village of Cass County, in the 
township of Volina. 

CHARLEVOIX. 
A post oflace of Emmet County. 

CHARLOTTE. 

A post village and capital of Eaton county, 
situated on Uie stage route from Eaton 
Rapids to Jackson, on the north side of 
Battle Creek, and Branch of the Kalamazoo, 
on the town Line between Eaton and Carmel 



townships, and about 120 miles north- 
westerly from Detroit. Fare, by traveled 
route from Detroit, $1.25. It contains two 
church buildings, Methodist and Congrega- 
tional ; there is also a Baptist and a Univer- 
salist denomination organized ; one newspa- 
per, three societies, viz : Odd Fellows, Free 
Masons, Good Templers; several general 
stores, groceries, manufacturing establish- 
ments, and mechanics' shops. It is the county 
seat of Eaton County, and contains a popuk^ 
tion of about 800. It has a daily and other 
mails. Fostfnaster — Harvey Williams. 

\A%X of Proftosalonst Trade*, eto« 

Allen Joseph T, carpenter. 

Baton Warner U, mason. 

Bamberg &> Levy, (Isaac Bamberg and Ger- 

son Levy), clothing. 
Baughman James, blacksmith. 
BIo^ Samuel, book binder. 
Boyd Stephen, mason. 
Brackett Reuben E, livery stable. 
Brungpr John S , boot and shoe dealer and 

maker. 
Burchard & Collins, (John Burchard 6& Philo 

Collins), saw mill. 
Campbell Archibald, foundry. 
Church Earl T, grocer. 
Clark Samuel, justice of the peace. 
Collins George V, druggist. 
Collins Sylvester, machinist. 
Conley Levi, Mason. 
Coultee Samuel, mason. 
Cummings Cyrus, general store. 
Curtis Thomas L, carpenter. 
Dale Gilbert, livery stable. 
Foote Lyman, lawyer. 
Foster Nancy A, milliner. 
Granger & Bro, (Sylvester B and George), 

boot and shoe dealers. 
Haslette James, harness maker. 
Hall Joseph P, physician. 
Hall Oscar S, physician. 
Higby & Bro, (Frank W and Pitt M), 

general store. 
Holden Lewis S, lawyer. 
Hooey Hosea, gunsmith. 
Ingham Oscar S, principal union school. 
Ion Launcelot H, insurance agent. 
Jones Joseph Rev, (Methodist). 
Jones Samuel P, justice of the peace. 
Johnson James, tailor. 
Johnson Nathan A, carpenter. 
Kellogg Bradford, mason. 
Kinne Marintha, milliner. 
Lacey Edward S, insurance agent. 
Leiter Frederick E, merchant tailor. 
McDonald Patrick, blacksmith. 
Marcy Royal P, grocer. 
Martin Peter R, physician. 
Merritt Charlas A, physician. 
Mikesell Jeremiah, grocer. 
Miller Mathew, cooper. 



CHE 



STATE QAZETTEEB. 



OHE 



219 



Morris John, druggist, 

MonsoD & Thomas, (Amos Mnnson and 

Theodore Thomas), hardware. 
Musgrave, Haslett & Co, (Joseph Mnsf^ave, 

Josei)li Haslett aod William Haslett), 

general jjtore. 
Masgrave & Lacey, (Joseph Musgrave and 

Edward S Lacey), bankers. 
Newton Isaac, carpenter. 
Nichols John W, lawyer. 
Opt & Bretz, (John Opt and Abram E Bretz), 

grocers. 
Piper Charles J, grocer. 
Piper William, boot and shoe maker. 
Baud Gardner T, physician. 
Roberts Algernon S, hotel. 
Robinson Ilenry, justice of the peace. 
Rogers Edward B, jeweler. 
Rogers Edward B Mrs, milliner. 
Roller & Foster, (Thomas Roller and William 

Foster), cabinet makers. 
Sampson Alden B, physician. 
Saunders Joseph, editor and proprietor 

Saunders William, editor and prop'r "Argui^ 

Shaber Charles A, jeweler. 

Sessions John Q A, lawyer. 

Shepherd E & J (Elisha and James), general 

store. 
Shepherd Leroy, hardware, 
Sherwood G W & S C, (George Wand Samuel 

C), clothing. 
Solomon Joshua, mason. 
Starkweather Alfred, saw mill. 
Steiner Joel, blacksmith. 
Stoner & Bottomley, (John Stoner and John 

Bottoniley), cabinet makers. 
Thoenen Samuel T, harness maker. 
Town Samuel P Rev, (Baptist). 
Trusler George, blacksmith. 
Webber Sumner P, flouring mill. 
Williams Alonzo R, carriage maker, 
Williams Harvey, real estate agent. 
Williams Wolcott B Rev, (Congregational), 
Winslow Augustus B, dentist. 



CHELSEA. 

A thriving post village and station on the 
Michigan Central railroad, in the township 
of Sylvan and county of Washtenaw, 64 miles 
west of Detroit, (fare $1.66) and 282 east 
from Chicago, (fare $6,80). Receives a daily 
mail. It has two churches, one Methodist 
and one Congregational ; the Methodists have 
a fine brick edifice, recently erected at a cost 
of $8,000. There is also a lodge of Odd Fel- 
lows (Vernor, No, 86), two hotels, a flour 
mill, brick yard, foundry and machine shop, 
ten stores, and numerous professions and 
mechanical trades. Population of township, 
1,700, of vUlage, 700. The soU of the town is 
generally a sandy loam, in some parts mixed 



with clay, well adapted to the growth of all 
varieties of grain. There is shipped annual- 
ly from the township about 80,000 bushels 
of wheat and 100,000 lbs. of wool. An ex- 
tensive trade is also carried on in live stock 
of all kinds, and in ft-uit, both with the Chi- 
cago and Detroit markets. The school facil- 
ities are excellent. Last year the Chelsea 
district erected a new brick school- house 
40 X 60 feet, two stories high, capable of ac- 
commodating 260 scholars. Fottmaster — 
Daniel F. Tompkins. (See ''Sylvan,") 

IaImX of Professtonsy Trades, etc. 

Anderson Charles M Rev, (Methodist). 

Babcock William C, blacksmith. 

Barns George, physician. 

Belton, Hatoh &. Co, (Emory Belton, Emma. 
J Hatch and William W Whedon), general 
store. 

Blackney Asa, merchant tailor. 

Boyd Miel M, carriage maker. 

Brooks Thomas J, mason. 

Clark James, justice of the peace. 

Congdon Arthur S, livery stable. 

Congdon Charles, machinist. 

Congdon £ &. £ H, (£lisha and Bdward H), 
general store. 

Davidson George F, livery stable, 

Duraud & Babcock, (Aaron Durand and Lo- 
rin Babcock), general store, 

Fleming Michael, grocer. 

Gates Roswell B, physician. 

Gilbert Norman N, harness maker, 

Godfrey Thomas H, saloon. 

Hanmiond £lijah, carpenter. 

Harlow John L, carriage maker. 

Hatch William F, mason. 

Hesselschwerd Jacob G, cabinet maker. 

Hooker Phoebe A Mrs, milliner. 

Hoover John T, cooper. 

Hurd John S, general store. 

Ingraham Corydon L, saloon. 

Eanouse £dvyard, blacksmith. 

Eempf C &< R, (Charles H and Reuben), hard- 
ware. 

Laird Charles S, boot and shoe maker. 

Leach James A, daguerreotypist. 

Leach Thomas L, boot and shoe maker. 

Lowe C & E Y, (Charles and Egbert Y), 
saloon. 

McEone Martin, grocer. 

McNamara £dward, boot and shoe maker. 

Millspaugh Milton B, harness maker. 

Paddock Griffin, lawyer. 

Palmer John A, blacksmith. 

Pratt Noah A, justice of the peaee. 

Rowe Thomas L, blacksmith. 

Sawyer Andrew J, lawyer. 

Schneeberger John, hotel. 

Smith Horace A, justice of the peace. 

Smith John W, carpenter. 

Stafien Frank, carpenter. 

Taylor George, hotel. 



220 



CHE 



CHAELB8 F. GLABK'S 



GLA 



Taylor James A Key, (Congregational). 

Tompkins Daniel F, druggist. 

Thompson James, foundry. 

Turnbull Ctoorge W, justice of the peace. 

Van Tyne Abram N, physician. 

Walling Herman, boot and shoe maker. 

"Whedon &. Hatch, (William W Whedon and 

William F Hatch), flouring mill. 
Winans John C, general store. 
Winans Lewis, druggist. 
Wfnes Mahlon, Mason. 
Winters Edward, grocer. 
Wood James P, carriage maker. 



CHESANINQ. 

A township and post village in Saginaw 
county, situated on the Owosso and Corunna 
stage route, and on the Shiawasse river, one 
hundred miles from Detroit, 84 by rail- 
road and 14 by stage ; fore |2,90. It con- 
tains a population of 600. One Methodist 
and one Baptist church; two dry goods 
stores, several mills, mechanic shops, etc. 
It has 6 mails per week. PoatnuuUr — Reu- 
ben W. Andrews. 

I«Uit of Proltosaloiu^ Trmdesy ete* 

Andrews Reuben W, hardware. 
Bently Henry J, general store. 
Dayton Orson J, cooper. 

Eldred , physician. 

Fisher Jesse L, hotel. 
Goodale James C, blacksmith. 
Oris wold John B, general store. 
Haynes Edward, boot and shoe maker. 
Leonard Samuel, stave dealer. 
Lobdel Warner J, cooper. 

Merrill , saw mill. 

Nason Robert, saw mill. 
Parshall Jesse, flouring mill. 
Sheldon Anson, lumber dealer. 

Smith , physician. 

Smith Lewis, blacksmith. 
Wallace George A, grocer. 



CHESHIRE. 

Is a township (post office called **Lake") in 
Allegan county, situated on the mail route 
from Allegan to Paw Paw, 180 miles west- 
erley from Detroit, and 190 miles from Chi- 
cago; fare on the traveled route from De- 
troit $5,26; do from Chicago, $6,00. It 
contains about 700 inhabitants, and has one 
Baptist and one Methodist church; three 
saw mills, and a number of mechanic shops. 
It has two mails a week. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — Cyrus W. Lindsley. 
Clerk — George Drury. 
Treatftrer — Qeorge Q. Sweet. 



lilst of ProftMtoBfly TnUtost «l«b 

Babbitt William A, blacksmith. 

Bodine Abraham V, carpenter. 

Chapin Enos, carpenter. 

Doud Warren, boot and shoe maker. 

Ferris Richard, saw mill. 

Gray Dan, carpenter. 

Haight Jacob A, mason. 

Leach Cotton M, boot and shoe maker. 

Lindsley Cyrus W, shingle miU. 

Lindsley James G, saw mill. 

Moon A Pike, (Nelson Moon and A Piks), 

saw mill. 
Prentice Alonzo, blacksmith. 
Prentiss William H Rev, (Baptist). 
Read John, carpenter. 
Rockwell William H, saw miU. 
Strong James,- cooper. 
Strong John, carpenter. 
Strong Samuel, cooper. 

CHE8TER- 

A township and post village in Eaton 
county, situated on the big fork of Thorn- 
apple river, 18 miles west south-west fh)in 
Lansing, and about 118 miles westerly firom 
Detroit. 



CHESTERFIEUO. 

A township of Macomb county, situated 
on Lake St. Clair and the Grand Trunk rail- 
road, 34 miles north-east of Detroit, tut 
95 cents. Situated in this township is the 
thriving village of New Baltimore, in which 
is concentrate all the mechanical and mer- 
cantile business of the township. Popula- 
tion, including village, 2,800. (See ''Xew Bd- 
timore,^^^ 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Svpervieor — John Milton. 
Clerk — John J. Crocker. 
Treasurer — Daniel M. Mills. 



CHIN A- 

A township and post office in St. Clair 
county, situated about a mile from the St. 
Clair river, 46 miles north-easterly from 
Detroit, and 12 miles east from the Detroit 
division of the Grand Trunk railroad, it 
contains 1,600 inhabitants. It has a mail 
once a week. PoetnuuUr — Henry A. Moye. 



CL.ARENCE- 

A township and post office of Calhoun 
county, 100 miles west of Detroit. The vil- 
lage contains a store, hotel and saw mill. 
Population of entire township, 900. 

TOWNSHIP OFFIOBBS. 

Supervisor-^ohu B. Snyder. 
Clerk—R. H. King. 
Treaeurer^E. L. White. 



222 



CLA 



CHARLES F, CLABK'S 



CLI 



Jackson Charles, saloon. 

Millard Jesse, cooper. 

Perry & Johns, (Robert Perry and John 

Johns), blacksmiths. 
Peter R & J T, (Richard and John T), drags, 

groceries, and books and stationery. 

Robinson Horace, physician. 

Ross John Rev, (Baptist), physician, (homoe). 

8cranton W C, general store. 

Stewart Taylor H, carpenter. 

Vamum Rev, (Methodist). 

Vliet Van Rensselaer, carpenter. 

Wait , merchant tailor, and justice of the 

peace. 
Walter Frank, cabinet maker. 
Young , jeweler. 



CLAY. 

Is a township in the county of St. Clair, 
situated in the south-east corner, bordering 
upon the river St, Clair, and four miles from 
Detroit. ^^Algonae" a village in this town- 
ship, is the name of the post office. The soil 
consists of a sandy loam, and is good for 
farming purposes. Population of the town, 
including the village of Algonac, 1,200. (See 
" Algonaer^ 

TOWWSHIP OPFICEHS. 

Supervuor — Samuel Russell. 
Ckrk — Aura P. Stewart. 
Tr^a*«r<T— William Woolluflf. 



CLAY BANKS- 
A post office of Oceana county. 



CLAYTON. 

A thinly settled township of Genesee coun- 
ty, 70 miles north-west of Detroit, and 15 
north of Gaines station, on the Detroit and 
Milwaukee railroad. The post office of 
*^ Schwartz Creek'' is in this township. The 
soil is good, and heavily timbered. Popula- 
tion, 900. 

T0W58HIP OFFICERS. 

Supervifor — James E. Bro\\Ti. 
Clerk— Mmry Felt. 
Treasurer — William Wheeler. 



CLAYTON. 

A post office of Lenawee county, township 
of Dover, on the Michigan Southern and 
Northern Indiana railroad, 85 miles from 
Detroit. Fare, $2,55. The place has one 
Methodist, one Presbyterian, and one Baptist 
church, two saw mills, one hotel, and two 
stores. It receives three mails per day. 
Fosimaster — I. Benedict. 



IJat of ProfbMtoii% Timdes, ete* 

Badgly Benjamin, cooper. 

Barhydt Thomas, mason. 

Bates Martin 0, blacksmith. 

Benedict I, grocer. 

Bird Reuben, general store. 

Brown Vincent L, hotel, 

Cleveland Joseph, carriage maker. 

Cleveland & Co, blacksmiths. 

Curtis Delia, milliner. 

Curtis Ethan W, harness maker. 

Forbes Timothy, mason. 

Gilson P W. physician. 

Harrin Daniel D, carpenter. 

Nichols George L, dagnerreotypist. 

Nichols George W Rev, (Presbyterian). 

Perkins NoTvinan, saw mill. 

Retan William, boots and shoes. 

Rowley Warren, blacksmith. 

Savage John R Rev, (Baptist). 

Thompson Ebenezer J, saw mill. 

Thompson Sidney, justice of the peace. 

Towusond Henry F, justice of the peace. 

Williams Lloyd, cooper. 

CLEAR LAKE. 
A post office of ^Montcalm county. 

CLIFF MINE. 

{See '' HouffhUm.") 

CLIFTON. 
A post office of Houghton county. 



CLIMAX. 

A township in Kalamazoo county, con- 
taining two post offices, to wit, ''Climax 
Prairie'^ and " West Climax" situated six miles 
south of Michigan Central railroad, and 132 
miles west of Detroit. Fare by the traveled 
route from Detroit, $3.75. It has one church 
building, used a part of the time, alternately, 
by the Methodist, Baptist, and Congre- 
gational societies. It contains three saw 
mills and several mechanic shops. The town- 
ship contains 1,300 inhabitants. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

SupervtMr — Lafayette W. Level 1. 
Clerk — William Richards, 
Treaswer — John Brimmer. 



CLIMAX PRAIRIE. 

A post village, in the township of Climax, 
Kalamazoo county. Fosimaster — Moses 8. 
Bowen. (See " Climax:') 

Ijlst of ProCssslonS} Trades^ etc. 

Bonney Abner, mason. 
Bowen Moses S, general store and justice of 
the peace. 



CLI 



6TA.TB OAZEITEEB. 



COH 



223 



Brown Charles, carpenter. 

Coon John V, mason. 

Dewey George, carpenter. 

Foster James, physician and justice of the 
peace. 

Gore Almon Rev. 

Gutches Clement B, carpenter. 

Hodgman Moses, boots and shoes. 

Uolden John, justice of the peace. 

Keys Orlando, cooper. 

Lamb Philetus S, gun and blacksmith. 

Lovell Lafayette W, physician. 

Milliman James, blacksmith. 

Parish Walter, justice of the peace. 

Pierce Isaac, lumber. 

Eeasner John, blacksmith. 

Sager Abraham, lumber. 

Sager Joseph, lumber. 

Schramlin &. Gould, (John Schramlin, Phile- 
tus Gould), blacksmiths. 

Seeley Oscar F, physician. 

Seymour Gilbert, carpenter. 

Sinclair George W, carriage maker. 

Swarts Alpheus, hotel. 



CLINTON. 

A township of Macomb county, containing 
the flourishing village of "ift. Ckment" 
which see. Population of township, exclu- 
sive of village, 1,600. 



CLINTON. 

A post village in the north part of the 
town of Tecumseh, in Lenawee county, five 
miles north of the village of Tecumseh, on 
the Jackson branch of the Michigan Southern 
railroad, and about 52 miles from Detroit by 
the old Chicago turnpike. It is on the east 
Ride of the north branch of the Raisin river, 
and has about 700 inhabitants. It contains 
five religious denominations, to wit: Congre- 
gational, Baptist, Methodist, Episcopal, and 
Roman Catholic ; several stores, manufac- 
tories and mechanic shops. It has two mails 
each day. Posiituisier — Charles Chandler. 

liist of Profeftslons, Trades, etc* 

Barker D Rev, (Episcopal). 

Benjamin , mason. 

Brooks Charles, justice of the peace, 

Brownell R Mrs, milliner. 

Bruce Phineas, cooper 

Burton & Blanchard, carriage makers. 

Burton A G, blacksmith. 

Cady C, carriage maker. 

Case Seth, grocer. • 

Church C W, merchant tailor, 

Clark Alonzo, general store. 

Clark James S, general store. 

Cochran Edward, mason. 

Davis John M, jeweler. 

Dearborn Josiah, physician. 



Dullead A, boot and shoe maker. 

Ellis Alexander, grocer. 

Ellis B G, physician. 

Elmer Hiram Rev, (Congregational). 

Fisk Welcome V, real estate agent. 
Flemming &> McConnell, blacksmiths. 
Gilluly Francis, cooper. 
Kies Joseph S, hardware. 
Lewis Hart, carpenter. 

McClelland Henry, harness maker. 

Martin Frederick, cooper. 

Merritt J E, hotel. 

Miller Amos, carriage maker. 

Noyes S W Rev, (Methodist). 

Nunacles H Mrs, hotel, (Clinton Exchange). 

Powell Robert Rev, (Baptist). 

Reed Reuben, grocer. 

Rex Thomas, dentist 

Roflf Anson, boot and shoe maker. 

Roff & Rowland, tanners. 

Rose Samuel B, general store. 

St John Darius, grocer. 

St John William, news dealer. 

Saxton Hiram, cooper. 

Schafier Frederick, boot and shoemaker. 

Smith Edwin, distillery. 

Smith tfohn, general store. 

Snow Fielder S, justice of the peace. 

Snow &. Reyes, (Fielder S Snow, Danforth 

Keyes), flouring and saw mills. 
Spencer Simeon, mason. 
Strobeck Randall, blacksmith. 
Tuttlo A F, physician. 

Wells Charles H, livery stable. 

Woodard & Piper, plow manufacturers and 

iron founders. 
Worth & Ray Misses, milliners. 



CLYDE. 

A township of St. Clair county, GO miles 
north-east of Detroit. Population, 1.200. 
(See"i2i%") 



CLYDE MILLS- 

A post oflSce of St. Clair County, in the 
township of Clyde, 65 miles north-east from 
Detroit. 



COE. 



A township of Isabella County. Popula- 
tion 400. The Chippewa and Salt rivers 
flow through this township. Surface level 
and covered almost entirely with heavy 
forest. 



COHOCT A. 

A township and post ofllce of Livingston 
county. Population, 900. 



224 



COL 



CnXELES F. CLABK'S 



COL 



COLDW ATER. 

All important and flourishing fHrnt city of 
Brnnrli ooiinty, of wliii-h it is the seat of 
jiisti('«>. situated on the eaitt branch of Cold- 
wattT river, near a 1>eautiful sheet of water 
known as foldwater I^ake, and on the Mii'hi- 
fran Soutliern and Nortliern Indiana railroad. 
Distance from Detroit llK) miles, 8iiuth-west, 
hy common road, 132 niiU's by railroad, fare 
$3(H); 155 miles from Chicajjo, fare '$5.30; 
by Ktajie route, daily line, 24 miles from Mar- 
shall, fare 5()cts. ; 87 miles from Toledo, fare 
$270; IM) miles north of F«»rt Wayne, Ind., 
fare $5.(H). This is one of the most l>eauti- 
ful and ))leasant1y situatetl towns in the 
country, beinc locatt^l in the centre of a 
farmini: region that is unsurpassed for ferti- 
lity and productiveness, and inhabited by an 
entei]irisinu and refined class of people who 
evidently take jrreat pride in rendering their 
citv nrat and attractive. The citv contains 
five churches, representinff the Baptist. Meth- 
(Klist hiplscopal, Wesleyan Methodist. Roman 
Catlmlic, and Indejiendent Confrroffational 
(8f)irittml) denominations, together with two 
orerani/til reliuious societies ((jernian Luther- 
an antl Episcopal) at present without church 
edifices. Also, an elegant and costly union 
Bcho«)l, (an engraving of which is here given) 
said to liave cost upwatds of S25.CXM); the 
county buildings, four masonic societies, two 
agricultural societies, two wwkly newspa- 
l>ers. ilini" private banking houses, three ho- 
tels, and a large number of mercantile and 
mei'hanical establishments, including several 
large and elegant business blocks. The city 
is b(>auti fully laid out on rich prairie land, 
with Mrcets running at right angles, lightiHl 
with gas, and bordere<l with sliade trees. 
There are a large numWr of elegant private 
residcncrs in the place, and but very few 
buildings of an inffrior tinier. The trade of 
the city is (piite im]M)rtant, it being a central 
depi»t for wool and grain pro«lucers, ami also 
an ext'cllent market for horses (sume of the 
best in the country lH*ing raise<l in the vicini- 
ty), cattle, and live stock generally, as well 
as for iVuit and every description of pro<luce. 
An cxrellent water power is derived from a 
brunch of the Cold water river, which flows 
through the town. 

Through the politeness of Messrs. Tibbits, 
Way. Coe, Crippen, Iicwis, and Turner, we 
are enabled to give a few facts relating to 
the early history of the place, which, al- 
though tiiey contain no startling scenes of In- 
dian warfare or tales of revolutionary struggle, 
are n(»t <b'Void of int(»rest and value. A more 
extchtbMl notice of the first settlers <»f Cold- 
water anil vicinity, will Ik? found under the 
hea«lintr of ^'Branch County." 

The llrst white man who settletl within the 
terriiury of what is now the city of Cold- 1 



water, was a Mr. Campbell, who, in 1829, 
emigrated here fk-om New York State, (u 
did a majority of the settlera of Cold water), 
and erected a \o^ cabin on the present site 
(»f Henr}' Lewis's hoase, Chlcuo street. Tlie 
following spring Mr. Joseph Hanchett pur- 
chased and occupied Mr. Campbell^s house, 
and also erected another, which is still stand- 
ing, in the immediate neighborhood, into 
which he removed, and on the 80th of July, 
18;^, Ke?. Allen TibbiU, a Methodist clergy- 
man, from Lyons, N. Y., occnpled the Camp- 
1k*11 house. On the SOth of October of the 
same year, the eldest danghter of Mr. Tib- 
bits died, being the first white peraon efcr 
buried in the town. In 1882 Mr. John Mom 
erected the first frame house, which was used 
as a tavern, and still forms a portion of the 
Foster House, Cliicago street In the fsll of 
1830 Mr. 8. A. Holbrook opened th^ first 
store, and in the same year his daaghterwu 
bnrn. l»eing the first white child bom in the 
place. In 188*2 the village waa laid out by 
M«>ssrs. Ilanchettand Tibbits, who were then 
the sole proprietors, under the name of 
' Lyon*,'' which was the following year chang- 
e^l to 'CoMteaierj'^ l)eing the interpretation of 
the Indian word "Chnek'ten y Wrt," which 
was applied by them to the riTer npon which 
the ])Iace is built, on account of the numer- 
ous cold springs that it contains at their 
former crossing place, which waa just outside 
the city limits, at the 8iK)t where Abraham 
Boltttn* erected a tavern in 1829. In 1831 the 
tlrst i»t>rniou was preached by Rer. Allen Tib- 
bits, although no regular house of worship 
was erected until June, 1836, when the Meth- 
(xlists i)ut u]) a small frame building which 
was used for religious purposes for sereral 
years, by all denominations, wheuever a 
prt^aclier could 1>e found to occupy the pul- 
pit, though Rev. Mr. Tibbits generally ofli- 
ciatiHl. The first saw mill was erected by 
Peter Martin, in 1834. The first physician 
was a Dr. Chase, who located here in 1833. 
The village received considerable impetus 
from the removal of the county seat to this 
place, which occurred in 1842, (previously 
l(.>cated at Branch), and also from the conl- 
pletiou of the Michigan Southern Railroad, 
which was o[)ened to Coldwater in 1851, and 
from which time the ])lace increased with 
great rapidity. In 1861 a city charter was 
obtaintnl, and at the i)resent time the City of 
Coldwater is one of the most fiourishing and 
progressive in the State. 

The first newspaper issued in Branch 
county was published in the village of Branch, 
(at that time the county seat), in 1832, and 
was sty W the '' MiMgan Argui" In 1833 
the " Coldwfiter Observer ^^^ a weekly newspa- 
))er. was issued by Dr. Calkins, in the village 
i){ Coldwater. In 1842 the^Oftirrwr" |>assed 
into the hands of William B. Josselyu, who 



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225 



'*Coldwater 
Chandler, 



psblished it nntil 1844, as the 
Jkmoerat" in that year Albert 
present Mayor of the city, purchased the 
concern, and again altered the name, styling 
it the " Ccldwater Sentinel'' continuing until 
1859, when it became defunct. Its politics 
were Democratic, throughout. In November 
1861, B. F. Thompson issued the first number 
of a Republican paper under the name of 
the " Branch County JoitrfMl" which con- 
tinued until 1856, when it passed into the 
hands of Eddy, Gray & Co., and was changed 
to the "Branch County Republican" under 
which name it was published until 1862, 
when it was purchased by its present pro- 
prietor, Franc B. Way, who still issues it, 
under the name of the * ' Branch County Oa- 
zette.'' The *' Democratic Union" was com- 
menced in 1856 and continued until 1861, 
when owing to the death of its able editor, 
John L. Hackstaff, it was discontinued. The 
** Michigan Southern Xewti" an independent 
newspaper, was started inMarch, 1862, and still 
continues, under the editorial management of 
Tim. G. Turner. " The JVHeome OueU," a 
literary and spiritual paper, under the con- 
trol of Louden &> Hackstaff, had a brief ex- 
istence in 1859, also a paper called Orippen'i 
Monthly Journal" an advertising sheet, pub- 
lished by J. B. Crippen, in 1861. 

■ The present population of Coldwater is 
about 4,500, though returned, in 1860, by 
the U. 8. Census, as but 2,905. A daily mail 
east and west is received. (See Branch 
county.) 

CITY 0PPICEB8. 

Mayor — Albert Chandler. 

City Clerk — Robert F. Mockbridge. 

Treasurer — John S. Youngs. 

ManhaJ — Isaac Van Ness. 

Street Commissioner — Mathias V&n Evrie. 

Aldermen, 1st Ward — Julius D. Barber, 
Shelby S Harrington; 2d ITarrf— Isaac P. 
Alger, Augustus Giessner ; 3rf Ward — 
Ephraim A. Knowlton, George Quick ; Ath 
Ward — Sutherland M. Seeley, John D. Wood. 



XTnion School — Pearl street, comer of Han- 
chett. G. W. Gibson, A. B., principal; Miss 
J. Pruden, preceptress ; Mrs. 0. Safford, prin- 
cipal \st grammar department; Mrs. E. W. 
Love, principal 2d grammar department ; Miss 
M. A. Morse, principal Sd grammar depart- 
ment; Mrs. C. A. Kennedy, principal 1st pri- 
mary deptrtment ; Miss A. Root, principal 2d 
primary department; Miss D. A. Carpenter, 
principal Sd primary department. 

Ward School — Comer of Clay and Union 
streets. Mrs. M. C. Chandler, principal; Miss 
E. Warren, assistant, 

CHURCnES. 



FIBB DEPARTMENT. 

Chief Engineer — Tim G. Turner. 

First Assistant Engineer — Solomon T. F. 
Bullard. 

Second Assistant Engineer-^WiWiajn R. Fos- 
ter. 

Protection Engine Company No. 1 — Monroe 
street, Frederick Smith, /wwiaw. 

Coldwater Hook and Ladder Company No. 1 — 
Monroe street, George A. Coe, foreman, 

BOABD OF EDUCATION. 

President — A. Allen. 
JHreetor—Dv. 8. 8. Cutter. 
Trustees—C. Randall, J. 0. Pelton, D. B. 
Dennis, Dr. C. S. Tucker. 



Baptist Church — Monroe street, corner of 
Bearl. Rev. Edward Eaton, pastor, 

Methodist Episcopal Church — Marshall street. 
Rev. Horace C. Hovey, pastor. 

Wesleyan Methodist Church — Church street. 
Rev. S. B. Smith, pastor. 

Roman Catholic Clturch — Near western limits. 
Rev. Charles Ryckert, pastor. 

German Lutheran Church — Court House. 
Rev. G. Speckhardt, pat*or. 

Episcopal Church — Court House. Rev, Henry 
Safibrd, rector. 

Independent Congregational Churchy {^SpirOu- 
a/w^)— Division street. F. L. H. Willis, 
pcutor, 

SOCIETIES. 

Tyre Lodge, No. 18, F. ^ A. if.— Meets 
Tuesday on or before the full moon in each 
month, at Masonic Hall. 

Temple Chapter, No. 21, F. ^ A. if.— Meets 
Wednesday after full moon in each month, at 
Masonic Hall. 

Mount Moriah Council, No. 6, F. ^ A. M.— 
Meets Monday on or before full moon in each 
month, at Masonic Hall. 

Jacob's Cn/nmandery, No. 10, F. ^ A M. — 
Meets Friday on or after full moon in each 
month, at Masonic Hall. 

Coldwater AiriftUtural and Breeder's Asso- 
ciation — Organized 1862. Albert Chandler, 
president; Frederick V. Smith, secretary; Henry 
C. Lewis, treasurer; S. M. Seeley, Henry 
Haynes, James Peterson, Henry N. Moore, 
James B. Crippen, J. G. Miles, trustees. As- 
sociation holds annual fairs every August, at 
Coldwater. 

Branch County Agricultural Society — Or- 
ganized 1850. Fairs held annually at society 's 
grounds, city of Coldwater. Annual meeting 
in Court House, first week in January. James 
Antisdell, president; David B. Dennis, treasurer; 
S. A. Harrington, secretary. 

Coldwater Oas Light Company — Organized 

1860. Capital stock, $25,000. A. Allen, 

president; A. W. Parkhurst, secretary; H. C. 

Lewis, treasurer. Works located on north 

I side of Chicago street. 



226 



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VBWBPAPER8. 

The Branch County Gazette— (Yfeeklj), |1,50 
per year. Published every Wednesday, by 
Franc B. Way, editor and proprietor, on 
Chicago street. Republican. 

The Southern Michigan A>a>«— (Weekly), 
61,50 |)er year. Published every Friday, by 
Tim 0. Turner, (editor and proprietor, in M. 
S. Hotel block. Independent. 

PUBLIC HALLS. 

Crifypm^a Hall — Chicago street, corner of 
Monroe. 
Firemen's //«??— Monroe street. 

Mcuouic Hall — Chicago street, corner public 
square. 

List of ProftMlonfl, Trades, etc. 

Allen Edward, marble works, Monroe. 

Allen Geocgo E, (col'd), barber, Monroe. 

Anderson James, marble works, Chicago. 

Bafijley Aaron, sIkh* maker, Chicago. 

Baker Hiram, dentist and photographer, 
Chicago. 

Ball Brothers, carpenters, alley rear n s Chi- 
cago. 

Bassett &/ Moore, (Lafayette M Bassett and 
Edwin T Moore), watches and jewelry, 
Chicago. 

Bates Daniel, carpenter, Clay. 

Beadle John, saddle and harness maker, 
Chicago. 

Beech John H, physician, Chicago. 

Bennett William J, manuf 'r water drawers, 
Chicago. 

Bidwell Alonzo F, hardware, Chicago. 

Bing Jonas, clothing, hats and caps, Chicago. 

Blatherwick Allx^rt, watch repairing, Monroe. 

Blodgi't & Iliiikley, (Uri Bhnlget and Shepard 
Hinkley), furniture, Chicago. 

Blooniburi: F M, carpenter, Division. 

Blyo Marie U Mrs, millinery, Chicago. 

Bolster William, prop'r Railroad House, Di- 
vision. 

Bovee David, grocer, Chicago. 

Brenmer Jacob (J, bnker and grocer, Chicago. 

Bridge Thomas J, saloon, Monroe. 

Brow Stephen C, grocer, Monroe. 

Bullard Solomon T F, dry goods, groceries, 
etc, Chicago. 

Burns W C & Co, (William C and Jessie), 
blacksmiths, Hudson. 

Burt Richard J, carriage shop, Chicago. 

Bushnell Hosea, blacksmith, Hudson. 

Butterworth Jonathan, groceries, Chicago. 

Canrike (leorge S, carpenter, Division. 

Cathcart Nelson H, photograph gallery, Chi- 
cago. 

Cham])ion John R. lawyer, 2d story Crippen's 
block. 

Chapman William, grocer, Chicago. 

Clark llpury C, cashier Clark & Coe, exchange 
oflSce, 



Clark & Coe, (Orasmos B Clark and GeorgB A 
Coe), bankers and exchange oflBce, Qd- 
cago. 

CLAR& £ R & Co, (Edwin R Clark, John T 
Gilbert and George D Ford), drugs, medi- 
cines and groceries, Chicago. 

Clarke B & Co, (Orasmus B Clarke tod 
George A Coe), flour mills. Division. 

Coe George A, lawyer, Chicago. 

Coggshall Rev, pastor Methodist E[Uf> 

coi>al church. 

Collins S F, physician. Court House square. 

Colton Morgan, blacksmith, Hanchett. 

Crippen James B, dry goods, groceries, crock- 
ery, etc. No 2, Cripi)en block, Chicago. 

Cripi)en &> Robinson, (Philo H Crippen and 
liarvey D Robinson^, dry goods, groceries, 
crockery, etc, Chicago. 

Cudner Augustus A, cari>enter, Jackson. 

Cutter Stephen S, physician, Chicago. 

Darling Daniel D, tin shop, Chicago. 

Dougherty Thomas, steam saw mill, Pearl. 

Davis David H, books and stationery, Chicago. 

Dennis David B, lawyer, Chicago. 

Dickinson A B & H, (Alvah B and Higby), 
prop'rs Southern Michigan Hotel, Chicago. 

Dickinson &. Webb, (Thomas W Dickinson and 
Bleeker L Webb^, dry goods, groceries, 
crockery, etc, Chicago. 

Drake Richard H, boots and shoes, Chicago. 

Eaton Edward Rev, pastor Baptist church. 

Eddy Franklin T, county register, Court 
House. 

Ehlc Herman, saloon, under Mich Southern 
Hotel. 

Ellis Daniel, blacksmith, Chicago. 

Ethridge B & T C, (Burt and Theodore C), 
agricultural implements, Division. 

Ferguson George^ drugs and groceries, CJlii- 
cago. 

Field Austin S, wines and liquors, Monroe. 

Fish & Son, (Henry S and Elbridgo G), den- 
tists, Chicago. 

Flandermeyer II & Bro, (Herman and Fred- 
erick), boots and shoes, Chicago. 

Foster David, prop'r Foster House, Chicago. 

Fuller & Randall, (Ezbon G Fuller and Caleb 
D Randall), lawyers, Chicago. 

FuUick Eliza Miss, millinery, Chicago. 

Gage William M, gun smith. No 5, Crippen's 
block, up stairs. 

Gibson G W, A B, Principal Union school. 

Gilbert James W, lawyer, 2d story Crippen's 
block. 

Gilbert & Adams, (Henry C Gilbert and 
Hamlet B Adams), lawyers, 2d story 
Crippen's block. 

Goft' Farmer, carriage maker, Hanchett. 

Gowdy Legrand, hats and caps, Chicago. 

Griffith Henry S, eating saloon, Monroe. 

Hann Barzilai B, grocer, Monroe. 

Hale & Chandler, (Luther F Hale and Albert 
Chandler), hardware.. Chicago. 

Hall Ransom £, watches and jewelry, Chicago. 



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X30L 



227 



Harrington Deyeranx -S, iron foundry and 

agricaltnral implements, Hudson.' 
Harrington Shelba A, baker and confection- 

erj. Chicago. 
Heller John, blacksmith, Hudson. 
Hill J A; A, (John and Albert), rectifiers and 

fiqnor dealers, Chicago. 
Holmes Darid, saddle and harness maker, 

Monroe. 
HoTey Horace C Rev, pastor Presbyterian 

charch. 
Hudson S P Mrs, photographer, Chicago. 
Hull Henry P, meat market, Monroe. 
Jenldns F R, (col'd), barber, Monroe. 
Johnson Cyrus D, saloon and grocery, 

Chicago. 
Johnson- L Llewellyn, telegraph operator 

Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana 

railroad depot 
Johnson G W dt L B, (Qeorge W and Lewis 

B), coopers, Jefferson. 
Kibbe Rufus, drugs and groceries, Chicago. 
LaonoQ John, tailor, Chicago. 
Lawyer 6l Youngs, (Justin Lawyer and John 

8 Youngs), bankers, real estate and insur- 
ance agents, Chicago. 
Lee William, carriage shop, Hudson. 
Lewis db Starr, bankers and insurance agents, 

Chicago. 
Long James M, physician, (homce), Chicago. 
LoTe Perry H, groceries and liquor, Monroe. 
Luce Cyrus G, county treasurer. Court 

House. 
McOowan J H, assistant principal Union 

School. 
McNeil George N, cigars and ^tobacco, 

Chicago. 
Markham Edward W, hardware, stoves, tin- 

wa e, etc., Chicago. 
Markham William W, meat market, Chicago. 
Marsh James H, carriage maker, Chicago. 
Mason Charles, furniture, Chicago. 
Miles Lewis D, dentist and physician, 

Chicago. 
Miles & Culp, (Ives G Miles and John W 

Culp), dry goods, groceries, boots and 

shoes, etc, Chicago. 
Milnes Henry, grocer, Chicago. 
M(X7KRIDG£ ROBERT F, United States 

express and insurance agent, Chicago. 
Moore Andrew L, leather dealer, Chicago. 
Morehouse Daniel C, justice of the peace, 

Chicago. 
Morrill Sarah £ Mrs, ambrotype and photo- 

gntph gallery, Chicago. 
Mudgett 'Rieron W, carriage maker, Chicago. 
Negele Andrew, saloon and brewery, Chicago. 
NotemandtAngel, (Darius Noteman andAlbert 

D Angel), physicians, (eclectic), Chicago. 
Noyes Samuel P, rectifier and liquor dealer, 

Hanchett. 
Parker H M, architect and builder, Monroe.* 
Parkhnrst J G, lawyer, cor Chicago and 

Monroe. 



Parrish &. Mosher, (Tyler M Parrish and 

Amasa Mosher), saddle and harness 

making, Chicago. 
Parsons Elon G, lawyer, Chicago. 
Peckham Stephen, carpenter, cor Washington 

and Monroe. 
Peterson James, livery stable on Public 

Square. 
Pope Caleb, saloon, Chicago. 
Porter Albert L, justice of the peace and 

insurance agent, Chicago. 
Pratt F S, carriage maker, Chicago. 
Purinton David B, post master, office on 

Chicago. 
Reynolds Patrick, merchant tailor, Chicago. 
Rhodes William, shoe maker, Chicago. 
Rodman &> Bros, (Barney, Nathan and Abra- 
ham), dry goods. Chicago. 
Root John, justice of the peace, Chicago. 
Root Reuben, blacksmith, Hanchett. 
Rosenbaum Nathan, clothing, Chicago. 
Rossman Jerome, cooper. 
Safford Henry Rev, pastor Episcopal church. 
Seely &. Pratt, (Sutherland M Seely and J 

Franklin Pratt), boots, shoes, leather and 

findings, Chicago. 
Schallmo Mike, saloon, Chicago. 
Scofield Hiram C, turning factory, Chicago. 
Scott William B, shoe maker, Chicago. 
Shively John W, general store, Chicago. 
Shoecraft &> Sanford, (Ashman Shoecraft and 

Amos Sanford), livery stable, Hanchett. 
Skeels Nelson D, judge of probate. Court 

house. 
Smails James, clothing, Chicago. 
Smith Andrew Y, produce dealer, Chicago.* 
Smith Davis, tanner. Jay. 
Smith S B Rev, pastor Wesleyan Methodist 

Church. 
Smith F V & Co, (Fredrick V and Jacob E), 

clothiDg, hats, caps, furnishing goods, etc, 

Chicago. 
Stickney George F, prop'r Massasoit House, 

Monroe. 
Stillman Henry B, physician, Monroe. 
Stirm Mathais, cooper. Jay. 
Stone Henry, general store, Chicago. 
Sweet George S, produce and commission, 

Monroe. 
Taylor Sylvester, carriage making and black- 
smithing. Battle Creek. 
Tibbits Allen, prop'r American house, Chi- 
cago, 
Titus Lucius B, iron foundry and machine 

shop, Chicago. 
Townsend H B, physician, Chicago. 
Tucker Curtis S, physician, Chicago. 
Turner John W, lawyer and prosecuting at^ 

tomey for Branch county, Chicago, cor 

of Monroe. 
Turner Tim G, lawyer, and editor Southern 

Michigan News, M S Hotel block. 
Upson &> Thompson, (Charles Upson and 

David Thompson), lawyers, (Hiicago. 



228 



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CHABLBS r. CLAJtK S 



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Vandenburg William St> Bro, carpenters, 
Hudson. 

Van Eiderstein , carpenter, Monroe. 

Vincent James F, billiard saloon, Chicago. 

Warren John, candle factory, Chicago. 

Waterman Nathaniel F, books and stationery, 
Chicago. 

Way Franc B, editor and prop'r Branch 
County Gazette, Chicago. 

Webb Bei\jamin C, county clerk, Court 
House. 

Weller Orlando, blacksmith, Chicago. 

Wendell Cornelius, eating saloon, Monroe. 

Whitcomb John, county sheriff, Court House. 

Whitcomb &> Knowlton, (Luke H Whitcomb 
and Ephraim A Knowlton), sash, door, 
blind and planing factory, Chicago. 

Willis F L H Rev, pastor Independent Con- 
gregational or Spiritualists' church. 

Wilson Lewis T N, lawyer and circuit court 
commissioner, Chicago. 

Winans & Cheney, (John R Winans and 
Zenas C Cheney), blacksmiths, Chicago. 

Wood John D, merchant tailor, Chicago. 

Woodward Barber & Co, (Horace J Wood- 
ward, Julius 3 Barber and Daniel E Dyer), 
general store, Chicago. 

Wright Phineas P, station agent Michigan 
Southern and Northern Indiana railroad. 



COLD W ATER- 

A township of Branch county, contain- 
ing the incorporated city of Coldwater, and 
the small village of Branch. The town- 
ship, outside the city limits, is almost entire- 
ly deroted to agriculture, and has some of 
the most productive and carefully cultivated 
farms in the state. Wheat, corn, wool and 
fruit are the principal products. (See ^^Ccid- 
water " eiiy and ''Branch:') 

TOWNSHIP 0PFICBB8. 

Supervisor — Harvey Haynes. 
Clerk— \(. Hubbard White. 
Treasurer — Timothy Phelps. 



COLOM A- 

A post village of Berrien county, situated 
on Paw Paw river, 190 miles west from De- 
troit. It contains three stores, a hotel, Con- 
gregational church, steam saw mill, flour 
mill, etc. Population, 200. 



COLON. 

A township and post village in the county 
of St Joseph, situated on the St Joseph river, 
eight miles north ft-om Burr Oak, on the 
Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana rail- 
road, and about 150 miles south-westerly 
from Detroit. It contains several beautiful 
small lakes. The township and village num- 



bers about 1,800 InhabHanta, Mm* 600 of 
whom are in the latter. The vil]a|re has few 
churches, to wit : Baptist, Methodist, Pra- 
byterian and Universalist, four dry goods 
stores, two general stores, two mills, ana ibt- 
eral mechanic shops, a masonic lodge, and a 
fine brick seminary. It has a daily mail 
Pottnuuter — Edwin C. Wellesley. 

TOWJT OFFICERS. 

Supervisor—mWiam K. Eck. 
Cierk — Loran W. Schellhous. 
Treasurer — Willard Whitmore. 

List of ProDssaions, Tniidea« ele. 

Alfred H N, milliner. 

Avery D S, carriage maker. 

Baxter Chauncey A, blacksmith. 

Born Tobias, general store. 

Bowman W F, saw mill. 

Brownfield David &, Co, tanners. 

Eaton John, boot and shoe maker, 

Eck William R, justice of the peace. 

Elliot & Hoffman, (George Elliot and 6 B 
Hofibaan), flouring mill. 

Evans Archibald, mason. 

Qephard B, mason. 

Griffin Eliza, milliner. 

Hemingway William B, carpenter. 

HILL E & SON, (Elisha and Edwin B), gen- 
eral store. 

Hulbert Henry R, harness maker. 

McAllister Millis, cabinet maker. 

McKinster Thomas, cooper. 

Mitchell Nathan, physician. 

Noble Washington, machinist. 

Noyes Chauncey A, hotel. • 

Reynolds David C, druggist. 

Richards &> Wattles, foundry. 

Schellhouse Loran W, jeweler. 

Sides Isaac, physician. 

Tagert William A, boot and shoe maker. 

Taylor Leander, cooper. 

Taylor Oliver cooper. 

Troy A J, carpenter. 

Watson Don A, hard^*are. 

Whitmore Willard, carpenter. 

Willesley Edwin C, tailor. 

Worts Jacob, blacksmith. 



COLUMBIA. 

A township and post ofilce in Jackon coun- 
ty, situated five miles from Napoleon, on the 
Jackson branch of the Michigan Southern 
railroad, and 75 miles distant from Detroit. It 
has a Baptist church, flouring mill, one saw 
mill, a woolen factory, and several mechanic 
shops. The township contains about 950 in- 
habitants, and has three mails per week. 
Fostmaaier — Charles A. Crary. 

TOWN OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — L. F. Prichett. 
Clerk — John H. Dubois. 
Treaturer — Wallace W. Delamater. 



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229 



Ittat or Fi oil)— lOM, Tm4to«, etc* 

Birch Bererlj, carpenter. 

Booth , carpenter. 

Bowen Isaac C, grocer. 

Cogswell Alanson, cooper. 

Cook LaOier R Rev, (Baptist). 

Crary Charles A, woolen mannfacturer. 

Delamater W W & Co, saw mill. 

Gsge Elias, harness maker. 

Griffin Orson, carpenter. 

Hare Joshua, Justice of the peace. 

Hollister Reuben 0, justice of the peace. 

Johnson Daniel S, tobacco and cigars, 

Johnson Thomas Rev, (Baptist). 

Myers Alexander, grocer. 

Pickett Lewis F, carriage maker. 

Pickett Truman, carriage maker. 

Swarthout Thomas, justice of the peace. 

White ib Dubois, (George White and R 

Dubois), flour mill. 
White E L, blacksmith. 
Whiting A, cooper. 

COLUMBIAVILLE. 

A post Tillage of Marathon township, in 
the county of Lapeer, 68 miles north of De- 
troit. Fare, $2,80. It contains a hotel, saw 
mill, and general store. Population, 150. 
Four mails per week. Fostnuuter — William 
Peter. 

liftst •f Proftoflalonas Tnulea» etc. 

Aurand Daniel, carpenter. 
Aurand Jacob, cooper. 
Carpenter George, carpenter. 
Congdon H L, physician. 
Catting L D, saloon. 
Daris John, carpenter. 
Farrell Andrew, blacksmith. 
Hemingway H L, saw mill. 
Lawrence D G, saw mill. 
McQarry Frank, justice of the peace. 
Moore James, boot and shoe maker. 
Peter William, general store. 
Pettit AIA^, carriage maker. 
Pine George C, blacksmith. 
Turner H D, saw mill. 
Van Dyke John, hotel. • 



COL.UMBUS. 

A township and post office of St. Clair 
county, situated on the Grand Trunk railroad, 
40 miles from Detroit Fare, |1,15. The 
Tillage has a Catholic, a Methodist, a Baptist, 
and a Congregational church, two saw and 
two flour mills, one hotel, and three stores. 
The town is watered by the Bell riyer, which 
aflfords considerable power. The soil is a 
sandy loam, in some parts mixed with clay, 
and is well adapted to the production of 
grass and grain. Population, 1,050. A daily 
mall is receiTed. Fostmoiter^Qeorge S. 
Granger. 



TOWVSHIP 0FFICBS8. 

Supervisor — George 8. Granger. 
C/^it— Charles H. Waterloos. 
Treaturer — Edward 8. Hunt. 

lilst of Profsasloiia^ Trades, ete« 

Birney Dennis, carpenter. 
Burgess Thomas, blacksmith. 
Cambifrn Ira H Rot, (Methodist). 
Canfield Chauncey R, justice of the peace. 
Cross Erastus S, hotel, and justice of the 

peace. 
East Thomas, flour and saw mill. 
Farrer Munson, carpenter. 
Fuller William, carpenter. 
Uarvey Thomas, flour and saw mill. 
Hibbard H & B, (Henry and Orin B), 

general store. 
Howell David, carpenter. 
Mulloy Patrick, justice of the peace. 
Parker John S, justice of the peace. 
Quick Henry, mason. 
Ramsey Robert, general store. 
Staley Albert, blacksmith. 
Stevenson Samuel, shoe maker. 
Wait James, carpenter. 
Willson Robert, mason. 
Young Michael, blacksmith. 



COMMERCE. 

A township and post village of Oakland 
county, on tbe south side of Burt lake, 38 
miles north-west from Detroit, and 12 miles 
south-west of Pontiac. The town contains 
three churches, belonging to the United 
Presbyterian, Methodist and Baptist denomi- 
nations; also a Congregational society, (as 
yet without a church edifice), one lodge of 
Free Masons, and one of Good Templars. 
Population of village and township, 1,500, 
A daily mail is received. Goods are shipped 
from Detroit by the Detroit and Milwaukee 
railroad, via Pontiac. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — Stephen Bennett. 
C/«^A— Thaddeus A. Smith. 
Treasurer — Harley Round. 

lilat of ProfDsaloiiSy Trades, etc. 

Buck Peter S, (Kellogg & Buck). 

Clark Henry H, general store. 

Farr Joseph G, lawyer. 

Goodville David Rev. 

Hunter John, physician. 

Kellogg A Buck, (Edward P Kellogg and 
Peter S Buck), millers. 

Kellogg & Smith, (Edward Kellogg and 
R^mond Smith), general store 

King W D & 8, (Walter D and Sidney), foun- 
dry. 

Lilley Louisa A, milliner. 

Noe George, shoe maker. 

Owen Francis B, general store. 



CH1.BLEB F. CLAAK'b 



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BTATB GAZBITE'EB. 



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281 



Benham & Mitchell, (Isaac Benham and 

Thomas Mitchell), saw mill. 
Bloust Jonas, carpenter. 
Bonbright Joseph, general store. 
Bondhoitz Christian, harness maker. 
Bradshaw Walter, carpenter, 
Briggs John K, general store. 
Briggs Oscar, livery stable. 
Bristol Almeron, cabinet maker. 
Brockway Nelson L Rev, (Methodist). 
Butler Seth B, general store. 

CaaeAichmond E, boot and shoe dealer. 
Chase John M, physician. 
Chapin George H, grocer. 
Cofflnberry Salathiel C, lawyer. 
Cond Charles W, druggist. 
Cross Lewis, mason. 

Dennis Harwood Z, carpenter. 
Doolittle Clinton, harness maker. 
Dresler Daniel, carpenter. 
Dyer Levi T, dentist. 
Dutcher Warren. 

Eaton Eliphaz, cabinet maker. 

Elease Richmond, merchant tailor. 

Evans Darius D, cooper. 

Ferguson John H, hotel, (Constan tine Hotel). 

Force George W, physician. 

Gardner John R, flouring mill. 

George John B, carpenter. 

George & Tweeiflale, (Abram K George and 

John Tweedale), founders. 
Gladding John P, books and stationery. 
Green Thomas, carpenter. 
Hagenbuch Aaron, real estate agent. 
Hartrauft John, carpenter. 
Harvey Norman, real estate agent. 
Harvey Norman & Co, (Norman Harvey and 

Isaac W Bradley), carriage makers. 
Herbster Adam, carpenter. 
Hill Nicholas E, harness maker. 
Hill William, justice of the peace. 
Holmes David T, mason. 
Hubbard Charles P Mrs, milliner. 
Hudson John, grocer. 
Hudson John Mrs, milliner. 
Hull Levi T, prop'r Constantine Mercury and 

, St. Joseph County Advertiser. 
Jacob Henry, blacksmith. 
Kahn Nathan B, grocer. 
Kearey Samuel, carpenter. 
Killen' J T Rev, (Presbyterian). 
King Susan A Miss, milliner. 
Enapp A & D, (Andrew and David), black- 

Bmiths. 
Langley Thomas C, general store. 
Lintz George, carpenter. 
Melvin Thomas, blacksmith. 
Miller & Teasdel, (Abram "Miller and Samuel 

Teasdel jr), carriage makers. 
Millinjjton Charles R, lawyer. 
Moore E E Mrs, daguerreotypist, 
Morrison John, carpenter. 
Morse Francis J, physician. | 



Morse & Nicar, (Francis J Morse and James 

M Nicar), druggists. 
Mosser Isaac T, grocer. 
Osborn Lewis C, mason. 
Palmer James C, carpenter. 
Palmer &l Sweet, (Andrew J Palmer and 

Alfred B Sweet), coopers. 
Patterson William, machinist. 
Riley &. Shipman, (Henry H Riley and John 

B Shipman), lawyers. 
Roberts & Davey,. (Henry Roberts and Wil- 
liam Davey), merchant tailors. 
Root Henry E, hotel, (Wells House). 
Sawtell N Howard, justice of the peace. 
Sheldon Ephraim H, hardware. 
Smith 8l Chittenden, (Dwight W Smith and 

Charles M Chittenden), masons. 
Steers Samuel, carpenter. 
Syas &> Williams, (John Syas and Elisha 

Williams), masons. 
Thomas J N, boot and shoe maker. 
Thorne Edward, physician. 
Tubbs Isaac, carpenter. 
Twedale John, machinist. 
Wechterheiser Frederick, boot and shoe 

maker 

WELLS FRANKLIN, general store and 

banker. 
Wescott George, carpenter. 
Wood John, boot and shoe maker. 
Wright M, boot and shoe maker. 



CON VIS. 

A inland agricultural townshij), situated in 
the county of Calhoun, having a post office 
of the same name. It is located on the 
stage route from Marshall to Bellevue, 116 
miles west from Detroit, (fare, $3.50). There 
are two large saw mills located here. Soil 
good ; surface rolling, with occasional prai- 
ries and timbered openings. Population, 
1,100. The post office of ''Convit Centr^* is 
also in the township. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — Joseph Bently. 
Clerk — Ira Andrews. 
Treasurer — Nelson P. Hall. 

liist of Professlonsy Trades, etc* 

Burch & Avery, saw mill. 
Burlingham Findley D, blacksmith. 
Chidester Nathan, justice of the peace. 
Eaton Levi, justice of the peace. 
Ferguson Stephen, carpenter. 
Hart Daniel, saw mill. 
Mayo James, blacksmith. 
Palmiter Enos, justice of the peace. 
Richardson George, carpenter. 
White Reuben B, justice of the peace. 



CON W^ A Y. 

A township and post villasce of Livingston 
coanty, on the Detroit and Lansing plank 



292 



COO 



CHABLBS F. CLASK'S 



OOP 



road, 68 miles north-west of Detroit. The 
village contains three churches, two stores 
and a good school. The soil in the vicinity 
is mostly a blue clay in some parts mixed 
with black sand. But a small portion of the 
township is yet under cultivation, the balance 
being heavily timbered. Population of town- 
ship, 800. Two mails per week. Pottmatter — 
H. Snyder. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — Bei\jamin P. Sherman. 

Clerk--?. B. Parson. 

Justices of the peaee — Dwight C. Parsons, 
B. P. Sherman, Israel Colburn, William N. 
Hoit. 

Lilst of ProfessloiiS) Tradesy eCc* 

Ball Joseph A, blacksmith. 
Benjamin Charles, daguerreotypist. 
Benjamin William, mason. 
Billings Hiram, shoe maker. 
Brown John, mason. 
Camp Earl, physician. 
Camp Jerome, general store. 
Camp Martin W, carriage maker. 
Fuller Orlando M, shoe maker. 
Gordon P 8, carriage maker. 
Mills William, cooper. 
Olds M W, carpenter. 
Olds William W Rev. 
Pitts Austin, carpenter. 
Sabin William, mason. 



COOPER- 

A township and post village of Kalamazoo 
county, on the Kalamazoo and Grand Ra))id8 
stage route, 160 miles west of Detroit. Fare 
from Detroit, via Kalamazoo, $4.65. The 
Kalamazoo River runs northerly through the 
centre of the township. Surface slightly 
rolling. Soil sandy loam, very productive. 
The village contains churches of the Con- 
gregational, Freewill Baptist and Methodist 
denominations, three hotels, two saw mills 
and one general store. Population of entire 
township, 1,300. Posimasler—Orm J. Wood- 
ward. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — John Walker. 
Cierk — John W. Brakeman. 
Treasurer — Darius R. Newton. 

lilut or ProfeMlons, Trades, etc. 

Adam Ezra C, physician. 
Albertaon John, justice of the peace. 
Apthorp Rufus Rev, (Congregational). 
Bliss William C Rev, (Methodist). 
Crane Lewis A, justice of the peace. 
Day William, boot and shoe maker. 
De Kam Antona, blacksmith. 
Deuel & Deuel, (Robert B and Lee), saw 
mill. 



Earl David E, carpenter. 

Earl Sanford D, carpenter. 

Earl Stephen V R, carpenter. 

Haynes Peter Rev, (BapUat). 

Hicks £, hotel. 

Huff Jacob, blacksmith. 

Lincoln Samuel, saw mill. 

Newton Samuel, carpenter. 

Norton Asa, hotel. 

Smith Francis, blacksmith. 

Smith Ira J, blacksmith. 

Vinton Porter, cooper. 

Wicks Edward L, justice of the peace.' 

Wicks Edward S, carpenter. 

Wickware #eorge H, hotel. 

Woodward Orin J, general store. 



COOPERSVILLE. 

A post office in the county of Ottawa, 70 
miles north-west from Detroit. There is one 
general store, a hotel and saw and floor 
mill located at this point. FoHmatUt^ 
Thomas B. Woodbury. 

List of ProreMlone, Timdefly efe. 

Brown Joseph, carpenter. 

Cilley James, lawyer. 

Eastman James, boot and shoe maker. 

Fish John L, grocer. 

Hazelton Simeon, justice of the peace. 

Jewett Ezekiel, lumber dealer. 

Lawton Daniel B Rev, (Methodist). 

Lawton Josiah T, cooper. 

Randall Schuyler, blacksmith. 

Richards Mark, justice of the peace. 

Rogers Samuel, gunsmith. 

Trelar Samuel, blacksmith. 

Van Gordon Jacob 8, carpenter. 

Walter Joel A, carpenter. 

Woodbury Thomas B, Hotel. 



COPPER HARBOP. 

A post village of Keweenaw county, situa- 
ted on the most northerly point of the main 
land of the State of Michigan. "Old Fort 
Wilkins" a military post formerly held by 
the United States Government, is situated 
about one mile from the village, and is at 
present occupied. During the season of 
navigation quite an extensive business is 
done here in the shipment of copper to the 
lower lake ports. The township of Copper 
Harbor, including the village, has a perma- 
nent population of about 300. A genera) 
stote, hotel, church, school, etc, are located 
here. The Detroit and Chicago steamers 
touch here each, trip. Tottmaster — W, A. 
Northrup. 

TOWNSHIP OPFICBBB. 

Supervisor — W. A. Northrup. 
Clerk— E, Guilboult. 
Treasurer — F. Tresire, 



234 



COR 



CHABLKB F. ULABK'S 



COR 



PUBLIC BALLS. 

FetPtl 77ff«— Main Street. 
Sacon //ffW— Bacon Block, Main street. 
Masonic Hall— B&cou block, Main street. 
Odd FeOowa' iTfltf— Phoenix block, Main 
street. 

80CIETIB8. 

Corunna Lodge, F. ^ A. 3f. Xo. 115— Meets 
Tuesday on or before each full moon, at 
MaAonic FInll, Bacon block. 

Corunna Lodge No, 64, /. 0. of 0. F, — 
Meets every M'^nday evening, at Odd Fel- 
lows* bail Phoenix block. 

lilsi of ProfeMlonM) Trade*, ete. 

Anderson James, merchant tailor. Main. 
Anderson & Matthews, (James 11 Anderson, 

and William Matthews), blacksmiths, 

^ain. 
Armstrong & Phillips, (Jerome B Armstrong 

and Norman Phillips), saddle and harness, 

Main. 

Belden & Bruce, (Austin A Beldenand Robert 
Bruce), foundry, and manufacturers of 
agricultural implements, Main. 

Briscoe Benjamin F, station and ticket agent 
and telegraph operator, Detroit and Mil- 
waukee railroad. 

Bosh James £, bakery, eating house and 
))hotograph gallery. Main. 

Bush & Anderson, (Daniel Bush and Joseph 
Ander-nn), prop'rn Oorunna mills. Main. 

Cal' B Rev, pastor Baptist church. 

Garland John, justice of the peac*. Main. 

Collins John I, b<^ots and shoes. Main. 

Convi-rs C J, county register, conrt house. 

Corhett H, propV Allen hotel. Main. 

CRANE HENRY A, hardware, stoves and 
tin ware, Main. 

Cummin & Wheeler. (James Cummin and 
James B Wheeler), ba- kers and agents 
for American Express Com[)any, Main. 

Curby U M, judge of probate, court house. 

Donaldson J W Rev, pastor Methodist church. 

Edward Antrobus G, gunsmith. Main. 

Etschmanti Louis, furniture. Main. 

Ferry Theodore W, groceries and provisions, 
Main. 

Fowler & Smith, (Joseph A Fowler and Amasa 
Smith), meat market, Main. 

Fuller Jonah,, county sheriff, court house. 

Gaffeney Lawrence, groceries and provisions, 
Main. 

Gage Albert, blacksmith, Main. 

Gale Curt. s J, justice of the peace and lawyer, 
Main. ^ 

Good "11 George W, drugs and groceries, 
Main. 

Gregory B E Rev, pastor Presbyterian church.^ 

Harmon A G, p'op'r Corunna Hotel and bil- 
liard saloon. Main. 

Hewitt John ^J, druggist and physician, 
Main. 



Hildreth Jeremiah, grocariet and prorUoH, 

• Main. 

Holmes George C, county clerk, court boMli 
Ingersoll John N, editor and propridw 

''AmeneoHf'* Mam. 
Ireland Joseph, saddle and harness, Main. 
Kelly John L E, dry goods, groceries, elft, 

Main. 
Keys John, merchant tailor. Main. 
Kingsley Sarah H Mrs, millinery, Main. 
Knickerbocker C W Rev, pastor Univendit 

cnurch. 
Lemon Joseph N, funiitnre, Brady. 
Lyman Pliney S, woolen factory, south nds 

river. 
McArthur Alexander, general mercham, 

Main, and saw mill south side river. 
McCURDY & RAYNALE, (Hugh MtCard| 

and Spencer B Raynale). lawyers, MtilL 
McLaughlin Ephraim, fluur and feed, Mall. 
McLaughlin Robert, iron foundry and ma- 
chine shop, Main. 
Moore Eli C, post master, office on Main, 
Moore E C & Co, (Eli C Moore and N W Claxk 

of Clarkstonj, hardware, stoves and tin- 

W8re, MhIu. 
Neuffer John, potter, at coal mine. 
Parsons & Elliot, (S Titus Pat son and David 

A Elliot), lawyers. Main. 
Pettibone S & Co, (Seth Pettibone and Mrs A 

Pettibone), fanning mills manutacioiy, 

Main. 
Phelps Lorenzo D, books and stationeiy, 

Main. 
Pieice Daniel, saloon, Main. 
Preston James A, general store. Main. 
Rathbum James, proprietor Rathburn Hooie, 

Main. 
RAYNALE SPENCER B, insurance agent, 

Main. 
Rowe Henry, livery stable, Main 
Shuttleworth James, jewelry and photograph 

gallery. Main. 
Sloan James E, carriage and wagon shop. 

Main 
Thayer Joseph M, sash doors, blinds and 

agricultual implements, south side river. 
Thompson Samuel B, (col'd), barber shop and 

eating house. Main 
Turner & Carland, (Jerome W Turner and 

John Carland), lawyer, Main. 
Van Pammel Father Rev, pastor Catholic 

Church 
Wade Ebenezer F, justice of the peace and 

dealer in boots, shoes and leather. Main. 
West & Hathaway, (William West and Isaac 

Hathaway), blacksmiths, M>in. 
Wilcox George, druas and gr ceries, Mait.. 
Wilcox & Bro, (Homer and Marcus), crock- 
ery, glaf>s ware and groceries, Main. 
William Charles P, carriage and wagon ^bop, 

Main. 
Willis John E, saloon, Main. 
Witherell William B, padnter, Main. 



CRO 



BTATB CbJOBimR. 



CRY 



COTTREL.VIL.l-E, 

A township of 8t Clair coanty, on the St 
Clair river, near its confluence with the lake 
of the same name. It contains the post Til- 
lage of ''CottrelvUle,'' tf^gether with the Til- 
lage of "Newpo't" the post office name of 
which is **BeUe River:* Total popoiation, 
1,600. 

TOWNSHIP 0FFICEB8. 

Supervisor ^WWViRm F. Chipman. 
Clerk— J oBe\}h Huntoon. 
Treaeurer — Henry Kobel. 



COURTLAND- 

A township of Kent county, on the Grand 
Bapids and Greeiiville stage route, twenty 
miles from the former place. It has two 
chorcbes, (Episcopal and Methodist), a gen- 
eral store and hotel. Two mails are recei?- 
ed per week. Population. 1.000. The post 
office is called *'Courtland Centre." 

TOWNSHIP 0F7I0BR8. 

Supervisor — William H Myer. 
Clerk— Vf. L. Hewitt. 
IVeaeurer — C. Conant. 



COURTL-AND CENTRE. 

A post office of Kent county, in the town- 
ship of Courtland. Fostmastsr-^, T. fiaon- 
ders. 

I«let of Proreselone, Trndes, ete* 

Burch De Witt C, pliysician. 

Myers William Injustice of the peace. 

Ringin Henry H, justice of the peace. 

Saunders George T. hotel. 

Saundf'rs N D & Bro, (Nathan D and George 

T), general store. 
Bolkeid Joseph, justice of the peace. 
Wood Robert Rev, (Episcopal). 



CRIIS/1EA. 

A post office in Muskegon county, in the 
township of Norton, situated on the Black 
riTer and within a short distance of its 
mouth. It has a weekly mail. Fottmaster — 
Robert Cowley. 

lilst of Profeselone, TradeS) ete* 

Bailey John, physician. 

Beach Willard, justice of the peace. 

Leverett Oli?»'r S, physician. 

Little Robert, Justice of the peace, 

Martin Warren F, justice of the peace. 

Porter Ira, general store and saw mill. 

Robinson John & Bro, saw mill. 



edb" and ''Otimm Cmirs," (P. 0.), the lai- 
ter place being, also, partially within the 
townships of Ottawa, Polkton and Allendale. 
The township contaios 500 inhabitants. Dis- 
tance from Detroit 180 miles. The soil ii 
good, and generally timbered with white oak, 
maple, beech and pine. 

TOWNSHIP OFFIOBRS. 

A^MrriMr— William M. Bace. 
C^^— John Sp<?ore. 
2V«a«ir#r— William F. Carpenter. 

CROTON. 

A township and post Tillage, in the county 
of Newaygo, situated on the Muskegon 
river, at the Junction of the Big and Little 
Muskegon, 200 miles north-east A-om Detroit, 
and alK>ut 42 miles fh>m Lake MichigaiL 
Fare f^om Detroit, |8,00. Population, 600. 
It contains aereral stores, nulls, and mechanio 
shops. It has six mails per week. jPoiAnm- 
ier — Horatio Brown. 

Uat off ProftMloiiSy Trade*, ete« 

Anderson Jamet, carp<*ijter. 

Antrim Albert, machinist. 

Antrim George, carpenter. 

Backart Gleorge, saw mill. 

Buck Joseph, cabinet maker. 

Carmichael Charles, Justice of the peace. 

Cuykendall Lewis, machinist. 

Dancer (}eorge, gun smith. 

Eages Michael, blacksmith. 

Hiubee Nelson, justice and notary public. 

Horton Charles £, hotel, general store, and 

saw mill. 
Irwin Samuel, carpenter. 
Jordan M M, carpenter. 
Kline Mathias T, Jostice of the peace. 
Peters Ira, carpenter 
Probasco John. Justice of the peace. 
Rice W 4d H, CWiUiam and Hugh), flooring 

mill. 
Ryan Jeremiah, general store. 
Stengle Tost, cooper. 
Tannewit Joseph, blacksmith. 
Thomas John, carriage mak<T. 
Tmesdell Oideon, general store. 
Tucker David N, grocer and druggist. 
Whitney Darid H, grocer. 
Willmer Edward, mason. 
Woodworth James H, physician. 



CROCK|pR Y. 

A township of Ottawa county, embracing 
the Tillage of '* Ifumica," (P. 0.) ** Sssksr- 



CRYSTAL. 

A township and post office of Montcalm 
county, 22 miles north of " Muir" station, on 
the Detroit and M{lw|iukee railroad. The 
"Crystal Lake Water Care,^' a hygienic 
histitntion, condncted by Dr. H. F. Brown, it 
located here. The township is watered by 
Fish rirer, a branch of the Grand, and con- 
tainfMfenlbeaatiAU lakes. Bnrfoce gently 



236 



DAN 



CHABLBB T. CLiJtK'S 



DAN 



nndalatiDg. Soil excelleDt — ^well adapted to 
the growth of both cereal and root crops. 
PopalatioD, 800. Fosimeuter^R, F. Brown. 

TOWiriHIP OFFICBBl. 

Superviwr — John L. Smith. 
Clerk — Henry L. Parker. 
Treasurer — £no8 P. Drake. 

liist of ProftMloBSf TnUlMiy etc 

Bowen Hiram, carpenter. 

Brown H F, physician. 

Burk Peter Rev. 

Crystal Lake Water Cure, (H F Brown, 

prop'r). 
Drake Enos P, blacksmith. 
Drake &, Qee, saw mill. 
Baton Levi, physician. 
Gee Webber, mason. 
Morse Isaac, justice of the peace. 
Porter Henry L, lumber dealer. 
ShefiSeld Pamelia E Miss, general store. 
Stewart Ira, justice of the peace. 
Sukey Luke, carpenter. 
Ward Asa Rev. 
Tance John, boot and shoe maker. 



CUBA. 
A post office of Kent county. 



CULVER. 

A post office of Calhoun county. 



DAL.L-AS. 

A township and village of Clinton county, 
106 miles north-west from Detroit. Popula- 
tion of township, 1,000, 



DALTON. 

A township and post office x>f Muskegon 
county. Population, 800. Pot^nuufer— Pe- 
ter Dalton. 



DALTON'S MILLS 
Now called " DalUm^'' which see. 



DANBY. 

A post village and township of Ionia coun- 
ty, on the Grand river, 100 miles north-west 
from Detroit. Population of township, 800, 
village, 200. 

OANSVILLE. 

• 

A post village of Ingham county, on stage 
route from Dexter to Mason. Has two shops 
for the manufacture of carriages, and several 
stores, one church edifice, (Baptist), and four 
organized religious societies, ^MethodiBt Pro- 






testant, Methodist Epfteopftl, Baolirt 
Universalist. The north piwi <tf tfat M»>t 
ship abounds in oak openingt, with ititt] 
soil, and the south part i8 banTi^ timliMJi; 
with deep soil and much day aiidlotii. 
village has a stage connection irith 
also with Dexter and Mason. Distanee 
Detroit 77 miles,— 47 railroad, 80 __„ 
fare, $1.80 to Dexter, vU Michigan 0«M 
railroad, $1.60 by stage, thence, to Danirilk 
Three mails per week are received fhn te 
east and three fh)m the west. Goods n 
shipped fh)m Detroit by (he Michigan CM> 
ral railroad, via Jackson. FotfmagUr^J^uM. 
L. Crossman. 

TOWHSHIP OFFIOSRfl. 

Stqterviaar — Daniel 8. Orostman. 
CTn'Ar— Marshall Hawcraft 
Treamrer — Nelson A. Whipple. 

I«Ut of ProftMdons, TnUtoa, elib 

Aseltine H, mason. 

Atwood Marcus M, lawyer. 

Bams Chaunoey, carriage maker. 

Carson 8 B, mason. 

Castor J H Rev, (Methodist). 

Cobb Daniel J, cabinet maker. 

Cobb Thomas M, cabinet maker. 

Crossmann & Atwood, (Daniel L CnMBBli 

and Martin Atwood), flour milL 
Crossman Daniel L, general store and P. IL 
Dakin Elisha, cooper. 
Darkin John B, general store. 

Dean Cyrus W, harness maker. 

Demming N A & W, (Nelson A and WilBui^ 

shoe makers. 
Etchells Peter, general store. 
Fields H H, cabinet maker. 
Pox David D, hotel. 
Francis Joseph, shoe maker. 
Granger H D, mason. 
Hann Edgar, physician. 
Harris B 8, carpenter. 
Hatch Ira, justice of the peace. 
Herald James L, blacksmith. 
Heald William W, carriage maker. 
Hendrick 8 P, carpenter. 
Hicks A P, blacksmith. 
Hofibian J Mrs, milliner. 
Jessup C & M, (Chauncey and Martin), A^ 

mill. 
Keen Joseph, carpenter. ' 
Lebar L, carriage maker. 
Miller Loren, justice of the peace. 
Needham William, blacksmitli. 
Olds Rev, (Universalist). 
Owens Rev, ( Methodist V 
Parks Carlton, shoe maxer. 
Parks 8 V, carriage maker. 
Rice Egbert, general store. 
Rice Hiram, blackSnith. 

Richards , cabinet maker. 

Seldon J 0, lawyer. 



DAY 



8TATB GAZBTTEEB. 



DEO 



231 



Sherwood Jesse, shoe maker. 
Stewart William A, cooper. 
Strong L ft, carpenter. 
Swartout Nathaniel, hotel. 
Tihhits Rev, (Baptist). 
Waldo Charles, cooper. 
Webh T J, physician 
West John, blacksmith. 
Weston D J, physician. 
Weston D T, boots and shoes. 
Whipple George G, carriage maker. 
White Abel, livery stable. 
Worden Joseph, carpenter. 



DAVISBURQH. 

A post village of Oakl^d county, in the 
township of Springfield, on the Detroit and 
Milwaukee railroad, 42 miles north-west of 
Detroit. Fare |1.30. It has two churches, 
Methodist Episcopal and Methodist Pro- 
testant, four stores, a hotel, flour mill, etc. 
Population, 200. Daily mail received. Fott- 
master — Farley Crow. 

I«iit of ProfessloiiS) Trades, etc. 

Babcock Edgar S, carpenter. 

Brock George, carpenter. 

Buinham Henry C. general store. 

Cothrell William H, blacksmith. 

Crow Farley, justice of the peace and P. M. 

Davis John C, flour mill. 

Day Andrew A, general store. 

Elliott William H, justice of the peace. 

Ellis John A, harness maker. 

Fenwick William £, druggist. 

Hoovey William H & Co, blacksmiths. 

Horton Darwin B, hotel. 

McCrum Samuel, mason. 

Phipps John, boot and shoe maker. 

Reed John G, justice of the peace. 

Reed Phinean, carriage maker. 

Sloat Marcus, general store. 

Warring W P, milliner. 

Weatherson Charles, blacksmith. 

Wheeler James P, justice of the peace. 



DAVISON- 

A weiilthy agricultural township of Gene- 
see county, containing a population of 1,000. 
Post office, " Davison Centre.'' 



DAVISON CENTRE. 

A po^ village of Genesee county, in the 
township of Davison. 



DAVISON VILUE. 

(See "Atlas.'') 

D A V I S V I L. l_ E . 
A post office of Sanilac county. 



DAYTON. 
(See "Sast Dayton:') 

DAYTON, 

A post village of Berrien county, on the 
Michigan Central railroad, 201 miles west of 
Detroit, in an excellent farming section. On 
the south side of the town lie extensive 
prairies in a high state of cultivation, and on 
tbe north and west heavy forests of oak, wal- 
nut and poplar. The village has one Catho- 
lic church, one organized society of Metho- 
dists, one of United Brethren, and one of 
Second Adventists ; also, one hotel, one flour 
mill, and several stores. Population, 800. 
Two mails are received per day. Postmasisr 
Emery Smead. 

lilst of ProfeMlonsy Trades, ete* 

Cady Wilson M, justice of the peace. 

Churchill Cyrus, jeweler. 

DeArmond Alexander, physician. 

Fellows Hiram, grocer. 

Fender John, tailor. 

Haines Henry, carpenter. 

Haines William, mason. 

Howland Henry, cooper, 

Hughes John, carpenter. 

Laporte Albert, hotel. 

Look Obed, carriage maker. 

Luther 6l Collins, (Jacob Luther and N B 

Collins), general store. 
Palmer James, boots and shoes. 
Phillips Jonathan M, physician. 
Redding Nelson, carpenter. 
Slater Henry J, boots and shotfs. 
Smeed Emery, flour mill. 
Smith William P, blacksmith. 
Tully James, blacksmith 

DEARBORN. 
A township of Wayne county, containing 
the incorporated village of "Dearborn:' Po- 
pulation, 1,600. 



DEARBOR N. 

An incorporated post villaae of Wayne 
eounty, in the township of the same name, on 
the north side of the Rouge river and on 
the Michigan Central railroad, ten miles west 
of Detroit. The village has a population of 
about 800, and has several stores and 
churches, together with an Arsenal of the 
United States. The Arsenal buildings are 
of brick, and are arranged oa three sides of 
a square, nearly 400 feet on each side, and 
all the buildings are connected by a con- 
tinaous wall of masonry, 12 feet high. (For 
list of names, see "Too late for insertion.") 

DECATUR, 

A floarishing faicorporated post village of 
Van Buren county, on the Michigan Central 



238 



DEC 



CHARLES V. CLABK'8 



DBL 



railroad, 167 miles fiom Detroit and 117 miles 
from Chicago. Fare from the former place, 
$6.00 ; from the laiter, $3.50. It has one 
Presbyterian and one Methodist church, a 
weekly newspaper, (/* Deeaiur Tribune" 
published every Thursday, by Charles P. 
Sweet, at $1.00 per year), a Masonic Lodge, 
(** Decatur No. 99 "), about a dozen stores, 
a hotel, and a large number of trades and 
professions. Decatur is situated in the centre 
' of a rich agricultural district, and is the out- 
let for the produce for many miles around. 
Population, 700. A daily mail is received 
Poatmcuter — Theodore E. Phelps. 

List of Prol^«slons, Trades, etc. 

Baker Charles Y, physician. 

Bartle William T Rev, (Presbyterian). 

Bennett Loren M Rev, (Methodist). 

Bray Edward, carpenter. 

Brownb ridge Thomas, livery stable. 

Butler Henry, saloon. 

Oamp Mrs, milliner. 

Canoll Mrs, milliner. 

Chadwick £ E &; J L, (Everard £ and John 

L), gpneral store. 
Chadwick Frederick N, hotel. 
Cole Hiram, lawyer. 
Gerow & Lewis, (Ward T Gerow and Lucius J 

Lewis), druggists. 
Jones Chapin & Co, coopers. 
Keables John T, physician. 
McCormick Qeorge, mason. 
McKay George, blacksmith. 
Nash Ira, general store 
Noble & Son, cabinet makers. 
Poor Charles N*, hardware. 
Powers George W, jeweler. 
Powers Monroe, saloon. 
Rawson Lyman T, lumber dealer. 
Rich Eli, mason. 
Rogers George W, physician. 
Rogers Henry, grocer. 
Rowly C S, dentist. 
Russell Walter, carriage maker. 
Shier Charles, lawyer. 

Sweet Charles P, editor and prop*r "TViduntf." 
TARBELL JOHN, banker, real estate and 

insurance agent. 
Teed J & H C, (Jeremiah and Henry C), 

general store. 
Thomas A E, milliner. 
Trowbridge William £, druggist and grocer. 
Tucker William C, general store. 
Van Sickle Garrett A, carpenter. 
Wallace John H, general store. 
Welch Owen T, insurance agent and justice 

of the peace. 
Wells Charles E, boot and shoe maker. 



DECATUR, 

A township of Van Buren county. Popu- 
lation, 600. The incorporated Tillage of 
" Decatur " l" located within this townsliip. 



TOWirSHIP OFFICBBI. 

Superviior^Ez^B, P. Hill. 
Cfer*— Charles Shier. 
Treasurer — Myron Hinkley. 



DEER CREEK, 
A post office of Livinoston county. 



DEERFIEI-O. 

A post vilUge of Lenawee county, oa tti 
Michigan Southern railroad, 60 miles totSk- 
west from Detroit The township is aln 
called " Deerfield," and has a total popidi- 1 
tion of 1,100. Popul^ion of village, 800. 



OEERFIEL.O. 

A township in the norLhem part of Liviag* 
ston county. A post office of the bum 
name is located in the townahip of ''Dili- 
Jield" Lenawee county. 

OE L.HI. 

A township of Ingham county. Post offioe, 
"iW<." Population, 1,0.0. 

TOWVBHIP OPFIOBRS. 

Superviaor — Phillip J. Price. 
Clerk — John F*»rguson. 
Treaturer ^Henry J. Aldrich. 






DELHI . 

A post village of Wayne connty in tbe 
township of Van Buren and bordering upon 
the county of Washtenaw. It is on the 
Huron river, three miles fh)m Fpsilanti, and 
80 miles south-west of Detroit. Fare, $1.25. 
The Huron river affords an excellent water 
power, which has recently been improved by 
the erection of a woolen factory and a saw 
and grist mills, a carriage shop, hotel and two 
stores. There is f^Methodist society in the 
place, but no church edifice. Gi>od8 are 
shipped via Ypsilanti over the Michigan 
Central railroad. Population of township, 
2,000, of village, 160. Poetmaster— Lewis C. 
Warner. 

TOWZrSHIP OFFI0EB8. 

Supervisor — William E. Warner. 
CferA — Charles Bucklin, 
Treasurer — William P. Stone. 

Llet of ProfeMlonsy TraAe% etc* 

Austin Henry, blacksmith. 
Barlow Caleb J, grocer. 
Bucklin Charles, justice of the peace. 
Bucklin Charles Rev, (Methodist). 
Burt Leroy H, cabinet maker. 
Clark William, flour mill. 
Jones Fayette, cooper. 
Leonard Oscar, salooD, 



DET 



STATB GAZETTEEB. 



DET 



239 



ICcQnftid Rcibert, machioist 

ICUis E A, blacksmith. 

Prince Mathew, carpenter. 

BLeed Sl Co, (Henr^Reed and John Reed), 

saw and wo«>len mill. 
ftodeers Peter M, hotel. 
SSisin William B, cooper. 
Smith Theodore, machiniBt. 
BtOD«> William P, jastice of the peace. 
Warner Lewis C. mavon. 
Warner William E, general store. 
Zibell Eizabeth, milliner. 

OEL.HI CENTRE, 

Afroall Til age in the township of Delhi, 
Ingham county, 88 miles north-west of 
Detroit. It has a hotel, general store, and 
steam saw mill. The post office at this place 
is DOW known as " Bolt.^' 



DELTA. 

A township and post Tillage of Eaton 
connty, five miles Irom Lansing. Popalatioo 
of entire township, 700. 

DENMARK. 

A large unorganized township of Tuscola 
county, 90 miles north of Detroit, and bor- 
dering on Saginaw Bay. There are but few 
•ettlers in the township as yet, though the 
land is of e:(cel1ent quality, and well adapted 
to the growth of grain. Valuable timber 
abounds in nnlimited quantities. The place 
b reached by steamer to Bay City, thence by 
evriage oTerland. Population, 800. Post- 
wmUr — H. Carr. 



DETROIT. 

A flourishing city and port of entry, in the 
ctmty of Wayne, and is the county seat, 
iHtoated on the north-west bank of Detroit 
mer, 18 miles aboTe lake Erie, 7 miles be- 
low the outlet of lake St Clair, 250 miles 
weft from Bufblo, and 526 miles from Wash- 
ington ; latitude 42 deg. 24 min. north, and 
longitude 82 deg. 58 min. west. 

The site of the principal part of the city 
is an eleTation of about thirty feet aboTe the 
lerel of the riTer. The plan upon the riTer. 
Md for 1200 feet back, is rectangular, and 
▼err leTel. Farther back, incluSng espe- 
cially, that part of the city between Campus 
Martins and Orand Circus, the plan is trian- 
gular. Th6 streets are spacious, among the 
principal of which are Madison aTenue, 
Michigan Orand aTenae, and Washington 
Oraod aTenue, each 200 feet wide. Wood- 
^rd aTenue, Monroe aTenne, Miami aTonne, 
Macomb aTenue and Jefferson aTenue, each 
120 feet wide ; all except Michigan, Mon- 
roe and Je^non termtniiling at one point, 



called the Grand Circus. The other streets 
are 60 feet wide, and generally cross at right 
angles. Four roads constructed at the ex- 
pense of the general government, to wit: 
the Chicago, leading to Illinois ; tho Saginaw, 
leading to the heaid of Saginaw bay ; the 
Fort Gratiot, leading to the foot of lake Hu- 
ron, and the Grand River, to lake Michigan, 
at the mouth of Grand river. There is also 
a United States road leading from Detroit to 
Ohio. 

The Detroit river, more properly called a 
strait, is a noble stream, about 25 miles long, 
average breadth 1 1-10 mile, and an average 
depth of six fathoms, with a current of a 
little over two miles an hour. The river at 
Detroit affords one of the finest harbors in 
the United States, and probably there are 
no inland waters in this continent, over which 
a larger amount of commercial wealth is 
annually conveyed than that which passes 
through this strait. In the Winter season it 
closes with ice, only after long continued cold 
weather. If the temperature of the atmos- 
phere moderates but for a few days, and that 
moderation even not above the freezing point, 
it will open by the action of its powerful 
current, which wears away the thickest ice 
in a short time. Hence, the stream is not 
often long closed. 

The climate is temperate, and less liable 
to fluctuations from extreme heat and cold, 
than places in the same latitude in New York 
and New England. This may be attributed 
partly to the well known fact, that the far- 
ther west we advance, the milder the climate 
become.^, but more esi)ecially may it be 
accounted for, from its proximity to the 
great lakes, whose water exercise a modify- 
ing influence upon the cold winds which 
sweep over this extended surface. The tran- 
sition from the cold of spring to the heat of 
summer is generally rapid ; but from sum- 
mer to winter gradual and prolonged. Veg- 
etation generally conmience along the De- 
troit river, from ten days to a fortnight 
earlier than at Buffalo and in western New 
York. The average temperature in the 
spring is 50 deg. of Famheit; summer 80 
deg. ; autumn 60 to 65 degrees ; winter 20 
deg. 

The history of Detroit is intimately con- 
nected with the principal events which have 
transpired in the noith-west since the settle- 
ment of the country, and is replete with 
interest. Founded in the strife for sove- 
reignty between the English and French 
governments, it became at an early day a 
point of control, influence and action. De- 
troit derives its name from the French word 
de troit, the strait, and the name was at first 
applied to a considerable extent of country 
alon^ the stream ; but afterwards confined 
to the settlement, founded on the present 



240 



DET 



CHARLES F. CLARK'S 



DET 



site of the city. " No place in the United 
States " it has been observed, " presents such 
a series of events, interestinsf in themselves, 
and (MTmaneutly affecting, as tliey occurred, 
itfl progress and prosperity. Five times its 
flag has changed, three different sovereigns 
have claimed its allegiance, and since it has 
been held by the United States, its govern- 
ment has been thrice transformed ; twice it 
has been beseiged by the Indians, once cap- 
ture<I in war, and once burned to the 
ground." 

The site of the city appears to have been 
occupied by Indian villages at the period of 
the discovery of the country by the French. 
It was known among them as Watctatotiong, 
a name indicating the circuitous course of 
the approach. The Fiench visited it as early 
as 1010, from which time until 17G2 the 
whole lake region was under the dominion of 
the French. The foundation of Quebec was 
not laid until 1C82, and within seven years 
afterwards there was a mission established 
among the Hurons in the vicinity of Detroit. 
But no legitimate and permanent settlement 
was attempted until 1701, when a fort, then 
knowp as Fort- Ponchartrain, was erected. 
It was located south of Jeflerson avenue, and 
east of Shelby street, occupying a space of 
200 feet S(iuare, not far from, and perhaps 
occupying a part of the present site of the 
Michigan Exchange. Three years after its 
establishment, the English influenced the 
Indians to set flre to the town, which was, 
however, but partially injured. In 1712, a 
further attempt was made by the Indians to 
destroy it, but after a vigorous and deter- 
mined seige of nineteen days, they were 
beaten ofl* and repulsed, with a heavy loss. 
In 1721, it was visited by Cbarlevoix, who 
represented the beauties and advantages of 
the country in the highest terms to the 
French court, and in 1740 the settlement was 
extended by emigrants from France, sent out 
at the expense of the government, who sup- 
plieil them with agricultural implements and 
other means. It is probable that many of 
the old French farms along the Detroit, 
Raisin and Clinton rivers, date their existence 
back to about this period. In 1709, Quebec 
was surrendered to the English ; Montreal in 
the following year. The whole country was 
ceded to the British crown in 1763. In 1778 
Fort Shelby was erectecLby the British com- 
mandant. Major Le Noult, and called Fort 
Le Noult, until after the war of 1812, when 
it was named in honor of Governor Shelby, of 
Kentucky. It was located at the intersection 
of Fort and Shelby streets, and was removed 
in 1827. For a long time after the country 
was ceded to the British, the Indians, who 
were the flrm allies of the French, not com- 
prehending the policy, stood by their friends 
and their rights. Under the skillful guidance 



of Pontiac, they beseiged the, fort, hemmed 
in and sorely harrassed the 'garrison, lod 
defeated a strong detachment sent out agtbit 
them on the banks of Bloody creek; Ink 
they were repulsed on the opportune urinl 
of a reinforcement, aft«r having invested ths 
place eleven months. Daring the revoli- 
tionary war, and the subsequent ten or elefen 
years of the war with the western Indians, Iks 
history of Detroit is filled with the thrilliBf 
incidents appertaining to that momentMB 
period In 1794. General Wayne delbttsd 
the combined Indians on the Maumee. Tvo 
years afterwards, in the month of Jane, t 
detachment of the American army, under tlie 
command of Captain Porter, entered the citj, 
and took possession of the fort, it hiTiDf 
l>een previously evacuated by the Britidi, 
and the American flag was then for the flnt 
time planted in Michigan. Thns the anth<N^ 
ity of the country was peacefully transformed, 
and was not disturbed until the war of 1811 
The ordinance of 1787 was immediately 
thereafter extended over the north-western 
territory, and General Arthur St. Clair wn 
appointed its first Governor. Ohio assumed 
her position as one of the States in 1802. A 
subsequent division of the territory was mads 
at ditferent periods, into Indiana, DlinoU and 
Michigan. Michigan was organized into a 
separate territo'y in 1805, and William Hall 
was appointed the first Governor, who, with 
the Judges appointed by the President, con- 
stituted the government. Governor Hull, 
upon his arrival at Detroit, found the town 
reduced to ruins from a fire that swept over 
it a few weeks before his arrival. The old 
town occupied a site below or west of the 
centre of the present town; it was built 
entirely of wood, the streets were narrow, 
being economised to diminish the circuit of 
the stockade by which it was secured. 
Shortly after the fire, an act of Congress was 
passed directing the Governor and Judges, 
then exercising legislative powers, to lay out 
a new town, including the site of the one 
destroyed, and ten thousand acres of adjacent 
land. The act directed that a lot should be 
granted to every owner or occupant of a 
house in the old town, and the proceeds of 
the remainder applied to the erection of a 
court house and jail. It was ft'om this fond, 
thus accruing, that several of the public 
buildings have been erected. The destruc- 
tion of the old town is so far fortunate that 
it led to the adoption of a plan better adapted 
to a city like Detroit, though the power of 
the Governor and Judges in this respect 
might have been more Judicially exercised. 
About the time Governor Hull arrived at 
Detroit, the Indians were preparing for a 
second assertion of their rights of sovereignty, 
in which they had been foiled forty years 
before, under Pontiac. They were now, 



BTaTB gazstteeb. 



242 



DET 



CHA^nLES F. CXARK 8 



DET 



1861 

Glass, boxes 17,flS2 

Illdis, No. 119,:J20 

HlKliwliie.-, bbis 31,214 

Hhiiis, tcs 4,480 

HoxH. Xo 129,0m 

Hoop*, M. 2,-40 

Iron. Urs, No 61,432 

Iron, bundles 37,009 

Iron. pie. tons 2,920 

LunibtT, M 6,974 

Lnrd, bbls 21,(K)8 

Leather, rolls.. 8.428 

Meal, bbls 8,8«0 

Oais.bu C«>,9.Srt 

Folk, bbls 62,967 

Pell* and Hklns, bund 7,(K)8 

Plastir. tons 6,«76 

Peas, bu 4,113 

Potatoes, bags 71,605 

Rye, bu 10,081 

RntfK. babs 17.040 

t^Hlt, bMs 72,866 

t?hei'p. No 13.5 3 

Staves M 4.115 

ShlngU-s, M. 11.007 

rtfids, U/8 29.463 

Tallow 13,860 

Whisky 17.782 

Wheat 2,706,111 

Wool, Ihs 4,903,«31 

Water Lime, bbls 4,020 

LEADING EXPORTS. 

Alc<»hol, bbls 6,646 

Ashei«, cssks 3,227 

Apples, bbls 31,7C0 

Ak'nndBter, bbls 7,7i 4 

Ik-ef, bbl«. 36,760 

Butter, lbs. 3,099,5.% 

Barhy, bu 2,078 

IJ:ico!i, boxes N,717 

HeaiiB, bu 40,9.')2 

Corr<, bu 989,309 

Cattle, ht-ad 68,174 

Clie«st', boxts.... 4,326 

Candle.>«, boxes 5,371 

Cotton, hnlos. 6.398 

DroH.d Hogs, No. 60,914 

Dried Fruit, hbls 9.634 

K.tf*, bbls. 8914 

Flour, bbls 1,261.289 

Fe. d, bMi,'H 6.716 

Fifh, bl.'H .'•.444 

Furn, i>kjrs. l,»«r»0 

Gla^N boxes 3.261 

HI e». No. 98.612 

Hijfhwinei*, bbN 20,129 

Hay, I- nrt 278 

HaiuH, ti-K 5.241 

Iron, bun* U.O.'iO 

Iron, bundle* 2,S14 

Iron, pl2 ton* 578 

Inm. i»ciftp, tons 2^4 

Lard, bb!a 22,3^12 

Leath<r, rolls i;!.018 

Ll.juo-s and Wines, bl.l». 1.692 

Lntnlnr, M 2S.911 

Malt. l.a-B 0.800 

W.ul, bblc 8.(H)8 

NiiilH, ktjrs 4,K16 

Oat.^ bush 2WMft7 

Oil. bM^ 5,:,60 

I'.-rk, M.Ih 4.1.791 

Pelts and Skii»s, buud 7,OS2 

Pens, hn 670 

PolafocH. bftjfs 56,111 

Kic-». bnndles 6.1S0 

eholild<•r^ bbls. 1544 

Slue:'. No 11,503 

8ni,'ar. bl.la 4,122 

Ball, bMr* 45,300 

W'^sn. boxes 8,414 

T.a, >y chea's 1,360 



1860. 
27,683 
103.026 
11.270 
6,350 
63,441 

73".466 
23.583 

2,210 
13,266 
38,000 

3,183 
14,109 
179,698 
64,121 
16,636 
10.706 

2,506 

9,716 
19.128 
16,230 
68.660 
11.672 

3,676 

7.490 
29.016 

8.661 

14,7' 4 

1,694,961 

4,946,505 



7.106 

7.255 

23,340 

22'9.ii 

2,704.(»41 

2.726 

9,511 

13,567 

59-.>,044 

5S.090 



8,112 
25,111 

14'i96 

808,519 

15*976 
4,136 

87,891 
4,672 
V'M) 
6,447 
6.4.^8 
1.520 
876 

3»"iJ5 
10,805 

44 5.H4 

5.:<68 

11,191 

3'Ji>,2o6 

. Vo'eio 

7,144 

3b"646 
6,140 

"91622 



IWl. 1808. 

Tobacco. p*kg8 90i,6SS 

Tallow, bbls 14.825 Ijm 

VineKar, bbls 4,67) 

Whisky. bbl«. 11,607 ^91 

Wheat, bo 9,706,067 l,«7,7f7 

Wool, lbs, - 6,240,000 4^m 

In respect to diversified industry, Detroit 
is destined ultimately to take rank among 
the great manufacturing cities of the UnioiD. 
There are many large steam saw mills, fovii- 
dcrics with machine shops attached for the 
manufacture of steam engines, mill iroDS,aii4 
machinery of various kinds, stoves, agricol- 
tural impUmt'nts boiler manufactories, door 
and satih factories, breweries, rtc^ unitsdlj 
constituting a vast amount of varied in- 
dustry. Few cities in the country are mors 
favorably situated for the .prosecution of 
manufactures than Detroit, ai.d it is believed 
by many of its inhabitants that tranufactnr- 
in{; will hereafter be conducted on a macli 
more extensive scale, and in the future will 
constitute its chief source of wealth and 
greatnogs. 

Detroit has numerous charitable instita* 
lions and asylums for the destitute and 
aniicted, some of which are munificiently 
supported by the citizens. It has also seve- 
rn^literary nnd scientific institutions, sevenl 
of which are of a superior character, and are 
lil)t»! ally endowed. The jirimary and public 
schools may bo said to be the crowning glory 
of the city, as they arc, irideed, of the state. 
It I as two da'ly papers printed in the Eng- 
V>\\ laiiiiuage, and thiee in the German; two 
tri-wcckiy, seven weekly, and two monthly 
journals. 

The first newspaper printed in Detroit, was 
published under the auspices of Rev. Gabriel 
Richard, ot St. Ann's Church, by James M. 
Miller, and was called the " Michigan Essay 
or Impartial Observer." It was published a 
few months and then discontinued. In 1817, 
John P. Sheldon, commenced the publica- 
tion of the " rietroit Gazette," which was the 
first successful newspaper printed jn the ter- 
ritory. The Gazette office was destroyed by 
fire in April, 1830. and its publication was 
not renewed The Michigan Herald, was 
establii-hed in May, 182'), by Chipman&/ Sey- 
mour, and after being continue i for about 
two years, was discontinued. In November, 
1>^20, Ge«»rge L. Whitney commenced the 
publication of the Weekly Advertiser, which 
lias been issued without interruption ever 
since. The Advertiser has been issued daily 
since 18^5. The Detroit Daily Free Press, 
published by the late Sheldon McKnight, ap- 
peared a few weeks after the Advertiser, and 
still pursues a successful career. The De- 
troit Daily Tribune was established in Novem- 
ber, 1849, by H. Bams, Esq. and alter having 
been successfully published for some thirteen 
; cars, was consolidated with the Advertiser, 



DET eXATK GAZETTKEB. DET 243 

in 3a\j 1862, snd Ihs two papers are non The following table will prvaeot, &t a 

pnbliihed tuder tbe title of the D.trolt e'^'I'^b, mme idea of the hnaoeat aod the 

Advertiser and Tribane Besides ihese, TarioiiK activities of the citj: 

there is the ComnierciBi AdTertlser, pablished (titbtio or tdi cm or Dmoir jdlt I isu. 

by Charles F. Clark, a weelily Journal, NnmbtrnfFHDiUw ' . ' son 

deTofd chiefly lo the trade and conimerci: (Siotia, ..'.'"'!'""".J11II1I1I^I1^ aoo 

of the city and stale; The Monitor, o doilj '5""'".-— -----■:----- « 

paper dcTOleil lo politics and general news, «™jy ""la l ™viiilun 8ture« 4« 

by Joseph Wiiren ; the Michinan Farmer, M«haiilcBliup«""'r.lll^I!!"""""""™" tat 

a monthly Journal, published by W. 3. Bond IroiiMMhliiB&hop M 

H)d George Snyder, deToted to agriculture, R^igr'jSiinufKVoriVi' 's 

and the Democratic Farmer, a |)olitical and i^floomciiim Win-ka .™.'""'I'II!!I11^"""II i 

■gricaltaral journal, publislled by John 8, Hra»« KuundrlM. — » 

Bass- An of ti.e above papers are publish- Sie™ l-l»nljig D«)r,Su^, D1in<i.!,d purnltare 

ed in tlw EiiRlish langusge. There are nUo s«w U«nufMim*«'I"""""I"!™I!!I'IIIlIIl 1 

three Qemian ncwupape'S published daily Fignr HiMi, 7 

and weelily.towil: the Michigan Journal, by ?.?^,!ll"iv,:; '? 

4.4,0. MarjbBDsen, the Democrat anilViilks- rlJlTMrt™ «Id 'Miii^'«"FK"MiVl«;: 10 

bUtt.by MathewCrBnit'r&Cu.,and thrMiuh- dtvam Toeuen FMtor[«, ! 1 

isan StaatH Zeitui.g, by Dellnaa & fieierle. Sospand OBiiilIe Riclorlsa and Anhfrlvi M 

"The entire ouUlTndinsindcbtedne™ of the KiT^iJISSr '' ' * 

cilT, altheclos>-ortheflscalyearr)rl8(U,wa3 I.iTrry •■uiOmiubmBisblv., is 

1354,431,74. The entire amount of di^biirso """"'"■ » 

menu for the year, was 8288,294 80, as "^iXT'"' S7 

follows: C^iB WorKV-'-- -'---'--'-'-"---'----'-----'---" "11 1 

For8tr««L«D[ifcO»^.ndOeB(n.lFond P^wl'llIJ'lSi'al^iiiHnVhi; IB 

pDrpDM-l H'i.t^' ^ PnMIr Alalia. I 

For Frre&^artmMit Fund. W. I'D 21 cSSrS.S. ^ 

F«r««ord.:r. Coon Fund. IU3 BS j^Jf ' ! 

F« new lu«i Pabilc BoiMtng Fund,..,. ai^lB 18 OrnKa^'ii^V i 

jori..«..i FBMd w.T»T« CT.aii.is;;:::;::::::;:.":::::::::::::::;::: « 

K n—f /ii'^f,:;j — tViBi; Prt"t« ttohcMi*, , _. a 

IW Oenenl Kuld Fund, IJIlt IB HlraKmrtna Honn™. 7 

■Wfttwer Fi 



■Wfttwer FnBd a.M!t 61 I'rlvala M«l Shuna i 

For Park lippruirenieDl Fand, ,. lJii2 4L u»nii«tBni Mtt^tn KnvhiH 



jfiU W pi^oo ]r„rie md UcIodooB FwdorlH, . 

r-- -—,--- IB,810M p„^,n^,B«^h1n«II«tl^bl1l^Ilm«lt^, 

IbUtwaId Trffunrv kl daM of. iflikoo Art in. -^- 8.... ,^- 



at FocLorlca,... 



BsUiKclDTieuurj'ildste of lo,S90 att viiL«ipFiiistnriMi, .. 

_ . , Brush and Broom Fa 

TB«al, |iSS.v9t89 BonrdliiK H™««,.. 

— - -~~^^ ' Bara for IteUll of Hplrltuana Llqnorn, % 

The water works furnished in IS(il,80r.,229,- Rail Car UmuficioHBiV.V.V.'.""'*.'"."" 

*2Sg«Ho«lsof«ater, and Ih" total pipage of tbc li* t,1 "'"'?«'•■ 'V:::! 

worksiasixty ■flvemiiesand4,634 feet. There RlsJoSa"!" vi!?3S,--ff?f:::::::":;:;;: 

areSIB htdrants in use, and 1-J4 street re- UuUcrr aiid B<U)b Tool Futory, 

■nroirs connected. The whole amount of piio Manuflunorioa, 

liabilities incurred by the Board of Water i^irtSio^^ I":."::;::::." 

Commissi upers is, |(i60,000— of which there Pump UADufHctu'rl'ti); mid W ^'rlnit,' --■ 

has been expended for Con'truction ?608, Sienm Malcb Fsolprjr, 

326 08, and the Board haie on hand ?44, ^fySrd^ "*■ ::""." 

702 61, inakins the amount expended for rub .nd l-ii yBciory,'"".r 

and on hand {652.827 64. The Ship Yant>, 

rived for water mtes, the only U""*! ^'";i'"ip-:iV 

.hfa nf Iha ana^A In >...=. {..f.- IJianiullo vvorRi, 



reliable resource Of the Board ,. 

nt and current expenses, in 18G1, was Cope Walk, — 

tM,760 01. The bonds are due as follows: *olar CompHM 

IB 1878, #50,0001 In 18^8, $100,000; in 1880, .ob" PnrK 

190,000 ; in 1888, |10U,OOOi in 1886, Llu^a of etcu'mb 

1100,000 ; in IB90, $100,000. Total of bonds , "•<*'°'", — 

tSOO,000. Total 1 abiUlieB of city and water -VunM^a^ti 

works $981,481 74. iarn.^L.. ..'o's.ak 



244 



DET 



0HABLE8 F. CLABK^S 



DET 



Ifiteellsoeoiu 8oci«tie«, 88 

Public LlbrariM, embnielDg 10,000 Tolamts, ... 

OoDTento, 4 

Ballroadi, 



Detroit was incorporated as a city bj an 
act of the Qoremor and Judges in 1816, seven 
years before Boston bore the name and ezer- 
eiaed the privilege of a city, and the govern- 
ment was rested in five trustees. This act 
was suspended in 1824, by a new charter 
passed by the Legislative Council, when the 
late John R. Williams was chosen Mayor. 
The following table gives the names of the 
gentlemen who have held the office of Mayor, 
also the period of their administration and the 
profession, viz: 

JobnR. WiUlams, merchant 18M 

John B. WiUUnu, do 1836 

Henry I Hunt, do 1826 

JohnBiddle,n.8.A. 1827 

JohnBlddle, do 1828 

Jonathan Kearaley, U. B. A 18W 

John R. Williama, merchant 1880 

Marahal Ohapln, pbyiiclan 1831 

LeylGook, merchant 1888 

Marshal Chapln, physician 1888 

Oharlea 0. Trowbridge, banker, (resigned 

In Anfnst) 1834 

Andrew Mack, seaman, (to fill vacancy) 1884 

LeriOook, merchant 1886 

LeviCkMk, do 1886 

Henry Howard, merchant 1887 

Aogastas 8. Porter, lawyer, (resigned 

In the CsU) 1888 

Asher B. Batea, lawyer (recorder and act- 
ing mayor) 1888 

Da Oarmo Jones, merchant 1889 

21na Pitcher, physician 1840 

Zlna Pitcher, do 1841 

Douglass Honghton, physician 1842 

lOna Pitcher, do 1848 

John B. WUllfims, meachant 1844 

John R. WlUlams, do 1846 

John B. Williams, do 1846 

James A. Van Dyke, lawyer 1847 

Frederick Bnbl. merchant 1848 

Charles Howard, do 1849 

John Ladae, tanner 1850 

Zachariah (;handler, merchant 1S61 

John H. Harmon, printer 186t 

John H. Harmon, printer 1868 

Oliver M. Hyde, merchant 1854 

Henry Ledyard, lawyer.... 1855 

Oliver M. Hyde, merchant 1856 

Olirer M. Hyde, do 1867 

John Patton, carriage maker... 1858 

John Patton do 1859 

Christian H. Buhl, merchant 1860 

ChrisUan H. Buhl, do 1861 

Wm. 0. Duncan, brewer 1862 

The city charter was amended in the win- 
ter of 1866 — 7, previous to which time the 
city officers were elected annually. The new 
charter provided that Mayor Hyde, should 
hold over for the year 1867, and that the elec- 
tions of Mayor and city officers thereafter 
should take place biennially. 

The following tables and statistics, from 
Clark's Annual Directory, will furnish a more 
minute description of Detroit and its institu- 
tions: 

CITY (K)VERNMENT— 1862. 

William C. Duncan, Mayer; office, GriswQid 
Street, between Fort and Michigan avenne. 



Francis Pramstaller, City Clerk; offlcei 
City Hall. 

Henry A. Morrow, Recorder; office, City 
HaU. 

Francis W. Hughes, CUrk Recorder's Court; 
office, City Hall. 

BOABD OF ALDBBHAK. 

Prendent — Francis B. Phelps; let Ward, 
Joseph Godfrey, George S.Frost; 2d Ward, 
M. H. Webster, Edward Le Favour; 2d 
Wardj Theodore Williams, Joseph Hoek; 
ith Ward, J. C D. Williams, F. B. Phelps j 
bth Ward, H. H. Leroy, Jacob S.^ Farrand; 
Qth Ward, James Shearer, Anthony Linge* 
man; 7th Ward, Joseph Cook, George Miller; 
8th Ward, William Purcell, Patrick Galkp 
gher; 9th Ward, John Ford, William 8. 
Bond; lOthWard, Francis C.St.Aubin, Paul 
Gies. 

BXBCDTIVB DBPARTMEST. 

Controller, Deodatus C. Whitwood ; office, 
City Hall; Treaeurer, Allen A. Rabineau; 
office, City Hall ; Attorney, Thomas M. Mc- 
Entee; office, Aotunda building; Marehal, 
John B. Sladler; office, City Hall; Deputy 
Marshal, Daniel Mahoney ; office, City Hall; 
Surveyor, Eugene Robinson ; office, Gris- 
wold, between Fort and Michigan avenue; 
Reeeiper of Taxes, Thos. R. Cummins ; office, 
City Hall; CoUector, John Snyder; office. 
City Hall; Director of Fow, William V. 
James ; office, City Hall ; Clerk of the Re- 
corder's Court, Francis W. Hughes; office. 
City Hall : Assessor, W. W. Wilcox ; office, 
Griswold, between Fort and Michigan avenue ; 
Hietoriographer, B. F. H. Witherell ; City 
Fr inters, Geiger & Scripps ; office, 212 Jef- 
ferson avenue ; Sexton, Valentine Geist ; 
Police Justice, Minot T. Lane; corner Bates 
and Lamed ; Clerk Police Court, Peter B. 
Austin ; Station House Keeper, Charles C. 
Bird ; comer Bates and Lamed ; Sealer of 
Weights and Measures, William A. Henry ; 
office, Griswold, between Fort and Michigan 
avenue ; Board of Sewer Commissioners, 
Franklin M. Wing, William Barclay, A. She- 
ley, T. H. Hinchman; office, Griswold, 
between Fort and Michigan avenue ; Board 
of Grade Commissioners, W. W. Wilcox, John 
Owen, Jeremiah Godfrey, William Stead; 
Street Commissioners, Eastern District, T. L. 
Campau; Wetiem District, James Collins; 
City Physicians, 1st District, John M. Alden ; 
2d District, Edward Schroeder; 3d Dis- 
trict, Charles R. Case ; 4th District, Robert 
Mullaney ; Board of Health, J. S. Farrand, 
president; Joseph Godfrey, M. Howard Web- 
ster, Theodore Williams, J. 0. D. Williams, 
H. H. Leroy, James Shearer, Joseph Cook, 
William Purcell, John Ford, F. C. St. Au- 
bin; Clerk of the Market, Bernard Egger- 
man; Inspector of Oas Metere, Alfred 
Maish ; Wnyhmattert, Eastern District, Charles 



DET 



STATE GA2ETTBBB. 



DET 



246 



Dabois; Western Diitriet^ Daniel Donovan; 
JanitorSf City HaU^ James Crabb ; Seminary 
BuUding, Georgre Ridette ; Wood Intpeetcr^ 
On the dockf I^stem Dittrict, Charles Jepkins; 
On the doek, Western District, George Weber ; 
On market f Eastern District, Micba^ Schrick ; 
On market, Western District^ Mathias Lentz 
City Scavengers^ William Jones, Benjamin 
Bini^leton. 

Constables, \st Ward, John Gore; 2d 
Ward, C. T. Allen; 3rf Ward, David M 
Freeman; ^th Ward, John Gnaa; bth 
Ward, Lyman B. Smith ; 6M Ward, James 
Love; 1th Ward, Dennis K. Sullivan; 8<A 
Ward, Timothy Mahoney ; 9/A Ward, John 
Zimmerman ; lOth Ward, Frederick Freibur- 
ger. 

Ward CoUeetors—lst Ward, David Dicker- 
son ; 2d Ward, Chas. O'Neil; Zd Ward, 
Leonard Ricter ; 4<A Ward, John J. Dede 
rich; bth Ward, Alonzo Eaton; ^th Ward, 
Wm. L. Streeter; 1th Ward, Nazaire Ma- 
rion ; hth Ward, Thomas Trahey ; %th Ward, 
Thomas Gorman ; lOM Ward, Henry A. 
Blenmau. 

Overseers of Highways — "ist Ward, John B. 
Long; 2d Ward, Laurence McHugh ; M 
Ward, Thomas Schamaden ; Ath Ward, Con- 
rad Gies ; 5M Ward, Francis McDonald ; 6/A 
Ward, Nicholas Wherges ; 1th Ward, George 
Moebs ; %th Ward, Cornelius Danahey ; 9/A 
Ward, John Fey ; lO^A Ward, Anthony Dei- 
mel. 

WARD B0I7XDARIR8. 

First Ward — All that part of the city be- 
tween Shelby street and the webteily line of 
the Jones farm, and Michigan Avenue west 
and the Detroit river. 

Second Ward — Bouni^ed on the west by 
Shelby street, on the north by Michigan 
Avenue west and Monroe Avenue, on the 
east by Randolph street, and south by the 
Detroit river. 

Third Ward — Bounded west by Randolph 
street, north by Gratiot street, east by St. 
Antome street, and south by the Detroit 
river. 

Fourth Ward — Bounded west by St. An- 
toine street, north by Gratiot street, east by 
Rivard street, and sonth by Detroit river. 

Fifth Ward—^onn^eCi north by city limits, 
west by westerly line of Jones farm, south 
by Michigan avenue weut, and east by Wood- 
ward avenue. 

Sixth Ward — Bounded north by city lim- 
its, west by Woodward avenue, east by east- 
erly line of Dequindre farm, and southerly 
by Monroe avenue and Gratiot and Ran- 
dolph streets. 

Seventh Ward — Bounded north by Gratiot 
street, west by Rtvard street, south by De- 
troit river, and east by Dequindre street. 

Eighth ^arrf— Bounded north by city lim- 
its, west by westerly line of Baker farm, 



south by Detroit river, and east by westerly 
line of Jones farm. 

Ninth Ward — Bounded north by city lim- 
its, west by westerly line of Porter farm, 
south by Detroit river, and east by easterly 
line of Woodbridge farm. 

Tenth Ward — Bounded north by city lim- 
its, east by easterly line of Leibe farm, south 
by Detroit river, and west by tho easterly 
line of Dequindre farm. 

PIBB DBPABTMBHT. 

Each ward composes a distinct fire district, 
and the number of the ward is struck by 
each alarm bell throughout the city, thus in- 
dicating the location of the fire. 

Officers of the Department— President, R. S. 
Dillon ; Secretary, James Henry ; Tdlerg, 
William Carson, Jr., James Stackpole ; Chief 
Engineer and Fire Marshal, James Battle; 
\st Assistant, Thomas Oakley; 2nd Assistant, 
John McDuff; Superintendent of Repairs and 
Supplies, James Battle. 

Steam Engines — ^No. 1, House on Wayne 
street, between Lamed and Congress ; James 
Henry, Foreman. No. 2, House on comer of 
Lamed and St. Antoiue streets; George Hatch, 
Foreman. No. 3, House north side Clifford 
street, between Washington and Woodward 
avenues ; John Hopkins, Foreman. 

Hand Engines — No 7, HouHe on comer of 
Lamed and Riopelle streets; R. 8. Dillon, 
Foreman. No. 9, House on Gratiot, between 
Beaubien and St. Antoine streetn ; Peter 
Smith, Foreman. No. 10, House on Orchard, 
between Fifth and Sixth streets ; James 
Stackpole, Foreman. No. 12, House corner 
of Fort and Thompson streets ; Moses Done, 
Foreman. 

'Hook and Ladder Conynmy — No. 1, Hohse 
comer Wayne and Lamed streets ; William 
Cooper, Foreman. All officers and men of 
the Fire Department are employed and paid 
by the city. 

WATBB WOBKS. 

Board of Commissioners — Edmund A. Brnsh, 
Alexander D. Fraser, William R. Noyes, Ju- 
lius D. Morton, Chauncey.Hurlbut. 

Officers — PresidetU, Edmund A. Brash; 
Secretary, Robert E. Roberts ; Superintendent 
of Extension and Repairs, Benjamin B, 
Moore ; Engineer, John E. Edwards ; Res* 
ervoir Keeper, Jacob L. Muth ; Collectors, 
James Fenton, C. B. Mosher. 

HODSB OP CORRBCTIOH. 

Russell street, near the city Reservoir. 

Superintendent, Z. R. B rock way ; Board 
of Inspectors, William C. Duncan, H. P. Bridge, 
Anthony Dudgeon, John J. Bagley. 

JUSTICES OP THB PBACB. 

Eugene Fecht, Jos. Kuhn, Julius Stoll^ 
John Fuller. 



246 DET CHARLES F. CLARE'S 



DET 



STATE GAZEflTBEB. 



DET 



247 



Qeon^. W. Bissell, Bmican Stewart, George 

B. Dickinson, Augostus E. Bissell. 

CBMETBBIES. 

Bbnwood Cemetery — Elmwood avenue, be- 
tween Croghan and Waterloo streets. Board 
•f TrueUtBf A. D. Fraser, President \ John 
Owen, Treasurer', C. I. Walker, Secretary, 
A. D. Frazer, Henry Ledyard, C. I. Walker, 

C. C. Trowbridge, John Owen, J. S. Jenness ; 
&eeiitwe Committee, C. C. Trowbridge, Henry 
Ledyard ; Superintendent, D. Gladewitz, at the 
Cemetery ; Collector, Robert Bell, at the 
Savings Fond Institute. 

Mi. EUiott Cemeterif—OuUi. Elliott avenue, 
and adjoining Elmwood Cemetery. Agent, 
Patrick Devlin. 

CUif Cemetery — Russell, between Cemetery 
and Morses treets. Office, Fort Street, near 
Woodward avenne ; Agent, Valentine Geist. 

CHARITABLE AND BENEFICIAL SOCIETIES. 

8t, Michael t Beneficial Society. — Organized 
1856. Meets once a month at St. .Mary's 
school building, StAntoine between Lafayette 
and Croshan streets. Tresident, John Andre ; 
Secretary, John Gies ; Treasurer, Peter Zi^. 

St. Alphonsus Beneficial Society — Organized 
1851. Meets once a month at St. Mary's 
school building, St. Antoine, between Lafay- 
ette and Croghan streets. President, Peter 
Macbns ; Vice President, Joseph Blanke ; Sec- 
retary, Jung; Treasurer, Adam 

Wirth. 

Jetus, Mary and Joseph Beneficial Society. — 
Meets once a month at St. Mary's school 
building, St. Antoine, between Lafayette and 

Croghan streets. President, Schaeffer ; 

Vice President, Dietrichs ; Treasurer, . 

St. JosepKs Beneficial Society — Meets once a 
month in the St. Mary's school building, St. 
Antoine, betw. Lafayette and Croghan streets. 

President, Rev. John Schultz ; Secretary, 

Hnperz ; Vice President, Paul Gies ; Treasurer, 
Peter Martin. 

St. Joseph's German Benevolent Society — Or- 
ganized 1856. Meets once a month corner 

of Orleans and Jay streets. President, 

Krausmann ; Secretary, Feldman. 

St. Mary^s German Ladies' Society — Organ- 
ized March 25th, 1856. , Meetings held on 
first Sunday in each month, in vestry of St. 
Mary's Catholic church. President, Mrs. 
Wackerman; Vice President, Mrs. Gies; 
Seeret'try, Mrs. Machris ; Treasurer, Mrs. 
Sobeer. 

St. Aloysins German Young Men's Society — 

Organized March Ist, 1859. President, 

Kanfmann ; Secretary, A Pulte. 

German Catholic Orphan Society — St. Antoine 
between Lafayette and Croghan streets, 
ander the i barge of the Pastor of St. Mary'b 
church. 



Ladies^ Home Missionary Society — Meets on 
the first Monday in each mouth, at the United 
Presbyterian church, comer of Lafayette 
and Wayne streets. President, Mrs. Lillie 
Mitchell; Treasurer, Mrs. M. J. Scott; 
Secretary, Mrs. Elizabeth Harvey. 



CHURCHES. 

BAPTIST. 

First Baptist Church — Comer of Fort and 
Griswold streets. Erected, (old) 1833, (new) 
1860. Organized October 20th,' 1827. Num- 
ber of members, 183. Pastor, Rev. John H. 
Griffith. 

He/ward street Church -North side of How- 
ard street, between Second and Third streets. 
Organized June 29th, 1860. Number of 
members 90. Services at lO^i^ o'clock, A. 
M., and 7j^, P. M. Pastor, Rev. John 
Matthews. 

First French Baptist Church — High street, 
between Russell and Rivard. Society or- 
ganize.l September 20th, 1857. Church 
erected May, 1861. Number of members, 
60. Service at 10);^ o'clock, A M., and 7V^, 
P. M. Pastor, Romuald B. DesRoches, re- 
sidence, adjoining the church. 

Second Raptist Church (Colored.)— Croghan 
street, between Brush and Beaubien. Society 
organ zed 1849. Church erected January 
26th, 1857. Number of members, 261. Ser- 
vice at lOj^ o clock, A. M., and 3 and 1% P. 
M. Pastor, Rev. S. Chase, re:iideuce, No. 59 
Lamed street, w. 

CATHOLIC. 

Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul— Corner 
of Jetierson avenue and St. Antoine street. 
Service at 7, 8)^ *i"d 101^2 o'clock, A. W., 
and 3 and 7, P.M. Bishop, kt Rev. P.P. 
LeFevre, D. D. Pastors, Very Rev. Peter 
Ilennaert, and Rev. F. Gouesse. 

St. Joseph's Cat/udic Church (German.) — 
Corner of Fort Graiiot and Orleans streets. 
Erected March, 1856. Pastor, Rev. Aug. B. 
Tb. Durst ; Assistant, Rev. J. F. Fi iedland. 

St. Mary's Catholic Church (German.) — St. 
Antoine, corner of Croghan street. Erected 
1841. Pastor, Rev. Louis Clcesseves, C. S S. 
R.; Assistant, Rev. Albert SchajfTer, C. S. S. 
R., and Rev. Dumiuick Zwicket, C. S. S. R. 

St Annt's Cuholic Churih (French.) - North 
side of Larned, between Bates and Randolph 
streets. Pastor, Rev. Bernard SoftVas. Sexton, 
Fran9oi8 Jose Maurice, besidence of Pastor 
and Sexton, Larned street, north-east comer 
of Bates. 

Church of the Most Holy Trinity— Corner of 
Porter and Sixth streets Society organized 
1849. Church erected 1855 Seivice, ever\' 
morning at 8 and 10)^' o'clock; Vespers, 2 P. 
M. Pastor, Rev H.*T. Peters Residence, 
adjoining the church. 



CHA.BLBB F. CLARS'8 



SI Patrieki OtnrW— Adelaide, corner of 
John B. i>tr««t. Cburcli eracied Jnaa 24Lh, 
1860. Societf otf»u\zeA March ITth, I8<S2. 
SarWce at 8 a'ld ll|i^ o'clock, A. M., and 8, 
P. M. Pmtor, Ro». Jainea A. Ueoiieaa;, re- 
sidence, 85 Winiler Btraet, 



Charch of ChriHitm Di*nplet—CAy Hall. 
Bocitty organized 1840. Number of nem- 
bera, TO. Service at 10^^ o'clock, A. U., 
•Dd 3, P. M 



?. M. Faiier, Rev, John A, HnegU, n 
150 Lamed street east. 

St. JoAh'i Chirtk. — Comer of Ifocioc m»> 
me and Farrar «tre«t. Society organiwJ 
1833. Church erected 1851. NnmbBT g( 
iiembers 193. Pmtm; Ker. Chulea HalM, 
-esidence No. 42 Macomb atreet. 



lirtl Congregatiimal Charch — South ■ vent 
corner of Wayne anil Fott streets, Oruaniied 
De<)embor26th, 1S44. Erected 1854. Number 
of mrmhers, 3T0 Scrrice lOja o'clock, A 
M., ai.d 8M. P. M- Potior, Rev. H. D. 
Kltchel, D. |J. Residence, Woodbridge street 
in rear uf Chriel'* Cburcb, 



St. PtiuTt Churth — Corner of Coogread and 
Bhel'iy streets. Ofcanized November 22d, 
1824. PreSBiitcliurchre-huiUlSQl, SMot; 
Rt. Rev. Samuel A. SIcCoskry, D. D., D. C 
L. U. Residpnce, ?,i Consresa street west. 

Si. John'i Cliun-h— Comer of Woodward 
avenue and Hieli street. Chapel erecl«d 
18C9. Church prec ted 1800. Society organ- 
ize! December 8ll), 1868. Service lOJi 
o'clock, A M., and 7>4 o'clock, P. ^f. 
Bettor, Rev. Willinm E. Arniitagc. Reaidence, 
adjoiuiu? the cliuvch. Srrlon, Joseph Ireton; 
lesideuco, uT Oeoree t-traet. 

Chriil CJSurrA,— &'Uth side of Jefferson 
ftTenne, belwcrii Ha.stings and RivardKlreels. 
Society oreanized May 21*th. 1816 Chafie] 
erectnd 18(11. (Church in process of erec- 
tion). Number of mem Iters, 3)1. Service 
at lU.iX o'clock. A. M., and lU. P. M. Sun. 
dayscTioolat 2V>'<^'<^''<1* '^1 i 400scholBrs. 
Jtrrtor, Benjamin H. Paddock, residence. 
Russell House. 

St. Peler'n Clnirch— Corner at Trnmbnll 
avenue and Church Btreet. Society orgnnizeJ 
February 12th. lt)68. Church completed 
November. ISHl. Number of members. (10 
Serrice, ntlO'^ o'clock, A. M., and 3ij, P. M. 
Bata; Rev. Dr. H. J. Brown, residence on 
Baker street, between Sixth and Seventh. 

Mnrinn-'i Church. — Comer of Woodwar<l 
aveime and Woodhridge street. Chorch erec- 
ted. ISfiO- Service, at lOi^ o'clock, A. M. 
and 3 I'. M. Paitar, Alfred L. Brewer. 

Si. Mnllhiw'i a«l^ A.- (Colored). Cornel 
of St. Antoine and Connress ntreetn. Societj 
organized, 1847. Number of menibors, 25 
Service, at lU o'clock, A. 11. Sabluth schoo 
o'clock, A. M. 



^rvice, 9>^ o'clock, A H., and 2%, P. M. 
iVednesdayr "Jli o'clock, P. H. P<m(w, Bcf, 
?r. Eppling, residence in reu of cbarch. 

Belhil. — Comer of llaatinga and Lftwram 
itreeU. Society organized 1857. Chnrtk 
precled 1858. Nnniber of members, tS. 
Serrice lOM o'clock. A. M., and 7 P. H., 
Tuesday and Friday, 7 P. M. PaMor, Bar, 
Johu Meek, reeideuce. adjoining cbnrch. 

Firtt Grrman JU/amud Ckyrtk^-'Rjattli 
street, between Catherine oud Hlgli. SoeietJ 
nrganized August 15, 1812. Church erected 
1857, Number of memben, 106. Serrka 
at lO'i o'clock. A. M., and 7>i P. M. Pm- 
lor, p. Csst, residence. Mullet, between Bof- 
sell and Rivard streets. 

German Lutheran Chnrrh — Catherine, netr 
Fort Qratiot street. Organized March ttll, 
181)2. Patter, Rev. Hermanii Mueller. 

nsBREW. 

Brihrl SyHogojur. — Corner of Rivard tod 
Croghaii streets. Organized September, 1853. 
Number of niembem, 100. Railn, A. LaasL 
J>v*ttt, 8. Freedmaci; Prnidmi, B. SubloM; 
Vin-PrttidenI; Charles WeichBelbauni, "L, 
Ilerschman, &. Lieberman, M. Schluraan, 
Hyam Kranshoar. 

hcihtl ftyHBgogut. — Michigan aveone, be- 
tween Bates and Randolph streeU. Society 
organized September 2Tlli, 1861. Church 
renUtd. Number of members, 3G. Service, 
Friday evening, from 6 to 7 o'clock ; Satnr- 
day morning, from 8 to II. BxMi, H. 



BflM. — Woodbridge street, two doors weat 
of Woodward avenue. Society organiied 
16!Id. Service at 3 o'clock, P. M., Sabbath 
school, 2 o'clock, P. M. Pettor, K. M. WelU, 
residence, 05 Farmer street. Under control 
of " American Seamen's Friend Society." 

Tiibrrnadf Church. — Corner of WoBhiugtao 
Hvenue and ClilTord street. Organized 1849. 
Church ediflce erected 1850. Potior, Jamei 
Inelis ; CItri, E. P. Rankin. Service at 10)i 
o'clock, A. M., at 7}i P. M. Number of 
members, 180. 



I Methodiit ^iieopal ClurfA—Soutli- 

orner of Woodward avenue and Sute 

Society organized March 2Ist, 1622. 



FtMM>t church oroctod 1848. Nnmber of Fort SIrtii PrtA^ierim ChurtA. N. S.—Cor- 

MMDben, 275, Serrice 10)4 o'clock, A. M., qot of Fori ud Third Btreels. Society 

ud 7)4 P. M,j Sabbftlh school, 1)^ P. M organized, F8brnaTj-21,lB49. Present church 

BacDlar prftyer meetings, Thursday and occupied, NoTember 18, J856. Number of 

Plidky eTBDingB. Pattor, Rev. John M. Ar- members, 209. SerTice st lOJ^ o'clock, A. 

Dold; oacehODn.ll to 12, and6to6, daily. M., and 7>^, P. M. Paitor, Hev. Aswriuh 

BoMence, eoath-weit corner of Bowland Eldridge, D. D.. residence, 80 Fort street W, 

■nd But» stroett. SUcn. Alexander McFarrei], Henry C. Knlsbt, 

L^mytOt Stntt 3t. E. canreA— Comer of Samuel Zug, Edwaid C. Walker. Tnutm, 

Lkbiyett^ and Fourth streets. Society or- C. H. Buhl, Oeorge E. Hand, J. H. Jonei, 

gudMd, 1850. Church occupied, 1860. Nnm- John Qibson, Duui:aii Stewart. Lecture and 

her at members, 74. Service 10>a o'clock, prayer meeting, on Friday evening, at T)^ 

k.U..utA 7>i. P. M. Sabbath school, 2, o'clock, P. M. Sabbath School, 2 o'clock, 

P. H. Putar, B. Reed, residence, corner of P- M. 

Ukyette and Fourth streeta. SmoJ PraSjrffri™ Church-JeB^noa »»•- 

ITrriHf Sirttt C/ua-eh— Cornet of Walnut one. between Kivard and Ruasell streete. So- 

ud SsrenM) streets. Society organized, ciety organized, January 26, 1654. Church 

ISK. Church erected, 1866. Number of erected, 1866 Number of members, 200. 

nanbera, 76. Pmtor, J. W. Kellogg, resi- Hours of service, 10"^ o'clock, A. M., and 

dMioe, comer Sixth and Baena Viala streets, "i?*, P- M., daring itiimmer, and st 7^ in 

Serrice at 10>i o'clock, A. M., and 7)^, P. M winter. Paster, Rev. William Hogarth, D. D , 

/i___ .w— * ir p fi I r^™ _ «/ residence, 889 Jefferson aveuue. Tiraiurer, 

fS^^ f^J^i f ,^**'"*-C''™r 0' Eliaha Taylor, office, 168 Jefferson avenue 

*'^^l^^ "k"'"^,^ ,I«'*"J "'" 3Vm/<«, J. W. Tillman, H. E. Benson, B. 

e?^ i!1i, 'i^^S."'^'*^. ,!f^y^- . '?"'?' Wright, F. Wetmore, W. A. Bacon, 

ber of member*, 2S0. Service at lOJri o'clock, J* . , „ , . ™ . „ 

- - ^pi . rT.....j prtAifttnan CTnrtA-Corner -' 



Wayne and Lafayette streets. Organized 

1863. Service at \0)4 o'clock, A. M., and 3 

Pggj. P. M. Nomber of members, 136, PatU/r, 

OB and ^'' ^°^^ P' Scott. 

fint Gtraum M. S. Cft«r.-A— Beauhien, cor- „ , „ . „. - „ 

ner of C«ighan street. Society organized, ^tato and Grand River streeU. Erected ]8l». 

1M7. Church erected, 1850. Momber of Society organized, October Gth, 18o7. Service 

menbers, 86. Service at 10"^ o'clock, A. M., bUO^ o'clock, A. M., aiid at T>^, P. M. 

and 7>V, P. M. Thntwiny, 7 P. M. Pattor, ^of^r, Rev, Georgh Wendell Prime. 

Rev Q. Hachtrieb, residence, 67 Croghan BaUrK I'reibyterian Churfh — Corner of Bates 

street. and Farmer streets, .-oclety organized and 

awn rf 0*rmm M. B. Chttreh—lA Salleave., church erected, 1848, Numlier of members, 

near Chicago road. Church erected, 1858. 281. B(>rvice at 10!^ o'clock. A, M. and i%. 

Bomber of members, 60. Service every se- P,H. Psafor.Bev, Stephen Balmer,residenc«, 

Mtal Sunday, at 10>^ o'clock, A. M., and 7>|£ 63 Miami avenue, 

P.M. Pattor, Rev. J. C. Braun, residence, j^,,^, CAaprf— Cass avenue, oppoBite Co- 

RoMeUviIie. lnmbia street. Elisabeth Street Mission Snn- 

Africtm M, S. Chwrth — l^fayette street, be- day School meets in this cbapel 3)^ o'clock, 

tween B^anbien and Brash. Society organ- P. M. Ho regular preacher. 

iied, 1840. Church erected. June 1846 Nnm- cHiTiBiiJi 

bor of members, 200. Service, lOli o'clock, _, , „ ■ , ,r ■ ' .r., i r. 

i. H„ and 7>i P. M. Po,u>r. John A. War^ r,r.ia,f,^egat,onclUmi^» CA««A-Xor. 

ren, rerideno? 165 Beaubien street. P«' "' ^""'^ ''"i^''^'^*"^ "T^^^ '^""'" 

^ ' ber of members, 800. faiWr, 8. 8. Hunting. 

■«w laROakLiat. Sei^rice at lOJ^ o'clock, A. M., and 7>^ P.M. 

Iffw CXatvA Timptt — Macomb aTenne, he- coivbntb 

tween Clifford aod Park streets, Churcbde- „ , , „, , ^, ■ ,. a , u 

dkMed, August 26, 1860, Dumber of mem- ^ G»™< »/^ '**«"(«■"/ (^A^^'J^Randolph, 

ben, 60. Service lOM o'clock, A. M. between Lamed" and Congress street*. Sulw 
Suptrim, Mary Lucretia. 



Cmvent of th* Saertd Htart—ZIQ JeffenoD 
Rrti Prtdyttrati CAareA— Oomer of State avenue. Organized 1800. Ladt/ Si^xrier, 
■ad Farmer streeta. Erected in 1864. Pailor, Madaioe Deamarquest. 

Ber. George Daffleld, D. D., residence, comer Cemail of St. Mary — Comer of Jay and 
•f George streot and Woodward avenue. Ser- Orleans streets (Oermao). Sitter Superior, 
Ilea at 10)^ o'clock, A. U., and 8>j, P. H., H«ry JowphliM. 



250 



DET 



CHARLES F. CLABK'S 



DET 



Omvent of Notre Dame — St. Antoine street, 
between Lafayette and Croghan (German) 
Organized l&k). Established in Detroit in 
1848. Sitter Superior^ Mary Celestina. 

CUSTOM nousB. 
Post Office Building, Griswold street, cor- 
ner of Larn€»d. Collector of Cuatoms, Hon. N. 
G. Isbell ; Deputy CoOectors^ John G Irwin, 
Darius Lamson; Inspectoral Weighers, and 
Oturpcrsy Albert W. Town, Samuel Zug, Fred- 
erick Carlisle ; Inspectors and Special Surveyors, 
D. V. Bell, jr., J. Wilkie Moore, Edward 
Lauderdale, James H. Sutton, Caleb T. Power, 
Abijah W. Smith, William S. More, George 
Jackson, P. Babillion, Daniel Sheehan, \V. 
W. Howland. 



COURTS. 
hecorder'b court. 

Jvdgt^ Henry A. Morrow ; Clerh, Francis 
W. Hughes ; Terms ^ First and Third Monday 
in each month ; Court Ilouse^ City Hall. 

PROBATE COURT. 

Judge^ William P. Ycrkes ; Register, John 
H. Kaple ; Terms, First Monday in each 
mouth ; Court House, Congress street, corner 
Griswold. 

POLICE COURT. 

Justice, Mi not T. Lane; Clerk, Peter B. 
Austin ; Court Room, Bates, near corner of 
Larned street. 

United States Commissioners — Anthony Ten- 
Eyck, Henry Chipman, C. C. Jackson, Addison 
Mandell, James V. Campbell, George G. Bull, 
William D. Wilkins, George Jerome, Sidney 
D. Miller, William Jenuison, Jr., Thomas 
8. Blackmar, Theodore P. Hall. 

Masters in Chancery — George E. Hand, 
George G. Bull, Addison Mandell, Garwood 
T. Sheldon, James V. Campbell, Levi Bishop, 
D. A. A Ensworth, William Jennison, Jr., 
J. W. A. S. Cullen, D. J. Danson. 

CRICKET CLUBS. 

Peninsular Cricket Club — Ground, corner of 
Grand River and Third streets. Regular 
meetings on first Monday of each month. 

St. George's Cricket Club— Ground at the head 
of Brush street. Regular meetings on first 
Monday of each month. 



EDUCATIONAL. 

Officers and Members of the Board of Education 
f<yr the year 1802— Office in City Hall. Pre- 
sident, William A. Moore ; Secretary, Henry 
C. Knight; 'Treasurer, John Owen. 

Members of the Board— \si Word, William 

A. Moore, John Hosmer; 2rf Ward, Watson 

B. Smith, George A. Wilcox; ^d Ward, 
William Warner, John T. Meldrum ; \th Ward, 
John C. Gorton, William Gray; bth Ward, 
Asa P. Moorman, H. C. Knight; 6/A Ward, 
Edmund Hall, William Bond; 1th Ward, 



John S. Newberry, T. McCarthy ; 8fA Wmi, 
James Leddy, James F. Foxen ; ^th Wmi, 
Herl)ert Adams, John Molroy ; 10^ Wmi, 
R. S. Dillon, James A. Bailey. 

Standing Committees — On TesKhers, Memtk 
Hall, Newberry, Smith, Knisbt, McCaitky 
and Wilcox; On Schools, Messrs. Hooier, 
Gray, Moorman, Gorton, Meldium and Mit- 
roy; On School Houses, Western Jh'striet, MsMn. 
Leddy, Adams and Foxen ; Eastern DittHdi 
Messrs Bond, Dillon and Baily. AwMlm§ 
Committee, Messrs, Warner, Hosmer and Nev^ 
berry. 

LIST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

High 5c/kw/— Principal, Prof. Chaaey, 
salary, $950; 

Barstow Union — Principal, Senior Depart* 
ment, Mr. L. J. Marcy, salary, $850. 

Bishop Union — Principal, Senior Depart* 
ment, Mr. John F. Nichols, salary, $850. 

Capitol Union — Principal Juuior Depart- 
ment, H. A. Nichols : salary, $700. 

Cass Union — Principal Senior Department) 
Mr. H. Olcott ; salary, $850. 

Eighth Ward l^fiMm— Pi incipal Senior Dt- 
partment, Geo. W. Bigelow ; salary, $850. 

Fourth Ward, Colored School— Principal, 
Upper Department, Mr. J. Wbitbeck; salary, 
$600. 

Third TTar^— Second grade primary, Miai 
Thirkell, sa'ary $300 ; ffrst grade primazy, 
Miss Kate Ward, salary $240, 

Abbott Street - Second grade primary, Mias 
M.Rose, salary $300; fiist grade primaiy, 
Miss A. Brewstt-r, salary $240. 

Fourth Ward — Second grade primary, Mitt 
S. Hartmeyer, salary $300 ; first grade pri- 
mary. Miss R. Holbrook salary $240. 

Miami Avenue — Second grade primary, 
Miss F. M Russell, salary $3u0 ; first grade 
primary, Miss J. A Foster, salary $240. 

Trowbridge Street — Second grade primary, 
Miss .M. Mclnt<^)sh, salary $3ClS ; first grade 
primary. Miss E. McGowan salary $240. 

Lafoutaine Street — S cond grade p>imary, 
Miss E. A. Graham, salary $300 ; first grade 
primary, Miss M. Furie, salary $240. 

Grand River Street — Miss H. Leddy, salaiy 
$240. 

Tenth Ward — Second giade primary, Miss 
Mary Shaw, salary $330; first grade pri- 
mary, boys, Miss Mary Torrens, salary $240 ; 
first grade primary, girls, Miss Emma Smith, 
salary $240. 

ACADEMIES AND SCHOOLS NOT COaXBUTBD 
WITH THE BOARD OF EDUCATIOV. 

Detroit Classical and High 5eAoo/— 230 Wood- 
ward avenue. Rev L. Leonard, Principal. 

Detroit Female Seminary — Cort er of Fort 
and Wayne streets. J. F. Pearl, A. M., 
Principal, 

Michigan Female Semi'^aiy — 216 Woodward 
avenue. Leo Romer, Ph. D., Principal. 



DET 



STATE 6AZETTSBB. 



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251 



Academy of the Saered Heart — 810 Jefferson 
ayenae, souih side, between Beaabien and 
St. Antoine streets, under the supervision of 
the Ladies of the Sacred Heart. Madame 
Besmarquest , Lady Superior. (See advertise- 
ment and engraving.) 

Commercpjl College — MeiTill Block, comer of 
Jefferson and Wo d ward avenues. Biyant, 
Stratton and Goldsmith, proprietors; J. H 
Goldsmith, Resident Principal ; H. W. Ells- 
worth, assistant. 

Ladies' Day School — 267 Jefferson avenue. 
Organized 1861. Mrs. C. James, principal ; 
Miss James, as istant. 

Detroit C'.assical and Mathematical School for 
Boy» — 109 Griswo'd street. Organized Sep- 
tember Ist, 1860. Philo M. Patterson, M. A., 
Principal ; Ci arles F. Keilner, Ph. D., Assist- 
ant Principal. 

German English School — Lafayette street, 
north side, between Rivard and Ru>sell. 
Organized 1850. Teachers^ Florian Krecke, 
Oonstaniin Watz, C. H. Borgman, Julius 
Melchers, Miss Leuschner. 

Hebrew, German and English School — Rivard 
street, between Lafayette and Croghan. Rev. 
A. Laser, Principal, and teacher of Hebrew 
and German ; H. G. Jones, teacher of 
English. 

St, Joseph's German Catholic School — Comer 
of Orleans and Jay streets. Organized 1856. 
Gottfried Brandt, Principal of Bays' Depart- 
ment. Girls* Department under charge of 
the Sisters of Charity. 

German LuOieran School — Congress, near 
Rivard street, in rear of church. Organized 
1846. John Robert, Principal. 

German Protestant School — Russell, near 
Catherine street. Organized 1862. F. Hadt, 
Principal. 

St. Marys School — Croghan, corner of St 
Antoine street. Boys' Department conducted 
by the Christian Brothers; Girls' De{,artment 
by the S sters of Charity. 

St. Vincent Day School — Randolph street, 
west side, between Larned and Congi'ess. In 
charge of Sisters of Charity. Manager, Sister 
Mary Lucretia. 

St. Anne's School — 5i Larned street east. 
In charge of the Christian Brothers. Man- 
ager, Br(»ther Stephen. 

Priwite Evening School — Fi.^iher's Block. 
Open every evening, except Saturday and 
Sunday. H. G. Jones, Principal. 

Select School — 100 Brush street. A Jane 
Mabray, teacher. 

Seleef Colored School — 59 Lafayette street east. 
William A. Lee, Principal. 

Trinity Catholic School— 220 children. Under 
the direction of the Christian Brothers. Por- 
ter street. 

St. Mary's Catholic School (German)— 260 
children. Under the direction of the Christian 
Brothers. St. Antoine street. 



St. Ann's 'Caiholie School (French and 
English) — 800 children. Under ihe direction 
of the Christian Brothers, Lamed street, op- 
posite Catholic asvlum. 

St. Peter's Academy — 90 children. Under 
the direction of the Christian Brothers. 
Lamed street, near the Cathedral. 

Si. Joseph's School (QevmAU Catholic), corner 
of Jay and Orleans streets. Under the direc- 
tion of the Sisters of St. Mary. 

Catholic School for Girls— Vorter street, 
between Sixth and Seventh. Organized 
September, 1859. Sister Rosina Quinn, 
Manager. 

Cathdie School for Boys — Porter street, 
between Sixth and Sfveuth. Organized 
1857. Under the direction of the Christian 
Brothers. 

EXPRESS COMPANIES. 

United States Express Company — Office, 112 
Jefferson avenue. C. J. Petty, agent. 

American Express Company — Office in Ex- 
press Building, opposite the Michigan Ex- 
change. Charles Fargo, agent. 

FERBT BOATS. 

Detroit to Windsor from dock foot Woodward 
avenue — Argo, Capt. J. Forbes ; Essex, Capt. 
George Jenkins; Gem, Capt. Thomas Chil- 
vers. 

Detroit ^ Milwaukee B. R Ferry— From J>. 
& M. R. R. depot. Windsor, Capt. Clinton; 
Ottawa, Capt. Thomas Milligan. 

Michigan Central railroad Ferry — From M, 
C. R. R. depot. Union, Capt Edwin Watson; 
Transit, C&pi. John D.Sullivan; Union Ex- 
press, (freight boat), Capt. John N. Weston. 
The Union Express connects with all the 
Detroit railroads. 

GERMAN SOCIETIES. 

Harmonic Musical Society — Establish '^d June 
1st, 1849 ; meet every Wednesday and Friday 
evening, for reher^ls, at hall corner of Fort 
and St. Antoine streets. President, Charles 
Busch; Vice-President, G. Frey; Treasurer ^ 
Louis Barie. M 

German Theatrical Society — Organized in 
1862. Performances twice each month, at 
Funke's Hall, Macomb street, near Beaubien. 
President, H. Hennsler; Vice-President, Eu- 
gene Fecht ; Secretary, Franz Hesse ; Treasu- 
rer, Gresbeck; Sta^e Manager, L. 

Hochgraf; Costumer, F. Kreist; Prompter, 
Joseph Hcenninghausen. 

German Mechanics' Aid Society — Organized 
1852. Meets every Tuesday evening, in the 
Ghsrman and English school room, Lafayette, 
near Russell street. The object of this 
society is to educate its members in their 
social and political duties as citizens, also to 
afford relief to suffering members. President, 
M. Hartman; Secretary, » Ruppling; 



i 



CHA.HLB8 V. CLABX*S 



8TAIK OAZBFTKEB. 



CHABLBB F. CLAKK'B 



H 



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STATE (xAZETTSER. 



DET 



255 



StertUtry and Librarian, John Farrar ; 2V^as- 
wrer, Chaoncey Hurlbut ; Trustees, John Gib- 
son, Chauncey Hurlbut, Charles Byram, 
Frederick Buhl, James Burns, Robert Com- 
non, John Farrar^ William Barclay, William 
Hanha. 

Btimit Typographical Union — Organized 
October 4, 1852. Meets first Monday in each 
month. Hall in Schmitt's Block, north side 
of Michigan avenue east, near the City Hall. 
Frendent, William F. Moore ; Vice 1 resident , 
8. H. Risher ; Financial Secretary, John Born- 
man ; Recf>rdinff Secretary, D. H. Solis ; Cor- 
rwtpondinp Secretary^ Robert Gibbons ; Treas- 
urtr, William Graham ; Board of If tree tors, 
F. A. Schoher, Nicholas Haley. Thomas 
Crane, Timothy Finn, Benjamin F. Duncklee. 
Jmm'ier, Beecher Skinner. 

St, Andrew"* Society — Rooms over Vincent 
J. Scott's Banking Office, 159 Jefferson ave- 
nue. Meetings the firat Monday in each 
month. President, James Black; Vice Presi- 
inst, John Stirling ; Treasurer, E. Anderson ; 
Seerttmry, A. McLean. 

8i. Patrid^U Society — Meets annually, 
March 17th. at Michigan Exchange. I'resi- 
im/^ Bernard O'Grady ; Vice P res dents, 
Charles Fit7,simmou8, John Patton. H. 
(VBeirne, T. McCarthy, N. Flattery ; Almoner, 
Hugh O'BHme; Secretary ami Treasurer, 
Edward Brennan. 

haftiyttte Benevolent Society — Meets on the 
second Thursday of every month, in Bloynk's 
building, on the corner of Fort and St. An- 
toine streeets. President, E. N. Lacroix ; 
Vieie P rest lent, F. Dumon ; Secretart/, Simon 
ffignac ; Commissary, C. Hosanah ; Treasurer, 
F. X. Demay. 

Si. Elizabeth Benevolent Society — Rear of the 
Cathedral. Meets every Thursday afternoon, 
in winter. Regular quarterly meetings in 
January, May, July and October. President, 
Mrs. Patrick McGiimis ; Vice President, Miss 
Fanny Lee ; Secretary, Miss Mary Elliot ; 
Treasurer, Mrs. R. R. Elliott. 

Brothers of the Christian Seh^ols—Ul Larned 
street, E , and on corner of St. Antoine and 
Croghan streets. Founded in France, in the 
year 1681. Established in Detroit, 1850. 
Brother Stephen, Pireclor, 

Athenian Sodtty — meets every Thursday 
evening, at 7 o'clock, at 180 Woodward 
avenue. Organized February 4th, 1857. 
President, Samuel Crawford ; Vice President, 
Henry H. Norington ; Secretary, Elmer Wal- 
lace; Treasurer, Charles Little; Librarian, 
Augustus Murphy ; Critic, T. J. Spencer. 

Ladirs* Industrial Sohool Assoeiati^.n — Corner 
of Washington avenue and Grand River street. 
Bcguiar meetings are held monthly from 
April to October, and semi-monthly from 



October to April. Annual meeting on the 
first Tuesday in October, of each year. First 
1 director, Mrs. H. H. Brown ; Sea^nd Director^ 
Mrs. William A. Butler; Third Director, Mrs. 
Seth Reed ; Treasurer, Mrs. S. Eliza Noyes ; 
Recording Secretary, Mrs. Lewis Allen; CorreS' 
ponding Secretary, Mrs. Theodore Ronieyn. 

Historical Society of Michigan — Young Men's 
Hall. Incorporated 1828. Meets on the first 
Thursday in each month, from November to 
April. Presiicnt, B. F. U Witherell ; Corres- 
ponding Se^^retary, E. C. Walker; Recording 
Secretary, 0. B. Wilcox; Treasurer, H.. B. 
Brown. , 

Soldiers^ Aid Society — No. 164 Jefferson 
avenue. Organized July, 1801. President, 
Mrs. Theodore Romeyn ; Vice President, Mrs. 
John Owen ; Treasurer, Mrs. D. P. Bushuell ; 
Recording Secretary, Miss Sarah T. Bingham; 
Corresponding Secretary, Miss Valeria Camp- * 
bell ; Counselor, Dr. Z. Pitcher, U. S. Sanitary 
Commission. 

The Michigan Association for the Improvement 
of the Breed of Horses — Fall and Spring 
meotinofs for trial and for premiums, at Ham- 
tranick race course. President, S. P. Brady ; 
Secretary, H. C. Kibbco; Treawrer, J. W. 
Kelsey ; Directors, K. C. Barker, W. C. Dun- 
can, James Bently, J. H. Farnsworth. 

Michigan State Ayr icidtural Soiiety — Organ- 
ized March 17th, 1840. Meets annually, on 
Fair Ground, Detroit, for election of olhcers. 
The executive committee dotprniines the 
place of holding the Fair of the Society, 
'•which Fair shall take place between the 
first Monday in September and the third 
Monday in October, and the exact time of 
which shall be publicly advertised for at 
least sixty days previous." Presi/hnf, Ben- 
jamin Follett, Ypsilanti; Treasurer, Philo 
Parsons, of Detroit; Secretary, R. F. John- 
stone, of Detroit. Fxecutiro Committee, (Term 
expires October, 18f).S),T. T. Lvons.Plvmouth, 
Wayne Co.; W. J. Baxter, liillsdale, Hills- 
dale Co. ; Ira H. Butterfield, Utica, Macomb 
Co.; A. S. Welch, Yp.silanti, Washtenaw Co., 
George M. Dewey, Flint, Genesee Co. ; S. S. 
Baily, Grand Rapids, Kent Co. 

3{ariners* Association — Board of Trade 
Rooms, GO Woodbridge street west. Regular 
meetings are held every Saturday, from the 
third Saturday in December, until the last 
Saturday in March. President, James Mc 
Bride ; Vice Presidents, J. L. Andrews, J. Sin- 
clair; Treasurer, Thomas Neal ; Secretary, 
Elijah Newhall ; Librarian, C. K. Dixon. 

Detroit Young Men's Literary Society — Shel- 
don block. Room 7. Organized OctoI)er l5, 
18G1. Meets every alternate Sunday morn- 
ing. President, L. Black; Vite President, 
B. Prell ; Secretary, S. Cohen ; Treasurer, S. 
Heavenr:?h ; Librarian, 8. Weichselbaum. 



CBABLB8 T. CL&BK'B 



DET 



STATE GAZETTEER. 



DET 



257 



PreMtoH'8 Bank Note Reporter— Of^ce, 72 
Woodward aFenae. D. Preston & Co., pro- 
prietors. Published oii the 1st and 15th of 
every month, at $1,00 per year. 

OMNIBUS LINE. 

From railroad depots and steamboats to 
hotels and private houses — Office, corner of 
Second and Front streets. Fare, 25 cents 
each passenger. 

PARKS. 

JktroU Skating Park -Corner of Third and 
Cherry streets. President, John G. Erwin ; 
Treasurer, Justus Ingersoll ; Secretary, George 
N. Brady. 

Grand Oirem Parks — ^Woodward ave., from 
Plvk street to Adams avenue. 

BtoH Park— Comer of Fifth and Orchard 
streets. 

Crawford Par*— Corner of Fifth and Oak 
streets. 

Ba$A PtfrAr— Randolph street, between Bates 
and Parmer streets. 

Mfftomb Park — Park between Whiting and 
Trowbridge streets. 

Stofdcn Park — Between Whiting and Trow- 
bridge, near Stephens street. 

Casn Park — Between Ledyard and Canfleld 
streets, on Cass farm. 

€5»i/ra/ PffrAr-Between Farrar and Farmer, 
north of State street. 

West Park — Between Park and Palmer 
streets, north of State. 

POST OFFICE 

Sitnated on the north-west corner of 
Lamed and Griswold streets. Postmaster, 
Hon. William A. Howard ; Deputy Postmas- 
ter, RoUin C. Smith ; Chief Clerk, (delivery 
department) Charles H. Peck; Chief Clerk, 
(dtetribuUon department), Morris M. Wil- 
hams ; Local Agent, William S. Wood. 

PUBLIC HALLS. 

City HaU — Michigan Grand avenue, east 
side Campus Martius. 

Piremen*s Mall — Jefferson avenue, south- 
east comer of Randolph street. 

Masonic Sail — 133 Jefferson avenue. 

Merrill HoU — North-east corner Jefferson 
and Woodward avenues. 

Odd Fdlowif Hall — Woodward avenue, be- 
tween Lamed and Congress streets. 

(Hd Fedows^ Hall, (new)— Corner Campus 
Martius and Monroe avenue. 

Young Men's Hall — Biddle House, Jefferson 
vrenae. 

BAILROADS. 

Michigan Southern and Korthern Indiana 
tsSr^ad — Office and depot, Atwater street, 
foot* of Brush. Detroit to Chicago, and 
bnoicbes, 484 miles. President, £. M. Gil- 
Wt; Vies-Prnident, M. L. Sykes, jr. ; Treoi- 
WW, Henry Keep; SuponnUndmt, John D. 

6 



Campbell ; Local Agent, Detroit, L. P. Knight ; 
Board of Directors, E. M. Gilbert, M. L. Sykes, 
jr., John S. Barry, Philo Morehous, Stillman 
Witt, William Keep, Hamilton White, Nelson 
Beardsley, William Williams, Henry Keep, 
Milton Courtwright, Albert Havemeyer and 
Allen Campbell. 

Detroit, Monroe and Toledo RaUroad. — Office 
and depot, Atwater street, foot of Brush. 
Detroit to Toledo, G5 miles. President, M. 
L. Sykes, jr. ; General Superintendent, John D, 
Campbell; Local Agent,DQiro\i, L. P. Knight; 
Sevretary and Treamrer, William F Staunton; 
Directors, E. M. Gilbert, Henry Keep, Albert 
Havemeyer, John S Barry, M. L. Sykes, jr., 
Philo Morehous, Stillman Witt, Nelson 
Beardsley, William Williams, Ransom Gard- 
ner, and Zachariah Chandler. 

Grand Trunk Railway — Office and depot, 
foot of Third street. Detroit to Portland, 
1,107 miles President, Hon. John Ross ; 
Managing Director, C. J. Brydges ; Secretary, 
Joseph Elliott; Superintendent Western Di- 
vision, C. R. Christie; Cashier and Agent, 
Detroit, Richard Tubman. 

Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad — Office and* 
depot, Atwater street, foot of Brush. Detroit 
to Grand Haven, 188 miles. President, C. J. 
Brydges; Vice-President. Thomas Reynolds, 
Resident Director, C. C. Trowbridge; Directors, 

E. A. Brush, H. N. Walker, W. K. Muir, R. 
Gill, J. Cullen; Secretary, Vf. C. Stephens; 
Counsel, H. H. Emmons ; Solicitor, George 
Jerome; Attorney, Lewis T. Ives; General 
Superintendefit, W. K. Muir; General Freight 
Agent, John Crampton ; Resident Engineer, 
Charles Holland; Acting Accountant, A. 
McL<an ; Auditor, James II. Muir ; Cashier, 

F. Wheeler; Store Keeper, James McMillan; 
Freight Agent, Detroit, James Cree ; Sta- 
tion 3£aster, Detroit, C. D. Palmer; Master 
3fechanic, B. B. Briscoe; Wood Agent, W. 
McDowell, 

Michigan Central Railroad — Office and de- 
pot, foot of Third street. Detroit to Chi- 
cago, 284 miles. Presidettt, J. W. Brooks; 
Vice-President, H. H. Hunnewell ; Treasurer, 
Isaac Livermore ; Gen'l Superintendent, R. 
N. Rice ; Ass't Superintendent, C. H. Hurd ; 
Loc/il Treasurer, Oliver Mac\ ; Cashier, (Jeorge 
W. Gilbert ; Auditor, J. Newell ; Freight Agent, 
John Hosmer; Superintendent of Machinery, 
A. S. Sweet ; Superintendent Car Repairs, John 

G. Sutherland. 

Greai Western Railway of Canada — Freight 
office, D. & M. R. R. Depot ; General Ticket 
office, M. C. R. R. Depot. Freight and pas- 
senger stations, Windsor, C. W., opposite 
Detroit. Niagara Falls to Windsor, C. W^ 
229 miles. General Manager, Thomas Swin- 
yard ; Financial Director, Thomas Reynolds ; 
Assietant Supermiendent, i^EatUm Div%aion\ 



CBASLGS F. CLABK'B 



W. Wallacp ; Gmeral Freight Agtnl, Thomai 
^e^\ ; Chief Eng.nttr,Q.h.Jie«A\ LoamBlire 
and Car Saperinttiideiii, S.SImrp; Attittant 
Suyriiileniletit (^Walem Jliruwo), JameH Pea- 
cock; Jgnit al Buffalii,Z\i\\\l&tio^\\li; Qeneral 
Agcnl at Jf'iiidtor, John Uarr. 



Dtreit Temp'. 



Wednesday 

Gmnd JJinit'i-" '_, 
Miehigiat — Mrel- jii 
TuenlaT io Nuvrrt; 

Maine Lam lir'i 
of Good rempt-'rt- 
So. 140 Wo.id«(.ftl 

Tke Gnmit /»^v«< 
■ion — M<vti> ' i 
ruary in eacli 

neOroiidl 
a1 BPFHton till. 
day ill May. 



. of r, Xe. 6— Meets every 
;tt Kn. 14fi Woodward ave. 
y'.. 13 — Meets every 
[, i.i Ko. 6 Lafaycttfi w. 

' /if .Vmu cJ Tempertnee of 
nniiiial Eeiminn on tlie tbira 
;er. In J8fi2, at Detroit. 
, A'o. 8, Independent Order 
Mi'ets Friday evening, at 

n/ J. o'ofO. T. of Mi'hi 
k'coiid WediieHday i " ' 

In 1868, at PoDtii 
tf Honor— lliMi ila anr 
, at Detroit, tliird Wedni 



Feb- 



Jtrireil. and Lett Superior — Iron City, Capl 
T. B. Turner; Clias. Cipvelnnd, 1st Male; 
James Clevelend, 2d Mate ; J. Alerril], Ktigi- 

iiper; Harriaun, SIPKard; John Bollflnil, 

Clerk. S. P. llrfldy &. Co.'s dock, foot ol 
WoiMlward nvenue. Water Wilrh, Ca]!!. B. 
Sweeny; Willinni Bcaman, 1st Mate; F. Rouse, 
Rlieinoer ; Walter Adams, Steward ; John 
Gordon, Clerk. Ilutchinsa & Co.'s dock, foot 
iifGriKWold strivl. Plinoie, Capt. Redmond S. 
Rvder; T.Wilson, 1« Mate; Wni. Gillett, 2d 
Mad- i Wni, Dustin, Steward ; A. Leftenr, 
EnEitieer. Pock, foot of FJrHl strpft. Xorth- 
em I-iffhl, Ca|il. .1. Spaldiiis; M. 11. Murch, 
Ist Mate ; A. Mi-Farland, 2d Mate ; T. Quirk, 
l»t Kntfineer ; J. Fitch, 2d Knjiineer ; A, B. 
Banker. Slewanl ; Wm. Bulta, Clerk. Dock, 
foot <'f First 81 rei-t. Hinernl ffwi-.Capt. Oporae 
HcKav ; J. Mnliloon, 1st Mate ; J. McKav, 
2d Mate; E. F. Prince. Clerk. Dock, foot ol 
First slrret. J'lnaol. Oapt. J. P. Ward; George 
Bntlin. 1st Mate; Walter Gould, Steward; 
II. P. LillybriddP, Clerk. 8. P. Brady*. Co.'s 
dock, foot of Woodward avenue. Trmrlhr, 
Capt. F. S. Miller ; Jos. Renville, 1st Mate ; 
Peter Murray, iPt Knfiineer; fleo. Moir, 2d 
Engineer ; Jolm Hniall, Steward ; John John- 
son. Clerk. IhitchinKs & Co.'s dock, foot ol 
flriswold street, Ciii/ of Ctiveland, Capt. Gen. 
H. Ryder ; S. Andrews. 1st Mate ; Phillir 
Young, 2d Mate; Joel Oderie, Irt Engineer; 
John Driscall, Steward; T. C. Robinson, Clerk. 
Dock, foot of 'Woodward avenue, 

IWmil imd Snamntf — Hiretler. Capt. Henrj 
Flab ; John Ratterey, lat Mate;' Cbarle't 



Mate; Wm. Ferry, lit Bh^mh; 

^ke. Steward ; (}eorge ^Inwr, 
utchings & Co.'s dock, foot of 
treet. Leaves Tneadays and Fit 
o'clock A. M, Foretl Q*eeit,Ctft. 
'nyon; H. Johnaon, Engitieer, Wo. 
ttMate; J. Greeosdale, Steward; 
Iker, Clerk.. Uutchiugs & Co.'i 
of Griswold street. 
id Cletiiani—Jiay (^teen, Captail, 
IcKay; Geo. B But^od, Cl«k; 
(ill, Steward; 8. K. Walten, 

Hugh HcLaagblin, 1st Uals; 
cKay, 2d Mate. Dock, foot of 
St. Leaves Monday, WedoBidiy 
■, at 8,30 P.M. 

£tar— Captain, E. B. Viga; 
rton, Clerk; M. S. Qagnon, Stew- 
B, Watson, Engineer; Wm, Thoni, 

Duncan UcLaughliu, 2d Maw. 

of Shelby street. Leaves every 
Thursday and Saturday, at a30 

and Maiden— Peart, Capt. R. E. 

D. Rurke, 1st Hat« ; F. Labmn, 
Dock, foot of Wayne strert, 
Iden, 7 A M., Detroit, S^o'clotk 
y, Sundays except«<t. Cterv, CipL 
.CliSbrd. EnRiueer: Alex Tromb- 
rd. Dock, font of QriswoM street, 
j. P, M.f very day, escfpt Sunday. 
'leiroit end Saginmc—Uurm, Capt. 
le; George Burch, Male; Wm. 
nEineer ; Wm. L. Kellogg, Clerk. 

of Bates street. 

Detroit and Green £ay — Eocbet, 

ice. Cornel, Capt. W. H. Wetmore, 

of Griswold street. 

ndPorl SuroH—Rvby, Capt E. F. 

o. Granger, Mate; Charles Barroa, 

Thouiaa Mercer, Steward ; Ji^ 
Clerk. Hoicbings' dock, fool oC 
Blreet. Lcaies 2.'^ o'clock F. M, 

Sundays excepted, 
W S««dutiy—T. Whitney, Capt. S. 
} ; ITenry KlasoD. lat Engioeer. 
, of Bales street. Leaves Mondav, 
y and Friday, at 9 A. M. 
mrf GihraUer-OIiio firsn-A, Capl. 
>ra ; John Dye, Mate ; Christopher 
, Engineer. H utchings' dock. 
[ P. M. every day, except Sunday 

ilan VariflieA — L. M. Bavleas,'jr><<- 

and 231 Jcflerson avenue. 

National Thratre-Joha Deville, 
W8 Fort street e. 

DTamatie Soeiety't Theatm—S. 
Director; Macomb street. Dear 



DET 



STATE GAZETTEER. 



DET 



259 



Kifi^r^M Concert H^tU — Peter Guenthner, 
Manager ; corner of Orleans and Lafayette 
streets. 

TBLBORAPH COMPANIES. 

Western Union Telegraph Company — Office 
in Bagg'B Block, north-east comer of Oria- 
wold street and Jefferson avenue. George 
W. Balch, Manager, Detroit office. This 
Company emhraces all the Telegraph lines 
within the States of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, 
and portions of Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri, 
Kentocky, New York and Pennsylvania. 
Capital $3,000,000. 

Montreal Tdegraph Company— Office in 
Bagg*8 Block, north-east corner of Griswold 
street and Jefferson avenue. George W. 
Balch, manager, Detroit office. This Com- 
pany embraces all lines in the Canadian 
Prorinces. 

TBA58P01tTATI05 COXPAXIES. 

Western Transportation Company — Office, 
Hard's dock, foot of Second street. Agents, 
J. L. Hnrd &. Co. 

Merchants IHspatch Fast Freight Line — 
Office with the American Express, Company. 
Agent, Jared Chittenden 

Northtm Transportation Company — Office in 
fire-proof wareboose, foot of Randolph 
itreet. Agent, £. R. Matthews. 



DETROIT BUSINESS DIRECTORY. 



A^eiit) AdTertisiiiir* 

Briggs Lyman K, Griswold, opposite P 0. 

A||eiit«9 Collecting. 

CLARK CHARLES F, 63 Griswold. 
Dickinson & Crosby, 149 Jefferson av. 
Welch James M, 148 Jefferson av. 
Dureraois F W, 153 Croghan 
Nexaen Elias, 7 Brady's building 

AiT^nty Eiand* 

Clark Charles F, 68 Griswold. 

Agentay Steamers* 

(Lakb Superior Line.) 

8 P BRADY &L Co, Foot Woodward av. 

Affenclosy Mercantile. 

BRADSTREET J M & SON, 68 Griswold. 
Don R O & Co, 159 Jefferson av. 

Africnltnral Implemeiits. 

Hitchcock A, cor Second st and Dock. 
PENFIELD, W S, agent, 103 Woodward av. 

Amalytleml and Consulting 
OMemlsts* 

DUFFIELD SAMUEL P, laboratory, cor 

Clifford and Henry. 
Higby dc. Steama, 60 Woodward av. 



Se€ Dbuob ahd Mbdicixbb, Retail. 



Architects. 

Anderson James, 53 Giiswold, late Jordan & 

Anderson. 
Le<lerle Anthony, 549 Jefferson av. 
Lloyd Gordon W, cor Congress and Griswold. 
McAllister John, Third nr Grand River. 
Schaeffer John, 10 Buhl's block. 
Smith Sheldon & Son, 89 Woodward av. 
Wyckoff Robert, cor Seventh and Abbott 

Artists. 

See Also Portrait Paintkhi. 

Brush James A, 32 Montcalm w. 
Geyer Hermann, 95 Jellierson av, 
St Alary Emile, 185 Jefferson av. 
Teunv Edwin L, Franklin House. 

Artists— PhotograplilG and 
Dagu e r r e I an . 

Abraham Alfred W, 105 Woodward av and 
car opp P 0. 

Bardwell John J, 162 Jefferson av. 

Campbell Silas W, cor Monroe av and Ran- 

* dolph. 

Doreing Frederick, cor Farrar and Randolph. 

Fenerty John, nr cor Michigan av and GriB- 
wold. 

Grelling Gottschalk, 219 Jefferson av. 

Hoyt William P, Woodbridge bet Second and 
Third. 

Johnston James, 69 Bates. 

Langer Charles, Woodward av cor Larned. 

McKenna James, 101 Jefferson av 

Millis Isaac T, Waterman Block, cor Lamed 
and Woodward av 

Moore D, 160 Jefferson av. 

Natus John, 185 Russell. 

Pierce David, cor Wayne and Michigan av w. 

Poore F, cor Michigan av and Griswold. 

Randall J J, 8, 12, 18 and 14, Fisher's block. 

Randolph Edmund, 149 Jefferson av. 

Raymond James F, 205 Jefferson av. 

ROBERTS WILLIAM, 159 Jefferson av. 

Smith Daniel J, cor Grand River and Gris- 
wold. 

« Attorneys. 

See Lawybbs. , 

Auction and Commlss'n Mercliants. 

Blake Patrick, 5 and 7 Michigan av w. 
Bromley William, cor Michigan av and Gris- 
wold. 
CARGILL & DIMMICK, 193 Jefferson av. 
Lapham & Thayer, 22 Michigan av w. 
McGinnis Patrick, 26 Monroe av. 
McGinnis Peter, 181 Woodward av. 
Rennie John J, 141 Jefferson av. 
Seeley John H, 11 Michigan av w. 

A-wnlng niannfactnrers. 

See Sail-Makebs. 

Babies' Carriages and Cabsy 
mannffaetarers off« 

DOELTZ Q & BRO, 70 Woodward av. 



260 



DET 



CHABLES F. CULRK^S 



DKT 



Bams J A, U»l Woodward ar. 
Bevar John B, 103 Lafavette e. 
Copland A W, 2() Monroe av. 
Cop'and John, 84 Randolph. 
Elliott Robert, 108 Gratiot. 
Uatc'li Joseph, 87 (.'ongress e. 
Hultun G & C, 20 Jederson ar. 
Jeanes Jamcfl, 40 Lamed w. 
Kennaott Gottleib, n w cor Franklin and 
HastinfTH. 

Kirn John, cor Second and Buena Vista. 
KratZKchmar £ S. cor Rioi>eIle and Chestnut. 
Lee William, Vii) Randolph. 
Lent on James, 140 Lamed w. 
Marvin &. Guthrie, cor Randolph and Wood- 
bridge. 
Mix Charles K, 87 Concpvss e. 
Morrison William P, 81 Lamed e. 
Muhlok John, 110 Woodbridge. 
Palmer Richard, 139 Michigan ar. 
Petre(|uin Peter, 104 Croghan. 
Remington William L, 09 Grand River. 
Richard John, 170 Rivard. 
Rielly John, 295 Franklin. I 

Schulmaier Peter, c(>r Jay and Orleans. 
Stockburger John, 473 Gratiot 
Van Damme Bruno, 92 Gratiot. 
Walz Jacob, 218 Macomb. 
Wittlesberger Frank, 310 Michigan av. 
Wittlesberger Joseph, Hastings cor Mullett. 
Witherspoon W. 18») Woodward av 
Zeuner Ernest, Lasalle av nr Michigan av. 

Baklni^ Poivder*. 

Heath J C, 8 State e. 
Beasley George M, 128 Fort e. 

Band-box Iflanafactnrers* 

Fowler Henry, 25 Jetferson av. 

Band, (String and Braa*). 
Detroit City Band, 235 Jefferson av. 

Banker*. 

Butler William A & Co, 08 Griswold, 
Dey A H, Griswold near P 0. 
Ives C & A, 149 Jefterfon av. • 

Kellogg, Granger & 8abin, 37 Woodward av. 
Parsons & Fisher, Rotunda Building. 
PRESTON DAVID & CO, 72 Woodward av. 
Scott Vincent J, 159 Jefferson av. 
SEITZ F L & CO, 53 Griswold. 

Bank** 

See Page 240. 
Barber* and Hair«Bre**ers« 

Bates John, SO Jefferson a v. 

Beyer Charles, under Michigan Exchange. 

Beohler Reinhanlt. 202 Jefferson av. 

Binga James H, Coyl's Block. 

Butcher William, 43 Griswold. 

Casterton &. Hill, 19 Fisher's Block. 

Cogley John, 248 Rivard. 

Cook Lomax B, cor Atwater and Beaubien. 



Duncan John, 54 Michigan Giand av. 
Fewins William, under Russell Room. 
Gonlon Richard &. Son, 4 Lamed e. 
Gray Henry, 09 Jefferson av. 
Haiey James, 357 Franklin. 
Harrison Green, :^41 Lafayette e. 
Jaffrey Cullen & Owens, Merrill Block, 
Johns(»n William H, 103 Atwater. 
Kreit Ulrich, 207 Gratiot. 
Lett D G & Son, 12 Congress e. 
Lowe John A, 40 Griswold. 
Mayberry Joseph, 'MHt Atwater.* 
Mt»issner William, 10 Congress w. 
Miles Daniel, 28 Third. 
Miller Charles, 197 Michigan av. 
Moody Robert. 133 Woodhridge. 
Moore Alexander, 231 Macomb. 
Nicholas Thomas, 139 Woodbridge w. 
Nietlermueller Friederich, 259 Hastings. 
Owens Thomas, 231 Macomb. 
Richard John D, 40 Griswold. 
Sackmenn Adolphus, 123 Randolph. 
ShtHjnfelder August, 74 Atwater. 
Starks Robert, cor Giand River and Cass and 

121 Catherine. 
Smith Archer, 135 Woodbridge. 
Thompson John, 179 Michigan av. 
Wood C, 13 Michigan av. 

Basket Makera. 

Demstaldt Andrew, 408 Croghan. 
Engel Carl, Gratiot nr Randolph. 
Frank Peter, ss St Joseph, bet St Aubin ar 

and Decjuindre. 
Kop[»ner August, 200 Catherine. 
Ludwig Jacob, ns Juliet bet Dequindre and 

St Aubin av. 
Ruefer Joseph, 234 Clinton. 

Bell-Hang'er. 

See 'Also Lock-smitus. 
Hensing Henry, 07 Randolph. 

Blllard Booms. 

Behr Frederick, 76 Griswold. 

Brandt Louis W, 273 Jefferson av. 

Ehrman Maurice, 41 Michigan Grand av. 

Finney & B(M)ker, 100 Bates. • 

Funke Frederick, 04 Macomb. 

Funke John W, se cor Russell and Clinton. 

McClure Colin, 109 and 171 Woodbridge w. 

May Samuel, cor Jefferson av and Randolph. 

Seereiter John, 215 Jefferson av. 

Smith George, 03 Larned e. 

Whipple Daniel, 228 Jefferson av. 

Billiard Table Mannffactory. 

Scliiileiiburg Charles, 02 and 04 Randolph. 
Weber Henry, 129 Woodward av. 

Blacklnjf and Ink Hannfactorr* 

Smith A H, 79 Jefferson av. 
Blackamltha. 

Anscomb George C, Grand River nr First, 
Belnap Philo G, Woodbridge, Thompson 
farm. 



DET 



STATE OAZEITEEB. 



DET 



261 



Blackwell Thomas, 61 Michigan ay w. 

Gharlan Zeb, 803 Michigan ay. 

Cook John, Atwater nr Rivard. 

Cullen John, Grand Biver bet First and Sec- 
ond. 

Duiz Wilhelm, ss Qratiot bet Bivard and 
Russell. 

Delany Frissby (col'd), cor Gratiot and St 
Antoine. 

Dreher Caspar, 180 Rivard. 

Bnmoutier Alexander, ws St Anbin ay bet 
Wuo<lbridge and Franklin. 

Fox Robert, 19 Congress e. 

Geisler M M, 88 Lamed w. 

Hickey Daniel L, 27 Atwater. 

Hilseudegcu Valentine, 898 Gratiot. 

Horau & Sughrue, G2 Lamed w. 

Katos Aloys, 137 Macomb. 

Katus Peter, cor Macomb and Riyard. 

King William, 42 Lamed e. 

Lampkin Frederick, Grand Riyer bet Fifth 

and Sixth. 
Lemonde Timothy, 698 Gratiot. 
Lempke Charles, 609 Gratiot. 
Lara Richard, 10 Middle. 
Laudpe Henry, r 128 Catherine. 

McCarthy William, State nr cor Griswold. 
Madden Walter, Atwater foot Riyard. 
Mohn John, 188 Griswold. 
Ohlert Peter, 828 Michigan ay. 

Paget Thomas, ss Larned bet Randolph and 

Bates. 
Paton Peter, Atwater bet Orleans and I>e- 

quiudre 
Plantz Adam, cor Beanbien and Clinton. 
Priemor Lucas, ss Gratiot bet £lmwood and 

Mt Elliott ays. 

Reich ween George, r 187 Catherine. 

Reno Alexander, Woodbridge, Loiguon faim. 

Riley James, Atwater foot Riopelle. 

Riley Thomas, Atwater bet Second and Third. 

Rouch Thomas, n cor Michigan ay and Sixth. 

Steinbrecher William, Woodbridge, Loiguon 
farm. 

Van Antwerp F H, cor Riopelle and Atwater. 
Vandamme Peter, ws St Aubin ay bet Larned 
and Jefferson av. 

Walker Robert, Sixth bet Congress and 

Woodbridge. 
Whiting Abruliam, 214 Woodward ay. 
Wiber Peter, 75 High. 
Worthen R £, Lamed bet Second and Third. 

Blank Book* and Stationery* 

See Bookbinders. 

PEASE GEO. B & SON, 210 Jefferson ay. 
Palmer Friend, 150 Jefferson ay. 

Bleaclier* 

Wright & Lee, 204 Jefferson ay. 

Block and Fnmp Makers. 

See Pump Makbbb. 



Boat BnllAera* 

See AUo Ship Buildbbs. 

Jenkins John, Woodbridge, Thompson fkrm. 
Perrault Dayid, 444 Atwater. 

Boiler Makers* 

See AUo Macunists. 

Breunau J & J, Lamed nr Third. 
Buchanan & Carroll, Atwater bet St Antoine 

and Hastings. 
DETROIT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, Lamed 

bet Third and Fourth streets. 
McGregor J & T, Atwater bet St Antoine 

and Hastings. 
Dunham John, Atwater bet Deqoinder and 

St Aubin ar. 

Book Aipents* 

Andrews William V, 2G9 Jefferson ay. 
Boothroyd & Youngblood, 205 Jeflbrson et. 
Briggs Lyman, 70 Griswold. 

Book«Blndere« 

Calnon Michael J, 55 Griswold. 
Elwood 8 Dow, 49 Griswold. 
RAYMOND & ADAM-^, 90 Woodward ar. 
Palmer Friend, 180 Jefferson ay. 
RICHMONDS 6l BACKUS, 185 Jefferson ay. 
Slater John, 16G Jefferson ay. 
Vermulen Charles H, 205 Jefferson ay. 
WANLAS8 ANDREW, 122 Jefferson ay. 

Bookeellere* 

Allen M Augustus, 158 Jefferson ay. 
Boehnlien G & M, 213 Jefferson av. 
HOWE WILLL\M B, 102 Jefferson av. 
King George, cor Croghan and St Antoine. 
RAYMOND & ADAMS, 90 Woodward ay. 
SMITH E BURNHAM, 110 Woodward ay. 
Stickel G L R, 42G Gratiot, and 24 C H mar- 
ket. 
Verdon Lawrence, 77 Griswold St. 

Boltlnff Clothe an* Mill stonee. 

SNOW WILLIAM, 102 Woodward ay. 

Bonnet Bleackere and Preeeere. 

Wright & Lee, 204 Jefferson ay. 

Boo. a> d Shoe IVIanafactnrere and 
'Wholeeale Dealere. 

Baldwin H P <& Co, 25 Woodward av. 
HubbcU William &l Co, cor Raudol])]! and 

Lafayette. 
Nelson, Hayward & Co, 154 Woo<lward ay. 

Boot and Shoe Bealere* l¥holeeale 
and Retail. 

Bour A &. jr, 254 Jefferson ay. 
Clark George A, 154 Woodward ay. 
Farnsworth Benjamin S, 178 Jeffbrson ay. 
Loring Daniel A & Co, 195 Jefferson ay. 
McGRAW A C ifc Co, cor Jeffersoti and 

Woodward ays. 
Rucker W A, Ul Woodward av. 
Tyler C C & Co, 83 Woodward av. '. 



262 



DET 



CHARLES F. CULKK S 



DET 



Woodhull George, nw cor Woodward and 
Michigan avs. 

Boot and Slioe ]>ealer«9 Beta.il* 

Madden J B, 179 Congress st. 

Smith Stephen, 67 and 69 Woodward av. 

Barnard Sherman S, 106 Woodward ay. 

Baver Michael, 454 Gratiot. 

Bo'otz Wendell, 211 Gratiot. 

Butler Frederick, 303 Woodward av. 

Dandell Henry, 149 Woodbridge w. 

Dihle C, 79 Gratiot. 

Eckert J, 67 Grotiot. 

Eib John, 366 Orleans. 

Farnsworth & Maskilo, 35 Michigan av w. 

Fischer Charles, 307 Woodward av 

Geist Valentine, ss Fort bet Griswold and 
Woodwani av. 

Giefel Jo9ei)h, 184 Gratiot. 

GLASS JOHN, 93 Jefferson av. 

Goodrich Charles B nr cor Grand River and 
Cass. 

Hagar George, 116 Franklin. 

Jager Joseph, 266 '-roghan. 

Javer Gilbert F, 263 Woodward av. 

Jones Samuel, 39 Woodward av. 

Jones William. 34 Jefferson av. 

Judson Otis, 114 Woodward av. 

Kelly Charles, 45 Jefferson av. 

Keusch Joseph, 216 Jefferson av. 

Kidder F H & Co, 125 Woodward av. 

Kimball Saigeant W. 10 Hastings. 

KNIGHT ALFRED, 131 Jefferson av. 

Koce Frank, 101 Rosalie. 

Kremer Fiank, 24<) Jifferson av. 

Kresfs Christian, 275 Woodward av. 

Langley William. Grand River nr Adams av. 

Lee Henry, 107 Woo<^lward av. 

LKFAVOUR EDWARD. 108 Woodward av. 

Lvon H, 186 Woodward av. 

Magermann Engles, 251 Macomb. 

Maier J, 249 St Antoine. 

Martz .Nlichael, 220 Jefferson av. 

Miller Albert, 73 Monroe av. 

Metzger Frederick, cor Croghan and Rivard. 

Muller Louis, 136 Lafayette e. 

Newman Charles, 218 Woodward av. 

Niebling Peter, 256 Jefferson av. 

Nowack Wansel, nw cor Hastings and Napo- 
leon. 

Nowack Wil iam, C H market. 

Richasty Peter, 433 Hastings. 

Sabin Wni C, nr cur Grand River and Middle. 

fcjchauz M, 6 State. 

Sciiwenman Martin, 293 Franklin. 

Schiiitler George, 152 Rosalie. 

Selkeiraer Valentine, 201 Atwater. 

Spengler & Schaffler, 94 Grand River. 

Smith William P, Earned bet Shelby and 
Wayne. 

Stewart W W, 105 Woodward av. 

TYLER C C & CO, 83 Woodward av. 

Vellinger William, 385 Hastings, 

Wajlde Charles F, cor Gratiot and Catherine. 



Weres Michael, 10 City Hall market 
Willmer Frederick, 266 St Antoine. 
Zachereder Joseph, 60 Gratiot. 

M—t and Slftoe MmMmn* 

Adloff Louis, 5 Congress e. 

Belanger Andrew, Michigan av, Porter 

farm. 
Blenman Henry A, 608 Jefferson av. 
Bodde Frank, 168 High. 
Bommersbeim Thomas, ne cor Macomb ud 

Dubois. 
Borchman Charles, 640 Woodbridge w. 
Brueckman Jacob, 189 MuHett. 
Burkard Melchior, 242 Beaubien. 
Buttker John, ss Germain bet St Aubin v 

and Dequindre. 
Gonnay Christopher, 161 Abbott. 
Dendel & Hummel, 141 Michigan tv. 
Diehle Charles, 184 Croghan. 
Dietz George, Rivard nr Croghan. 
Einteldt Christian, 318 Michigan av. 
Ellis Isham, 212 Macomb. 
Emmendorfer Frank B, 12 Grand River. 
Festan Francois, 4Q7 Croghan. 
Fitzpatrick Curnelius, 21 Fort e. 
Fonderhoeder &, Weber, 51 Michigan Grind 

av. 
Forster John, 37 Fort e. 
Froehlich Henry, 215 Lafayette e. 
Geyer Guenther, 137 Catherine. 
Gies Frederick, 95 Congress e. 
Gorius Joseph, 37 Maple. 
Gorman Thomas, 527 Mich'gan av. 
Hegarty Jeremiah, 179 Michigan av, 
Henich Ernst, n s Clinton av bet Chene and 

Dubois. 
Hin^ching William, 91 Atwater. 
Hohlfeld Heinrich, Hastings bet MuUett and 

Catherine. 
Hopkins Bernard, 154 Abbott. 
Josephelt Henry, Orchard cor Seventh. 
Kaeding John, 141 Mullett. 
Kastel Frank B Lasalle av nr Michigan av. 
Kennedy John, 193 Michigan av. 
Enittweis John, 207 Macomb. 
Kuellen Nicholas, ne cor Bellair and Dequin^ 

dre. 
Kunze Lewis, 120 Woodbridge. 
Kydd William, 74 Abbott cor Third. 
Liebermann Constantine, 80 Fort e. 
Luckadoe James, 248 Rivard. 
McGovern Anthony, 60 Henry. 
McKinney Patrick, 184 Croghan. 
McLaughlin Jeremiah, 118 Grand River. 
Malo Fran9ois, es St Aubin av bet Fort e 

and Lafayette. 
Manske August. 179 Russell. 
Marx Joseph, 22 St Antoine. 
Miesen Joseph, 166 Macomb. 
Miller Christian, 63 Ati^ater. 
Miller Henry, cor Michigan av and Seventh. 
Norton Thomas, 220 Abbott. 
Palmer Augustus, 126 Randolph. 



\ 



DET 



STATE GAZETTBBB. 



DKT 



263 



PfefiVr David, oe cor HoUett and Dubois. 

Orth John, 97 Macomb. 

Redpath John, 121 Michigan av. 

Scbiber Henry, 415 Seventh. 

ScbmiUdiel John H & Son, 144 Eighth. 

Bcholes R G, 102 Jefferson av. 

Schweink John B, Woodbridge, Thompson 

farm. 
Smith Joseph, ne cor Lafontaine and Giaod 

River. 
Soest Joseph, 503 Gratiot. 
Staach Louis, 191 Croghan. 

Thompson Alexander, 104 Adams av. 

Todd John W, 153 Jefferson av. 

Uppendahl Frederick. 213 Croghan. 

"Wachter John, 171 Macomb. 

Wein Jacob, 33 Griswold.* 

Worpell Jolm, 312 Michigan av. 

Young Henry, cor Bates and Congress. 

Zander Joseph, 211 High. 

Zeller Joseph, Woodbridge, Laferty farm. 

Bo^rllng^ Saloons. 

Loeser Augustus, 116 Randolph. 
O'CALLAGHAN DANIEL, 19 Griswold. 

Bottlers. 

Sorris George & Charles, 54 Jefferson av. 

Box makers— l¥ood and Packing. 

See Packing Box Making. 

Brass Founders. 

DETROIT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, Larned 

bet Third and Fourth. 
Flower James & Brothers, 23 Brush. 
HarTey Andrew, 123 Woodbridge w. 
Daris Solomon, 116 Bates. 
Kankin James, 175 Larned w. 
RankinJ&J S, 65 Third. 

Breiirers. 

Ameis Nicholas, ns Clinton av bet Dubois 
and 8t Aubin av. 

Aim Frederick, cor Russell and Hi^rh. 

I>annstaetter Jacob & William, cor High and 
Riopelle 

Dwh John, Adams av ne cor John R. 

Deville John & Nicholas, 2U8 Russell. 

Duncan's Central Brewery, cor Second and 
Woodbridge. 

Qraphans Frederick, ns Detroit bet St Aubin 
av and Dequindre. 

Hammond S C, First bet Lamed and Con- 
gress. 

Hartong Charles, 230 Lafayette e. 

Krueger August, cor Rivard and High. 

Kunze 1 arl, 4^ Har iet cor Beaubien. 

I*onhartt Christoph, 121 High. 

McRoy Daniel, cor Fifth and Abbott 

Mackay John, cor Fifth and Beech. 

Marsh Robert, 93 Catherine. 

Bowker &. Blackmur, cor Michigan av and 
Sixth. 

Came George W, foot St Aubin av. 



Miller Henry, ne cor Jefferson and Elmwood 

avs. 
Minard Charles W, 547 Michigan av. 
Pfohmann Adam, rear 225 Mullett. 
Pnihringer John, 84 Marion. 
Stickmeyer Frank, rear 329 Hastings. 
Stroh Bernhart, Gratiot bet Hastings and 

Prospect. 
Voelkel Joseph, cor Maple and Gratiot. 
Waltensperger C F, 274 Russell. 
Werner Henry, cor Croghan and Russell. 
Brown Rufus & Co, cor Seventh and Abbott. 

Brick makers. 

Greusel John, 97 Michigan av. 

Hall Richard H, cor Wayne and Michigan av. 

Broona makers. 

Cuddy William, 820 Jefferson av. 
Phipps David, 12 Grand River. 
Thomas Philo, 820 Jefferson av. 

Brnsli makers. 

Laitner A & Sons, 139 Gratiot. 

Bnllders. 

See Carpenters and Builders. 

Chapaton Alexander. 121 Congress e. 

Fisher E «fc A, 7 Fisher's Block. 

Gibbings William, 62 Palmer. 

Ingersoll Isaac W, 60 & 68 Fort. 

Kilmer Aaron C, 276 Bmsh. 

McDuff & Mitchell, Jones bet Third and 

Fourth. 
Morehous & Dewey, Woodbridge nr Beaubien. 
Palmer & Odell, 45 Michigan av w. 
Reeves Alfred, 105 Fort e. 
Shearer Jas & Bro, Woodbridge nr Beaubien, 

Bulldiiifi: materials. 

Lewis Thomas, 393 Atwater. 
L'Esperance Francis, 395 Atwater. 

Buildlnff movers. 

Apger Ira, 327 Fifth. 
Elder Joseph, 128 Clifford. 
Lvon Anson E, 35 Elizabeth w. 

Burning Fluids. 

See Also Grocers and Druggists. 
Stokes Frederick A, cor Jefferson av and 
Wayne. 

Burr mill Stones. 
Snow William, 102 Wodward av. 

Bntcliers. 
See Meat Markets. 
Cabinet makers. 
See AUo Furniture. 

Corns Joseph, 109 Grand River. 

Clos Ch istian, 288 Orleans 

Federlein Martin, 131 Rivatd. 

Fisher Christian, se cor Congress e and Chen6. 

Humburg William, 375 Beaubien. 

Kalkbrenner William, r 308 St. Antoine. 



264 



DET 



CHABLBS F. CLABK'S 



DET 



Koch Andrew, 64 Latned w. 

Loewe Gottfried, ne cor Dubois and Clinton 

av. 
Preber August, 191 Clinton. 
Stortz Jacob, ws St Aubin av bet Congress 

and Fort. 
Tileax Charles, 574 Gratiot. 
Weber Henry, 80 and 82 High. 
Yost Augustus, ns Macomb nr St Aubin av. 

Candle Makers. 

See Soap and Candle Makers. 
Gandjr IVIannffacturers* 

Pelgrim, Gray Sl Co, 71 Woodward av. 

Carbon Oil. 

Cleveland Carbon Oil Co, se cor Jefferson av 

and Griswold st. 
FARRAND SHELEY «fc Co, 80 Woodward 

ftV 

Oil City Oil Co, 44 Griswold. 

Carpenters and Joiners. 

Beartman Adolph, Grand River cor Adams av. 
Becker Frederick, 75 High. 
Borchar Ferdinand, 145 Croghan. 
Briioekemann William, 80 Catherine. 
Buchbinder Adolph, 146 Catherine. 
Busch August, Lafayette bet Rivard and 

Russell. 
Carter J D, cor Griswold and Michigan av. 
Cascerman John, Waterloo bet Russell and 

Riopelle. 
Cockle Samuel E, 41 Sixth. 
Covert Henry, 8^8 Gratiot. 
DcMav Francis H, 51)1 Gratiot 
Devereux Patrick, 218 Fifth. 
Diebel Frederick, 107 Mullett. 
Eisele Jacob, 108 Catherine. 
Flyim Huah, 101 Fort e. 
Flynn Hugh, 108 Congress w. 
Gail Benjamin II, 158 Rivard. 
Gassrr George, 128 Catherine. 
German Thomas, ws Dubois bet Jefferson av 

and Larned e. 
Gey or Jacob, r 41 High. 
GiinOs Stephen, 149 Mullet. 
Hayeman Anthony, 259 Gratiot. 
Hatie Christian, 221 Macomb. 
Hoen Anton, 175 Russell. 
Hibbard Daniel S, ns Benton bet Hastings 

and St Antoine. 
Hopkinson John, 67 Fort e. 
Hornbogen John, 191 Clinton. 
Uiighos Thomas, cor of Fifth and Locust. 
Hunter Lester, .'J3 Sibley. 
Inuorsoll Lsaac W, 66 and 68 Forte. 
John Julius, r 120 Catherine. 
Knowles George W, 62 Macomb av. 
Leroy Joseph H, La'ned nr Cass. 
Mancus rhillij), 45 High. 
Nicholson Pickering, r 53 Pibley. 
Noel George W, 256 Beaubien. 
Peterson Charles, 179 Croghan. 
Pfeifle Peter, 198 Macomb. 



Pip Caspar, 204 Croghan. 
Roche Thomas, 76 Lamed e. 
Sancties Jacob, 218 Macomb. 
Sanderson Thomas, 207 Lafoyette. 
Scheiger Nicholas, sw cor Mullett and 

Dubois. 
Scheider John, 158 Mullett. 
Schneider Stephen, ss Gratiot bet Rivard and 

Hastings. 
Schwappe Frederick, 145 Mullett. 
Shearer James & Bro, Woodbridge bet St 

Antoine and Beaubien. 
SpoDtter William, 196 Mullett. 
Stephens Martin, 116 Catherine. 
Stoebel Wilhelm, 241 Rivard. 
Stcehr John, 182 Croghan. 
Stumph Henry. 22^ Rivard. 
Vinton G W, Elizabeth nr Grand River. 
Wallaster John, 227 Lafayette e. 
Waterfall Hugh &> Co, cor Fifth and Locuit. 
Way N & W, 113 Grand River. 
Weber Peter J, 161 Orchard. 
Wolf Henry, 164 Mullett. 
Yapi)es John, ss Cherry bet Dequinder and 

Gratiot. 

Carpet l^aiers* 

Abbott Thomas F, 142 Jefferson av. 
Nail James jr & Co, 74 Woodward av. 

€arpet Tack Slanuffaetarer. 

Pindar Edward W, ss Fort bet Hastings and 
Rivard. • 

Carpet l¥eaTers* 

Benoit Pauline, ne cor Dubois and Croghan. 
Ruik Jane, 166 Columbia. 
Fauser William, 255 Hastings. 
Ilenrich William, 100 Russell. 

Carriage IVIanufactarers* 

See Alfo Wagon Makers. 

Aul Adam, ss Gratiot bet Rivard and Russell. 
Chope & Paget, Randolph bet Larned and 

Congress. 
Gascoigne & Bushway, 60 Larned w. 
Grix 6u Ochsenhart, 162 Gratiot. 
Hilsendegen Valentin, 898 Gratiot, 
Hopkins W, 14 John R. 
Johnson Hugh, 7, 9 and 11 Monroe av. 
Kenzel Joseph, Hastings bet Congress and 

Larned. 
Lochbihler Joseph, ws Riopel bet Grat^t 

and Waterloo 
Longpre Louis T, cor Riopelle and Atwater. 
Lyons William M, cor Palmer and Grand 

River. 
Pagot Thomas, 44 Larned e. 
Patton John, sw cor Brush and Woodbridge. 
Priest & Drieher, ns Franklin bet Randolph 

and Brush. 
Reichle F & Co, cor Franklin and Randolph. 
Schubert & Bufor, ns Jeffersn av bet St 

Aubin and Dequinder. 
Smith William, l;J,15 and 17 Monroe av. 
I Wheeler Nol-man, 276 Michigan av. 



DET 



8TATB GAZBTTEKB. 



DET 



265 



Carriage K«r4^rmre. 

Hayden & Baldwin, 81 Woodward av. 

Glialii Maniiffaetiirers. 

Wyandotte Rolling Mills Co, 2 Woodward aT. 

€liair Maiiaffactmrers* 

See Also Furniturb. 

Farwell Simeon, Locust bet Sixth and 

Seventh. 
Flattery &, Brothers, 12 St Antoine. 
KRNYON J H, State bet Qriswold and Wood- 

ward av. 
Meyers W, cor Qratiot and Russell. 
Puchelle Ferdinand 226 Croghan. 
Ray A T, John R, nw cor Elizabeth. 

Oltemlcal UTorka* 

Dnffield Samuel P, laboratory, cor Clifford 
and Henry. 

Gitlldrenva Carriages. 

Doeltz G & Brother, 70 Woodward av. 
Hargreaves Brothers, Trowbridge nr Fort, 
Stanton farm. 

dilmney Siveeper. 

Parson George B, 86 Farrar. 

Clg-ar manufacturers and Dealers. 

Bmnele Joseph, ns Clinton av bet Chend and 

Dubois. 
Barkenoivetz Gustav*F, ne cor Russell and 

Lafayette e. 
Brand Hermann, 182 Gratiot. 
Eccard Edward, 169 Catherine. 
Finck Jacob, 72 Atwater. 
Finck Carl, 92 Gratiot. 
Goldsmith Oliver, 163 Jefferson av. 
GRUENEWALD H & CO, 75 Griswold. 
Harding Frederick 91 Atwater. 
Ilenicke Charles, 24 Fort e. 
Heller A, Fort sw cor Woodward av. 
Hesse Francis, 191 Lafayette e. 
House William C jr, 60 Griswold. 
Hughes Thomas W, 24 Michigan av w. 
Huperz Henry, cor Antoine and Clinton. 
Jacobson Solom<m, 247 Jefferson av. 
Kaichen Sam, 189 Jefferson av. 
Kremer Frederick, Franklin nr nw cor Brush. 
Kuhie C F W, 64 Monroe av. 
Luderus Pierce, 163 Gratiot. 
Reintried Joseph, 176 Rivard. 
Rohnert William, 90 Catherine. 
Rosenfield Isaac N, 106 Jefferson av. 
Rothschild & Brother, 231 Jeffeison av. 
Bother Charles, 196 Hastings 
Stokes John H, 265 Woodward av. 

CiTl Engrln rn. 

See AUo Surveyors. 

Lederle Antoi.y, 549 Jettcrs<M av. 
Ludden Henry D, ss Gratiot bet Chen6 and 
Elmwood av. 



Claaks, and Hantlllas. 

Freedman S & Bro's, 82 and 84 Woodward av. 

Gardner R, 88 Woodward av. 

Lindner H J Mrs, Fisher's block, ap ataurs. 

ClotMes Cleaners. 

Greig David, 45 Wayne. 

Lambert William, 15 Congress e. 

Rasch Nicholas, 97 Bates. 

Sleaker Louis, cor Lafayette and Beaubien. 

Clotlis Gassimeres and Vestlni^ 

Heavenrich Bro's, 78 Woodward av, 

Glotbinffy Manufacturers off* 

Heavenrich Bro's, 78 Woodward av. 

Cloth inir HVliolesale and Retail • 

BURNHAM A & CO, 188 Jefferson av, 
COHEN SIMON, 155 Jefferson av. 
HEAVENRICH BROS, 78 Woodward av. 
Kauffman Isadore, 181 Jefferson av. 
Keveny Patrick, 81 Jefferson av. 
King Jonathan L, 174 Jefferson av. 
Lehman Adolph, 84 Woodward av. 
Schloss & Brother, 180 Jefferson av. 
Trounstine Morris, 189 Jefferson av. 
FERNER & KRAUSHAAB,94 Woodward av. 
Hallock Horace, 168 Jefferson av. 
Hart Abraham, 186 Jefferson av. 
HEINEMAN £ S, under Russell House. 
Heller Abraham, 118 Woodward av. 
Heintermister Henry, 145 Jefferson av. 
Lieberman £, 97 Woodward av. 
McGrath James, 121 Jefferson av. 
MuUaue Dennis, Woodbridge bet Second and 

Third. 
Rosenberg Matthias, Grand River nr Adams 

av. 
Salomon Harris, 318 Gratiot. 
SCHLOSS &. BRO, 180 Jefferson av. 
Schroder John & Co, 251 Gratiot. 
SIMMONS SOLOMON, 139 Jefferson av. 
Stickle & Henkel, 198 Woodward av. 
Van Baalen Israel, 10 Michigan av. 

Clotliinff9 Sec€»nd Hand. 

Davis Aaron, 29 Michi<:i:an av w. 
Smit Rozet W, 5 Michigan Grand av. 
Van Baalen Israel, 10 Michigan av w. 
Lawrence George W, cor Bates and Congress. 

Coaeli and Saddlery Hard'ware. 

HAYDEN Sl BALDWIN, 81 Woodward av. 

Coal Dealers* 

Pittman James £, dock bet Cass and First. 
VIGEB AL£XANDER £, 46 Atwater. 
Woodville Goal Co, Woodbridge, below Gas 

Works. 
WILLUMS J MOTT, cor Griswold and 

Atwater. 

Coffffee Mannffacturers. 

Desnoyers Charles A, Grand River, near 
Park. 



266 



DET 



CHARLES F. CLABK'S 



DET 



Faller George F dt Co, 44 Jeflferson av. 

Coffee and Spices. 

Evans, Walker & Co, Home Mills, 96 Jeffer- 
son av. 

Coffin makers. 

See Also Undertakers. 

Clessen Peter, 144 Russell. 
Farwell J H, 181 Woodward av. 
Longtin Abram, 99 Lamed e. 
Myler & Son, 74 fieaubien. 
Roche Thomas, 76 I^rned e. 
Sutherland James, 91 Grutiot 

Collar (Horae) Manufacturers. 
Marsh Henry, 25 Grand River. 

Collar (Shirt) manufacturers. 

Barrett David T, 115 Jefferson av. 
Chandler & Bro, 53 Woodward av. 

Commercial College. 

Bryant, Stratton & Goldsmith, Merrill block. 

Commission mercbants. 

See Also Produce asd Forwarding. 

Anderson & Denton, 42 and 44 Woodbridge w. 

AYER8 & NAGLE, 4 Russell House block. 

Billings Jonathan S W, cor Woodbridge and 
Griswold. 

Bissell & Gillett, on dock bet Frst and 
Second. 

Craig James, dock bet Cass and Wayne. 

Crosby C L & Co, 5 Russell House block. 

Curtis R, foot Bates, 

Darling S B, Campus Martius 

DICKINSON & LAMBIE, dock foot Cass, 
city elevator. 

Edgar William H, 24 Woodbridge w. 

Erwin John G &. Co, cor Shelby and Wood- 
bridge 

Hendrickson J & Co, 71 Atwater. 

Ivor & Son, 243 Woodward av. 

Johnson M &- Son, dock bet Cass and Wayne. 

Langdon George C, foot Randolph. 

Lewis Alexander & Co, dock foot Randolph. 

Mathews Enos R, dock foot Randolph. 

PHELPS FRANCIS B, 28 Griswold. 

Rennie John J, 141 Jefferson av. 

Safford Charles L, 36 Woodbridge e. 

Sheldon C A, cor Second and dock. 

Standish John D &Co, 38 Michigan Grand av. 

Stimson Benjamin G, 70 Atwater. 

Trowbridge, Chipman & Rood, dock foot 
Bates. 

Composition Roofing^. 

Gilbert J W & Co. 54 Jefferson av. 
Messinger H K ».v Son, 183 Jefferson av. 

Confectioners. 

Behr Edward, 31 Michigan av. 
Dwyer Martin, 104 Jefferson av. 
German A, 30 Monroe av. 
Gore Meredyth E, 87 Atwater. 



Hesselbacher Oswald, 228 Jefferson av. 
Moore Walter, 205 Jefferson av. 
Morrison William P, 81 Lamed e. 
Pelgrim, Gray &. Co, 71 Woodward av. 
Phelps William & Co, 98 Jefferson av. 
Ricketts Samuel, 128 Lanied w 
Taff William H, cor Shelby and Woodbridge. 
Williams Mary, 216 Jefferson av. 
Winemann Henry. 229 Jefferson av. 
Wineman J U, 187 «^oodward av. 



Ingraham John, 21 Foit w. 
O'Connor Arthur, 77 Woodbridge w. 

Conirey-aBcers. 

Clark Charles F, 53 Qriswold. 

Coopors. 

Bodreau Alexander, rear 191 Adams ar e. 

Bunyea Prosper, al rear Commercial Mill. 

Christ John, rear 96 Elizabeth e. 

Clark James, Howard, bet First and Second. 

Dorman August, 84 High. 

Ewers William, 33 Cass. 

Jacobs William, 82 High. 

Johnston George J, cor Gratiot and Riopelle. 

Kling Philip, ne cor Hastings and Gratiot 

Kuoelson Theodore, rear 375 Gratiot 

Loer John, rear 42 Marion. 

Maincoth Frederick, ws Elmwood, bet Clin- 
ton av and Gratiot. 

Marr Jeremiah, 172 Gratiot. 

Mounton Friederich, 400 Gratiot. 

Puihringer John, 34 Marion. 

Reutschler John 41 Maple. 

Reynolds Whitney, 132 Beaubien. 

Robaeys C V, Orleans n w cor Fort. 

Roth Meinrad. 307 MuUett. 

Schneider Joseph, 77 Mullett 

Senninger Nicholas, 103 Rivard. 

Turner Horace, Atwater foot of St. Aubin ar. 

VanDamme Charles, 51 Michigan av w. 

Wacker Daniel, ss Maple bet Rivard and 
Hastings. 

CoppersnaiflaB. 

Rraus John, Maple. 

Porter Arthur C. 23 Jefferson av. 

Quigley John, 42 Jefferson av. 

Costnmer. 
Gatland James, 256 Jefferson av. 

Crockery and Glass Healers. 

King Robert W, cor Jefferson av and Wayne. 
LEWIS & MOSES, 221 Jefferson av. 
McCormick David, 12 Michigan av w. 
MATHER & NEIR, 138 and 140 Woodward 

av. 
Wetmore F & Co, 68 Woodward av. 

Cntlers. 

Shaw Samuel, 100 Woodbridge e. 

Daf^nerreotjrpe Galleries. 

See Abtists, — Photographic ajsd Daoueb- 

BIAN. 



DET 



BTATB OAZBITBSB. 



DET 



267 



See Paihtbbs. 

Ashley R V, room 6 Merrill block. 
Benedict Hiram, 268 Jefferson av. 
BUHLER R, 262 Jefferson av (up stairs). 
Gaboon William, 199 Woodward ar. 
Cleland W, 65 Woodward av. 
Dumon J J, 2 Fisher's block. 
Farmer John H. 35 Monroe av. 
Famsworth James H, 97 Jefferson av. 
Field Qeorge L, 1 Congress e. 
Mawson Maurice, 84 Montcalm w. 
White & Lothrop, 148 Woodward ay. 

HeteotiTe Police. 

Dixon &> Co, office 55 Griswold. 
Watts dc McKay, 14 Michigan av w. 

Die Sinker* 

8 A Wiggins, No 4 Merrill block. 

ninliiir Rooms* 

See Aho Eatiho Houses and Rbstaitbavtb. 

Christian Joseph, basement Russell House. 
Guyette Joseph, 167 Woodbridge w. 
Safford N D, 52 Griswold. 
Williams Abram, 183 Woodbridge w. 

Door PlAto Maimfaeinrers* 

Traub & Bro, 206 Jefferson av. 

Drain Tile* 

Greusel John, 97 Michigan a v. 

Dress Goods and Shairls* 

FARRELL JAMES W, 64 Woodward av. 

Dress Makers* 

See Also Milliners. 

Andrews William V Mrs, 269 Jefferson av. 

Ashley Christina, 83 Fort e. 

Brown R W Mrs, 7 Sibley. 

Campbell Theresa, room 16 Merrill block. 

Cueny Rosa, 213 Lafayette e. 

Faulhaber Ida, 140 Randolph. 

Fisher Hannah, 115 Cass. 

Flower Lucy J Mrs, 271 Jefferson av. 

Gore Mary Mrs, foot Bates. 

Grant Olivia A, 265 Jefferson av. 

Hancock Harriet R Mrs, 55 Beaubien. 

Lacy Harriet Mrs, 196 Parle. 

Lindner H J Mrs, 4 Fisher's block. 

Mazson Emily P Mrs, rear 48 Michigan av w. 

Melvin Aucrustus Mrs, 107 Michigan av w. 

Murphy Catherine Mrs, 168 Cass. 

Pasco Emeline Mrs, 88 Lamed w. 

Wain Mary, 54 Brush. 

Warner Julia M, 98 Brush. 

Dress Pattern maker* 

Hoyt John M Mrs, 271 Jefferson av. 

Drove Yards* 

King Harvey, cor Grand River and Second. 



Dry Doeks. 

Detroit City, Campbell d& Owen, proprietors, 
ss Atwater, bet Deqoindre and St Aa- 
bin av. 



DmfiTistey Wkolesale and Retail. 

Duffield S P, 162 Woodward av. 
Eaton Theodore H, 18 Woodward av. 
FARRAND, SliELET & CO, 80 Woodward 

av 
Higby & Steams, 60 Woodward and 177 Jef-' 

ferson a vs. 
Hinchman T dc J, 120 Jefferson av. 
Johnson William, 151 Jefferson av. 
Leuschner Otto, 187 Jefferson av. 4 

SIMONEAU H & L, 106 Jefferson av. 

Drnffs and Medleinest Kotall* 

Biddle H S, 107 Michigan av. 

Chittenden William J, under Russell House. 

Cranage Thomas jr, 43 Michigan av w. 

Cuthbert J S, 104 Woodward av. 

Haigh Henry, se cor Brush and Jeflbrson 

ave 
Hill John, 195 Clinton. 
Kermott J W, 188 Woodward av. 
Lefevre Jerome J, ne cor Orleans and 

Gratiot. 
Lamaire Louis Dr, 114 Bates. 
Jackson Isaac P, 279 Woodward av. 
Johnston William 151 Jefferson Av. 
MOSER THEODORE, 204 Randolph. 
Scherer John C Dr, 39 Michigan Grand av. 
Simoneau H &* L, 106 Jefferson av. 
SPENCE THOMAS R, 164 Woodward av 

and 269 Jefferson av. 
Thum William, 182 St Antoine. 

Dry Goods, 'Wholesale* 

ORR EDWARD, 146 Jefferson av. 

ROOT, JOHNSON 6l BARBOUR, 46 Wood- 

ward av 
TOWN & SHELDEN, 23 Woodward av. 

Dry GoodSf IVholesale and Hetail. 

FARRELL JAMES W, 64 Woodward av. 
FREEDMAN S dt BRO, 82 and 84 Woodward 

av. 
FRISBIE JAMES W jr, 167 Jefferson and 

58 Woodward avs. 
GUNN & LOCKE, 96 Woodward av. 
Nail James jr A Co, 74 Woodward av. 
Peck Georse, 127 Woodward av. 
Jacobson Solomon, 247 Jefferson av. 

Dry Goods, Retail. 

The People^s Dry Goods Store, No 68 Wood- 
ward av. 

Blome Frederick C, 61 Woodward av 

BURNS JAMES & Co, 57 Woodward av. 

Campbell, Linn & Co. 93 and 95 Woodward 
av. 

Deering William J, 137 Michigan av. 

Ellis John B, agent 185 Woodward av. 



268 



DET 



CHABLBS F. CLARK^S 



DET 



Forsyth David, 62 Woodward av. 
Gardner Ransom, 88 Woodward av. 
Greening Herman, 68 Woodward av. 
Holthoefer Caspar J, se cor St Antoine and 

Fort. 
Lowrie J &, Son, 148 Woodward av. 
Myers J & L, 145 Gratiot. 
Peck George, 127 Woodward av. 
Scherer John C, 84 Monroe av. 

njerm and Scourers* 

Alexander A C, 62 Bates. 
Brossy, Louis &Co. 62 Randolph. 
Grant Archibald, 16 Congress e. 
• Haack John, 190 Gratiot. 
Stephen Antoine, 80 Fort e. 

Elevators* 

Clark E M, D &> M R R Dock foot Hastings. 
Detroit City £levator, Dickinson &, Lambie 

prop's Dock foot Cass. 
Johnson M &. Son, dock bet Cass and Wayne. 
Michigan Central, dock nr M C R R freight 

depot. 

Embroideries and Eiaces* 

DOELTZ G & BRO, 70 Woodward av. 

Eng-ine Builders* 

DETROIT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, Lamed 
bet Third and Fourth. 

JACKSt'N & WILEY, cor Fifth and Wood- 
bridge. 

Engrr&vers General* 

Conklin George P, old Odd Fellows' Hall, 

Woo<lward av 
DOWNER HENRY E, 186 Jefferson av up 

stairs. 
Foster John J, 65 Woodward av. 
Wiggins S A, room 4 Merrill Block. 
O'Brien James, 187 Jefferson av. 
O'Mara John, 187 Griawold. 
Rheiner William, 67 Lamed e. 

ExGhanffe and Stoclc Brolcers« 

See Bankers. 
Express Companies 

AMERICAN, OPP MICHIGAN EXCHANGE. 
Fargo's River St Clair, Saginaw and Lake 

Superior, opp Michigan Exchange. 
United States, 112 Jefferson av. 

Fancy Goods* 

AUSTIN A C, 190 Jefferson av. 
Bamberger, M &. Co, 99 Woodward av. 
Cavanaugh Catherine E, 126 Randolph. 
DOELTZ G & BRO, 70 Woodward av.^ 
Edwards William, 36 Grand River. 
i lint Mrs E W, 191 Jefferson av. 
Goldsmith Margaret Mrs, 306 Woodward av. 
Jerrard Anthony, 127 Michigan av. 
Jones Jane E, 145 Michigan av. 
KNOLL & WISEMAN, 187 Jefferson av. 
Marr Jane, 147 Michigan av. 



Norden Mark, 147 Michigan av. 
Salomon Mrs, 244 Jefferson av. 
Schwartz C, 59 Woodward av. 
Vogt Andrew, 280 Macomb. 
Wetmore F & Co, 68 Woodward av. 

File niannffaotnrers. 

Deverey Edward, Dequindre bet FnnUiB 
and Atwater. 

Fire Arms Mannffactnrers, 

See GINSMITHS. 

Rheiner William, 67 Lamed e. 
Tobin William, 13 Congress e. 

Fisliinfl: Taclcle HFbolesale. 

AUSTIN A C, 190 Jefferson av. 

Florists. 

Breitmeyer Albert, City Hall Market. 
Franck Anton, City Hall Market. 
Gladewitz Peter, City Hall Market. 
Gladewitz William, City Hall Market. 
Puigh John, cor Elmwood' and Jefferson ar. 
Waltz Frederick, es Elmwood av bet Clinton 
av and Gratiot. 



d «rai 



Floor, Feed 

Anderson &. Denton, Atwater nr Wayne. 

Armstrong & Sears, 811 Woodward av. 

Buchan Brothers, 71 Grand River. 

Cox George & Son, 16 Fort e. 

Dickinson & Lambie, dock foot of Cass, Ci- 
ty Elevator. 

Fisher Albert A, 72 Gratiot. 

Ivor George B, Grand River bet First and 
Second. 

Kettleburger G, cor Gratiot and Randolph. 

Mead Charles H, 180 Woodward av. 

Mead L C &. Co, 41 Michigan av. w. 

Sheeran T, 85 Michigan av w. 

Sparling Benjamin, 14 Michigan av. 

Thompson Joseph N, 267 Woodward av. 

Walker Hiram, 85 Atwater. 

Williams James, 89 Griswold. 

Willis & George, 146 Grand River. 

Fionr Aliils. 

City Mills, J R Jones, cor Second and Lar 
ned. 

Commercial Mill, Charles L Safford, 36 
Woodbridge e. 

Fort Gratiot, Perrin Bros, prop*rs, 176 Gra- 
tiot. 

White Mill, William Dubois, 34 Farrar. 

Foreiipi Exolaang^e. 

Elliott Richard R, 89 Woodward av. 

HUBBELL N J, 63 Griswold. 

Kuhn Joseph, cor Griswold and Congress. 

Foreign Passaf^e. 

Elliott Richard R, 89 Woodward av. 
HUBBELL N J, 53 Griswold st. 



DET 



STATE OAZSITEEB. 



DET 



269 



Fonrmrdinv Mercliaiits^ 

Barnum J W, cor Second and dock. 
Black & Young, dock foot of Shelby. 
BRADT S P & Co, 1 Woodward ay. 
Hatchings John & Co, dock foot of Griswold. 
Hard J L & Co, cor Second and dock. 
Johnson M &. Son, dock bet Cass and Wayne. 
K£ITU & CARTER, dock foot of Shelby. 
Mathews Enos R, dock foot Randolph. 
Newberry H W &. Co, Dock foot Wayne. 
O'Grady Bernard, cor First and dock. 
Sheldon C A, cor Second and dock. 

Frencli Wines and Brandies, 
Importers of. 

McMillan G & R, no Woodward ar. 

Fresco Painters. 

Ste Paimtebs. 

Frnit Dealers. . 

Ayers &, Nagle, 4 Russell Hoose Block. 
Bancroft George A, 4 Lamed w. 
Beard &> Co, 100 Michigan av w. 
Boddy James F, 287 Jefferson ar. 
Carew John H, 253 Jefferson ar. 
Cullard John B, 281 Jefferson ay. 
I)aTis D W, 109 Michigan av w. 
Heffron John, 208 Jetierson av. 
Kilbourn H C, 106 Woodward ar. 
Mardeen Rudolph, City Hall market 
McDonald James, City Hall market. 
Myers John & Co, 257 Jefferson av. 
Myers John 12 City Hall market. 
ROLFE ALONZO, Russell House Block. 
Slade & Sinclair, 3 Russell House Block. 
Taft Stephen K, 123 Woodward av. 
TURNER C 1> & SON, 32 Woodward av. 

Far ]>eaiers. 

See Hats, Caps aud Fubs. 

Altman Isaac & Co, 42 Griswold. 
Bressler Louis, 42 Griswold. 
Buhl F & Co, 148 Jefferson av. 
MILLS M 1, 190 Jefferson av. 

Furnaces, 

Holmes John 117 Jefferson av. 

Furniture) Manufacturer of« 

Weber Henry, 129 Woodward av. 
Furniture Doaiers* 

Brumley William, cor Griswold and Michigan 

av. 
Federlein Martin, 131 Ri\'ard. 
Flattery Brothers, 26 Woodward av. 
GRIGGS S & CO, 106 Woodward av. 
Henderson John, 139 Woodward av. 
Herfurh Carl, 66 Gratiot. 
Kenyon John H, 106 Woodward av. 
Kuenzel Franz, 198 Gratiot. 
Leete Thoman T, 60 Bates. 
Lather Heinrich, Branson ss bet Haatlngi 

and St Antoine. 



Eairden John, 77 MichigaD av w. 

Seeley John, 28 Michigan av w. 

Smith Harris, cor Fifth and Grand Biver. 

Stevens Marcus & Co, 142 Woodward av. 

Strang John, Beacon nr St Antoine. 

Tillman James W, 144 Jefferson av. 

Wachter Augustus, Whitney bet HastingiB 

and St Antoine. 
Wagner A & J, 56 Monroe av. 
WEBER HENRY, 129 Woodward av. 

Gas Factory. 

Detroit Gas Light Company, office 8 Lamed e, 
works Woodbridge cor Fifth. 

Gas and Steam Fitters. 

Bannerman J & Co, Lamed w nr Griswold. 
Carr Richard, 166 Orchard. 
Mihalovitch Louis, 4 Michigan av w. 
Snell Samuel C, 17 Fort e. 

Gent's Fnmisliinff Goods. 

See Alto MBBCHA2fT Tailobs. 

Colman H W, 129 Jeflerson av. 
GREAT WARDROBE, 183 Jefferson av. 

Glass Stainer. 

Frederick Charles, 100 Jefferson av, over 
Oliver Borke's Liquor store. 

Glove KEaJLor. 

Heath J C, 8 State. 

Glue Manufacturer. 

Berry Bro's, 26 Woodbridge w. 

Gold Pen Manufacturers. 

Dunks Charles H, 157 Jefferson av. 
Hittel Samuel, 86 Woodward av. 

Goldsmitli. 

Bronner Christian, 159 Mulett. 

Grain Mercliants. 

Ses Flour and Fbrd and Comxissiov 

Mbrcuasts. 

'.Groceries^ l¥lftolesale. 

Bourke Walter, 15 Woodward av. 
FARRAND, SilELEY & Co, 80 Woodward 

av. 
Field Moses W, 13 Woodward av. 
GARRISON C M & CO, 116 Jefferson av. 
Honkel Peter, 49 Michigan Grand av. 
Hinchman T & J, 120 Jefferson av. 
Johnson & Wheeler, 21 Woodward av. 
McKonna ^ Radcliff, 28 Woodward av. 
McMlLLIAN G & R, 110 Woodward av. 
Moore, Foote & Co, foot of Cass 
Phelps William & Co, 98 Jefferson av. 
Stephens &, Beatty, 27, 29 and 81 Woodward 

av. 
Thomas A Parker, 75 Woodward av. 
Tinker L W & Co, 12 Woodward av. 
Wheaton Peek db Burr, 14 Woodward av. 



270 



DET 



CHARLES F. CLARK^S 



DET 



Groceries^ IVliolesale and Retail. 

Campbell Sl Ca1non,50 Michigan Grand av. 
Fischbach Nicholas, 56 and 58 Michigan 

Grand av 
Fitzsimons Charles & Co, 9 Woodward av. 
Hurlbut Chauncy, 20 Woodward av. 
Mehling John V, 18 Michigan Grand av. 
Parker Thomas A, 75 Woodward av. 
Stewart William, 276 ss Gratiot bet Hastings 

and Rivard. 
Tyler Roland 0, cor Randolph and Congress. 
Voorhees Peter, 84 Michigan Grand av. 

Groceries and Druffs^ HTbolesale. 

FARRAND SHELEY &C0, 80 Woodward av. 

Groceries and Provlsionsy Betall. 

Adderly W J, 157 Gratiot. 

Thomas A Francis, 178 Woodward av. 

Volger Charles, 42 High st. 

Wallace H & R, 191 Woodward av. 

Adams Michael A, 149 Michigan av. 

Adder ley W J, 157 Gratiot. 

Allemann Benhard T, 408 Gratiot. 

Andre Heinrich, 448 Gratiot. 

Andre Jonn, 212 Gratiot. 

Armstrong &. Sears, 811 cor Montcalm and 

Woodward av nr St Johns church. 
Austin Airy, 205 Michigan av. 
Baker George, 389 Michigan av, cor Eighth. 
Bamlet Geo, cor Grand River and Rowland. 
Barkenowity. Gustav F, ue cor Russell and 

Lafayette. 
Barlage* Anthony. 128 Franklin. 
Barnard S S, 10<) Woodward av. 
Barie Louis, cor Beaubien and Macomb. 
Bartel William, 180 Gratiot. 
Bates George, cor Third and Abbott. 
Baumeister John. 278 Gmtiot. 
Beedzler Josej)!!, 101 Woodward av. 
Beeson Henry W, cor Michigan av and 

Campus Martius. 
Benoit Emilo P, ne cor Fort and Hastings. 
Berry Patrick, cor Beach and Sixth. 
Betzing Adam, ne cor Russell and Mullett. 
Blankenheim John, cor Orleans and Chest- 
nut. 
Bleser Frank, cor Orleans and Maple. 
Bock Henry, 188 Franklin. 
Bo-'ckmann Christian, sw cor Lafayette and 

Rivard. 
Bouer John, 408 Croghan. 
Bower Joseph F, sw cor Hastings and Brun- 

son. 
Branan Peter, 270 Sixth. 
Breiinan William, 388 Michigan av. 
Brewster J E, 202 Woodward adv. 
Brossard Joseph, Woodbridge, Laferty farm. 
Brueggemann Mary, wid Frank, cor Macomb 

and St Antoine. 
Brunar Anthony, G43 Jefferson av. 
Burke Richard, ne cor Michigan and National 

a vs. 
Burns Arthur, 369 Franklin. 
Button William, cor Third and Lewis. 



Candler Letitia, 855 Beaubien. 
Carpenter William W, 335 Woodward a?. 
Castle Norman, cor Mullett and RivanL 
Cavanagh Charles, 19 Orleans. 
Chagnon J B, 63 Larned w. 
Chapman Elnathan L, 199 Michigan av. 
Christiansen Hans A, 259 Jeflferson av. 
Christy Nicholas, nw cor Hastings and8( 

Lawrence. 
Cicott David, 269 Beaubien. 
Clessen John P, ne cor Macomb and BoiseD. 
Clinton John, 53 Michigan av w. 
Coe Willis H, 232 Lafayette w. 
Cole Joseph B, ne cor Riopelle and Fort. 
Cowan Robert, 270 Michigan av. 
Crabb George, nw cor Woodward a? uA 

Elizabeth. 
Crabb James, 899 Grand River. 
Creelan John, 296 Michigan av. 
Cueny Joseph, ne cor Croghan and RiopeDe. 
Cunningham John, Sixth cor Orchard. 
Currey Augustus, 148 Randolph. 
Currie & Downie, 426 Woodbridge w. 
Curtin Mary Mrs, 25 Atwater. 
Cuthbert J S, 104 Woodward av. 
Daily James, 518 Fort w. 
Damm John A, 127 Croghan. 
Danahey M, 79 Michigan av w. 
Dean John, 211 Woodward av. 
Deering Joseph, 187 Michigan av. 
Dewire Patrick, 204 Fifth. 
Dinch Nicholas, sw cor Riopelle and James. 
Dickson David, cor First and Lamed. 
Doyle E & Co, 21 Michigan av w. 
Drexelius Peter, se cor Macomb and Rassell. 
Drury Edward A, 150 Woodward av. 
Dunn Peter, nw cornor Dubois and Congress e. 
Earl John, 829 Michigan av. 
Eccard Edward, 159 Catherine. 
Elston Richard, ne cor Grand River and Cass. 
Enry Robert, cor Seventh and Abbott. 
Erren Herman, cor Croghan and St Antoine. 
Esser J, 109 Gratiot. 
Farrand Samuel, se cor Michigan av and 

Porter. 
Fellers George J, 66 Jefferson av. 
Ferl Peter H, 827 Michigan av. 
Fischbach Philip, se cor Russell and Cathe- 
rine. 
Fitzgerald John W, Grand River nr Thomp- 
son. 
Fitzgerald Thomas, cor Fifth and Porter. 
Fitzsimons Charles, grocer and produce mer- 
chant, 151 Woodbridge w. 
Frazer J H & Co, 51 Gratiot. 
Garth Sophia, Hastings nw cor Rosalie. 
Gannt Samuel, 185 Michigan av cor Third. 
Gebhard Christian jr, 88 Prospect. 
Geller Peter, 412 Gratiot. 
Gies Frederick, 95 Congress e. 
Gies Paul, se cor Gratiot and Elmwood av. 
Gillman Edward, sw cor St Aubin av and 

Fort. 
Guinevan Thomas, 74 Elizabeth w. 



i 



DET 



8TATB GAZETTEEB. 



DET 



271 



Good Archibald, (col'd), 409 Jefferson ay, 

Goodyear Nicholas, 297 Grand River. 

Gore Julia Mrs, foot Bates. 

Gongh G M, nw comer Orleans and Congress. 

Graham Peter, cor Sixth and Labrosse 

Gravier Jean, sw cor Jefferson ay and Chene. 

Green George W, 78 Baker. 

GriflSth John, cor Seventh and Porter. 

Grove Mary, wid Fritz, 155 High. 

Guenin John G, 203 Gratiot. 

Gaenther Peter, cor Clinton and Rivard. 

Gnminsky Carl, se cor Riopelle and Cherry. 

Gurney Baniel, cor Sixth and Orchard. 

Haddow John, Michigan av nr Cass. 

Hall Harry, 271 Woodward av. 

Halloran Thomas, 150 Porter. 

Halpin Martin, 153 First. 

Haly William, 326 Michigan av. 

Hart John, sw cor Prospect and Marion. 

Hayes Patrick, 117 John. 

Hayden Peter H, cor Michigan av and Sixth. 

Healy M £, cor Griswold and Michigan av. 

Hechtner John, se cor Russell and Lafayette. 

Heck Jacob, Gratiot opp bead Rivard. 

Hengstebeck John, sw cor Riopelle and Cro- 
ghan. 

Hennis N J, cor Macomb and St. Antoine. 

Henrion George, nw cor |Livard and Fort. 

Herrinton David B, cor 204 Orleans. 

Herrmann Frederick, sw cor Riopelle and 
Muliett. 

Heslik Benjamin, se cor St Antoine and 
Franklin. 

Hill Nazareth, 478 Gratiot. 

Hinchman Guy F & Co, 16 and 18 Atwater. 

Hoek Joseph, 92 Lafayette e. 

Holihan James, 208 Congress e. 

Holmes Hiram S, 189 Michigan av. 

Hommel Michael, 72 Third. 

Hommel George, cor Third and Abbott. 

Hooper George W, 173 Michigan av. 

Hoose Prezell, 78 Pine. 

Hopkins Bobert, 114 Park. 

Houghton William, Grand River nr Thomp- 
son. 

Hubel ^^aspar, cor Gratiot and Dequindre. 

Hubbert Sarah, ss Duffield bet Park and Clif- 
ford. 

Hughes Patrick, 249 Michigan av. 

Hunt W C, 175 Woodward av. 

Huyser P R &. Co, 71 Mont<;alm w. 

Ivors John, 187 Michigan av. 

Jacob William, cor St Antoine and Clinton. 

Jaeger John, 210 Rivard. 

Jervis Robert J, 207 Randolph. 

Johnstone John, 169 Third. 

Jones Elias W, 83 Lamed w. 

Kaichen F, cor Randolph and Gratiot. 

Keillor John, sw cor St Aubin av and Con- 
gress. 

Keith & Stephenson, cor Fifth and Porter. 

Keusch Michael, 281 Hastings. 

Kibler John, nw cor 8t Aubin av and Con- 
gress. 



Killin James Mrs, 811 Grand River. 

Kimball James E, 829 Woodward av. 

Kingston Samuel, 218 Howard. 

Knapp William, se cor St Aubin ay and 
Gratiot. 

Kneeland L P, 890 Grand River. 

Krenkel Caspar, 400 Beaubien. 

Krenning "William, cor Riopelle and Maple. 

Kritteuberger Freiderich, 410 Grand River. 

Kroper Franz A, 291 Croghan. 

Kruger H, 75 Gratiot. 

Kuenzel Franz, 200 Gratiot. 

Laferty Peter, sw cor Woodbridge and Lafon- 
taine. 

Lambert Benjamin, se cor Michigan av and 
Lafontain. 

Langley William, cor Henry and Park. 

Lapnan Charles, 285 Atwater. 

Latoure Dominick, sw cor Beaubien and 
Marion. 

Layer John, cor High and Riopelle. 

Lebot Dennis, 323 Franklin. 

Lebot Enos, 882 Franklin. 

Lechner Frank, 802 Franklin. 

Leddy James, cor Michigan av and Fifth. 

Leddy John, sw cor Michigan and Lasalle 
avs. 

LeFevre Jerome J, ne cor Orleans and 
Gratiot. 

Lever John, cor Sixth and Labrosse. 

Lockwood Major F, nw cor Benton and Has- 
tings. 

Ling Conrad, 77 Monroe av. 

Lotz Charles, cor Hastings and Catherine. 

Ludwig John, cor Rivard and Croghan. 

Luetticke Joseph, 171 Hastings. 

McCarthy Daniel, cor Sixth and Porter. 

McComb Alexander, 224 Fort e. 

McCormick Ellen Mrs, 95 Atwater. 

McCue tennis, 781 Jefferson av. 

McDonald Christopher C, St Antoine bet 
Brewster and Wilkins. 

McDonald James, se cor Congress and 
Rivard. 

McDonald William, sw cor Orleans and Clin- 
ton. 

McDonald &, Buchan, 200 Randolph. 

McFarland Patrick, cor Seventh and La- 
brosse. 

McGill Francis, 48 Atwater. 

McGonegal James, 801 Croghan. 

McGraw Mark, 188 Michigan av. 

McHutchon William, 142 Beaubien. 

McLaughter Michael, 159 Fortw. 

McMahon Patricd, cor Sixth and Abbott. 

McNamara John, 189 Michigan av. 

Maher Daiiiel, Michigan av nr National av. 

Malcombson Robert, 288 Howard. 

Malliday Patrick, cor of Third and Howard. 

Mann C M, 108 Michigan av w. 

Mardian Frank, 286 Franklin. 

Marx Moses, 94 Gratiot. 

Mathewson C M, nr cor Lpmed and Shelby. 

May Theodore, 516 Gratiot. 



272 



DET 



CHABLBS F. CLULK^S 



DET 



Meitzger Friederich, cor Croghan and 

Rivard. 
Millar Robert, 200 Woodward av. 
Millar Robert, 103 Oak 
Millar William, cor Randolph and Qratiot. 
Miller George, 96 Orleans, 
Miller Henry, cor Michigan av and Seventh. 
Miller Joseph, ns Macomb bet St Aubin av 

and Dubois. 
Miuard Charles W, 647 Michigan av. 
Monaghan William, se cor Lafayette and 

Orleans. 
Moross Victor A, 109 Gratiot. 
Morris J I E, nw cor Michigan av and 

Thompson. 
Muehlmann Jacob, 128 Clinton. 
Mueller Qeorjje, cor Hastings and Clinton. 
Mullaney Matthew B, 205 Second. 
Mulrv John, 2JJ8 Thompson. 
MynWilhclm, 74 Croghan. 
Newman Charles, 204 Woodward av. 
Noi;lo John, 202 Third. 
Nolan Luk»», 178 Michigan av. 
Norton J W, 898 Grand River. 
O'Brien James, 140 Abbott. 
O'Brien John F, nw cor Franklin and St 

Aubin av. 
O'Connor John, 225 Fifth. 
O'Donnell John, 293 Woodward av. 
Oldekop George, 208 St Antoine. 
Ott John, cor Orleans and Maple. 
Page John, 88 Grand River. 
Paul us Angu.st, 147 St Antoine. 
Paton William, cor Gratiot and Paton alley. 
Perkins William jr, 102 Grand River. 
Phelps Ralph, 119 Michigan av. 
Pla.ss Henry, 57o Atwater. 
Powell James, 00 Grand River. 
Powers James, 83 Sixth. 
Pratt John B, 292 Atwater. 
Prouty Favette, 73 Grand River. 
PULTK ANTON, 3<> Monroe av. 
Purcell Mary, 123 Lamed w. 
Quinn Thom'as, 284 Franklin. 
Ratrgis Anthony, sw cor Orleans and Cathe- 
rine. 
Ra<k'liflr John, cor Grand River and Third. 
Rainerus Paul, Adams av, nw cor Beaubien. 
Rairden Michael, Eiizhth nr Grand River. 
Reaunie & Brother, 302 Atwater. 
Reguery Jacob. 214 Hastings. 
Reno John, 624 Jelfers<m av. 
Roa.sh Christian, 112 Catherine. 
RKKJS JOSEPH, 251 JelFerson av and 70 

Gratiot. 
RIPLEY HENRY C, Campus Martius nw 

cor Woodward av. 
Robaeys Charles Yen, nw cor Orleans and 

Fort. 
Rowe William, 221 Michigan av. 
Rowland Richard, 232 Woodward av. 
Rufhlo Fred, se cor Fort and Mussell. 
Ryan James, 82 Adams av w. 
Ryan William, Sixth cor Beach. 



Salliet August, 164 Gratiot. 
Salomon Harris, 318 Qratiot. 
Scuftleheu Carl, ue cor St Antoine and Whit- 
ney. 
Schelbe Augustus, 413 Grand River. 
Schleicher Peter, Grand River nr Thompsoo. 
Schmidt Carl, 29 Prospect, 
Schmitt John, 310 Michigan av. 
Schmitc J & U, 35 Michigan Grand av. 
Schoeman Nicholas, ae cor Clinton a? and 

Dubois. 
Schroder Carl, M C R R and G T Junction. 
Schroder Charles, 240 Beaubien. 
Schulte Peter, cor Macomb and Rivard. 
Schweim Wilhelm, cor Crogau and Russell. 
Schuhmacher John, sw cor Orleans and Ma- 
comb. 
Schulze Frederick, sw cor Orleans and Mul- 
let. 
Shenott James H, cor Sixth and Locust 
Sherlock James, cor Jefferson av and St .An- 
toine. 
Shlasengar Wolf, 82 Fort e. 
Shuell Edward, 80 Seventh. 
Shulto Anton, se cor St Antoine and Macomb. 
Specht Yictor, 378 Woodbridge w. 
Stahelin Charles A, 820 Grand River. 
Staples Lvman J, 179 Woodward av, 
Stewart Robert, 47 Jefferson av. 
Stewart Kobert H, 90 Michigan av w. 
Sullivan Daniel, 274 Michigan av. 
Sutter Victor, cor First and Orchard. 
Sutherland George W, 55 Michigan Grand 

a v. 
Taylor William H, ns Benton bet Hastings 

and Prospect. 
Theile August, cor Hastings and Croghan. 
Thomas Alfred, 303 Beaubien. 
Tourtellott George N, Michigan av se cor 

Cass. 
Troester John, 253 Franklin. 
Turner Horace, se cor St Aubin av and Frank- 
lin. 
Tyson John, 59 EliTOibeth e. 
Neilear Augurs, nw cor Hastings and Brews- 

ster 
Vellgor C, 42 High. 
Vellinger William, 385 Hastings. 
Vioth Carl, 255 Gratiot. 
A'olokeiistoin Frank C, cor St Antoine and 

Catherine. 
Von Der Heide Christian, 202 Orleans. 
Vorliees Peter, 34 Michigan Grand av. 
Wauner De Witt R 219 Woodward av. 
Wallace H & R, 191 Woodward av. 
Webb William, 154 Congress cor St Antoine. 
Weber George, 58 Front. 
Weithotl' John, 105 Maple. 
Wert h man Anton, ne cor Clinton and Rio- 
pel le. 
Wheeler William S P, nw cor Jefferson av 

and Rivard. 
White James, BLaatings bet Kentucky and In- 
diana. 



DET 



6TATB 6AZBITBEB. 



DET 



278 



WUMe Andrew, 141 ]B(^Qbien. 

Wilkinson Edwin, sw corner La&yette and 
8t Anbin av. 

Wilks George, 127 Woodbridge w. 

Wing Franklin M, 88 Congress e. 

Witgin Antony, ne cor Hastings and Frank- 
lin. 

Woodhull J C H, se cor Randolph and Ad- 
ams ay. 

Wartley John, 813 Jefferson av. 

Wright H H, 18 Monroe av. 

Yonblood Nicholas, 801 Gratiot. 

Yoost Peter, cor Grand River and Second. 

Ynganes Francis, 606 Gratiot. 

Zender Henry, ss Gratiot bet Mt Elliott and 

Elmwood avs. 
Ziener Frederick, 810 Clinton. 

Gunpo'vrder Dealer* 

AUSTIN A C, 190 Jefferson av. 

GunsmMbs* 

See alio Fibe Arms. 

Ege Frederick, 188 Griswold. 
O'Mara John, 133 Griswold, 
Tobin William, 18 Congress e. 
Wingert William, 10 Congress e. 
Toong James, Grand River nr Lasalle av. 

Hair IVork* 

Moller E G, 187 Woodward av. 

MardnrarOf "Wliolesale. 

BUHL & DUCHARME, 19 Woodward av. 
James & Son, 100 Woodward av. 
Noyes B B & W R, 88 Woodward av. 
TEFFT W H & CO, 44 Woodward av. 

Hardirare and Gntlerjr. 

ROHNS dt LIMBACH, 14 Monroe av. 
Browning 8 C, 177 Woodward av. 

BUSCH CHARLES, 201 Jefferson av. 
Noyes Thomas J, 77 Woodward av. 
Porter Arthur C, 28 Jefferson av. 

SNOW WILLIAM, 102 Woodward av. 
STRUBEL CHRISTIAN D, 267 Jefferson av. 
Toepel J H, cor Gratiot and Bmsb. 
Woodruff C P, 73 Woodward av. 

Harness Makers. 

Brown Cullen, 203 Jefferson av. 

Bunnebacke J, 67 Gratiot. 

Gabler Lorenz, 424 Gratiot. 

Lawson James, 334 Michigan av. 

Noble Sl Sabine, 65 Grand River. 

Pardonnet P, 8 Fort w. 

Quimby George, 54 Michigan av. 

Rogers Thomas, nr cor Grand River and 

Cass. 
Sabine John C, 2 Michigan av. 
Shaw D L, 92 Michigan av w. 



Hate, Caps and Far*. 

ARMSTRONG THOMAS H, 176 Jefferson ar. 
Barie Louis, cor Beaubien and Macomb. 
BUHL F <& CO, 148 Jefferson av. 
Harrison Abraham, 202 Gratiot. 
Knight Edward, 188 Jefferson av. 
Rrueger Agnes, cor Gratiot and Brush. 
Ereckel Christian, 1 City Hall Market. 
LEVI DAVID 148 Jefferson av. 
Smith James T, 184 Jefferson av. 
CJlrich & Barie, 202 Jefferson av. 
Weiohsler Charles, 110 Croghan. 

Hide and I«eaU&er Bealers. 

See LEATHsa Dbalbbs, alto Tavvbhb. 

Hollour IVare* 

See Stoyb Dbalbss. 

Hoop Sklrto and Corsets. 

FARRELL JAMES W, 64 Woodward av. 

Horse Slioers. 

See aUo BLiCKSMiTHS. 

WHITTLE L, 17 Monroe av. 

Hosiery and Gloires* 

FARRELL JAMES W, 64 Woodward ay. 
Doeltz G & Bro, 70 Woodward av. 

Hotels* 

Ackerman Hotel, J A Kurtz, proprietor, 8 

Brush. 
Albion Robert Flemming, proprietor, 81 Jef- 
ferson ar. 
American Hotel, John F Reese, proprietor, 

Lamed cor Third. 
Bagg's Hotel, Third cor Woodbridge, 
Baltimore Hotel, James McDonald, proprie* 

tor, 78 Woodbridge w. 
BIDDLE HOUSE, Jefferson av cor Randolph, 

J & A B Taber, proprietors. 
Blindbury's Hotel, Antisdel &, Cook, proprie- 
tors, cor Michigan and Washington avs. 
Caledonia Hotel, Eirkupp & Findlater, 

proprietors, Woodbridge w. 
Central Railroad Hotel, comer of Third and 

Front. 
City Hotel, Peter Lee, proprietor, 91 At- 

water. 
City Hotel, W H Lester, proprietor, Lafayette 

w, bet Griswold and Shelby. 
Chicago House, William Furlong, proprietor, 

145 Lamed w. 
Eastern Hotel, John Kern, proprietor, cor of 

Second and Front. 
Fallens* Hotel, 7 Jefferson av. 
Farmers* and Mechanics* Hotel, William 

Patchett, proprietor, Fort cor Seventh. 
Finney*8 Hotel, James Parshall, proprietor, 

Woodward av ne cor State. 
Franklin House, Jofab B Tibbits, proprietor, 

68 Bates. 



274 



DET 



CHABLBS F. CLABK'S 



DET 



Garrison House, 66, 67 and 69 Jefferson av. 

Globe Hotel, H Van Allen, proprietor, 86 
Third. ' 

Grand River House, Alfred Goodman, pro- 
prietor, cor Grand River and Griswold. 

Great Eastern House, John P O'Connor, pro- 
prietor, 96 Woodbridge w. 

Green Tree Hotel, Wra Oettinger, proprietor, 
cor Jefferson av and Second. 

Great Western R R Hotel, 80 Front. 

Harvie's Hotel, James Harvie, proprietor, 16 
Randolph. 

Hotel Liberty, Leopold Taufkirch, proprietor, 
Larned bet Second and Third. 

Hotel Mauch, Mrs Bernard M Mauch, pro- 
prietor, 43 Michigan Grand av. 

Howard House, Mathew W Birchard, pro- 
prietor, cor Congress and Griswold. 

Kern's Hotel, Nicholas Kern, proprietor, 86 
Atwater. 

Lansing House, John Perkins, proprietor, 

cor Grand Kiver and Jones. 
Lamed House, M W Warner, proprietor, cor 

Lamed and Third. 
La Blanc Hotel, 147 Woodbridge w. 

Mansion House, Racine M Derwin, proprietor, 
cor Griswold and Atwater. 

Merchants' Exchange, John Moore, proprie- 
tor, cor Woodbridge and Griswold. 

MICHIGAN EXCHANGE, Lyons & Barstow, 
proprietors, 110 and 112 Jefferson av. 

Montreal Hotel, Augustus Valleire, proprie- 
tor, 69 Atwater. 

New England House, 6 Jefferson av. 

New York House, William Ottinger, proprie- 
tor, 67 Atwater. 

Northern Railroad Hotel, 3 Atwater. 

Our House, Mrs S C Wilson, proprietor, 99 
Atwater. 

Peninsular Hotel, William Eisenlord, proprie- 
tor, cor Grand River and Macomb av. 

Perkins' Hotel, Wm Perkins, jr, proprietor, 
ne cor Middle and Grand River. 

Railroad Exchange, Charles S Beardslee, 
proprietor, 30 Michigan Grand av. 

Railroad Hotel, Campus Martins, J Antisdale 
&. Bro, proprietors. 

RUSSELL HOUSE, L T Minor, proprietor, 
Campus Martins, Woodward av. 

Sailors' Inn, James Duck,proprietor,25 Bates. 

Toledo Exchange, Henry Pinnel, proprietor 
72 Atwater. 

Travellers' House, G L Bartlett, proprietor, 
Larned cor Tliird. 

Tremont House, David S Ileadley, proprietor, 
ne cor Jefferson av and Randolph. 

Union Hotel, proprietor, 37 Third. 

Union Hotel, William T Purdy, proprietor, 
202 Jefferson av. 

United States Hotel, S Wallace, proprietor, 
Woodbridge bet Second and Third. 

Western Hotel, A Ledbeater, proprietor, 
cor Third and Woodbridge. 



Windsor Hotel, John Ross, proprietor, 115' 
Atwater. 

flomse IHoTers and Bais«n» 

See Building Motebb. 

House and Slgii Painter. 

ATKINSON JOHN, 123 Jefferson av. 

Ice I>ealere« 

Real William, 713 Woodbridge w. 

India Rubber G«ods« 

Bellows 0, 87 Woodward av. 

Ink Manufacturer* 

SMITH ALEXANDER H, 79 Jefferson et. 

Insurance Agents* 

Bara Augustin, 229 Macomb. 

Barse W H & Son, 4 Woodward av. 

Biddle &. Stanton, Jefferson ar sw cor Wood- 
ward av. 

DEIPENBECK RUpOLPH, Seitz Block 
Griswold st. 

Duvemois Frederick W, 70 Griswold. 

HALL THEO P, 63 Griswold st (up stairs). 

Hebbard Charles B, 70 Griswold. 

HOFFMAN GEORGE W, 8 Merrill block. 

LINDSAY ARCHIBALD G, 70 Griswold. 

Noyes A G, Old Odd Fellow's Hall. 

Palmer John, room 2 Merrill block. 

Phillips James W, ws Woodward av bet Jef- 
ferson av and Woodbridge. 

PELTIER CHARLES, 6 Lamed w. 

Rimes John C, room 3 Merrill block. 

STRONG JOHN W, 34 Griswold. 

VERNOR B, 45 Griswold. 

Whiting J L & Co, 68 Griswold. 

WORCESTER IRA, 44 Griswold. 

Iron Foundries* 

Barclay William &. Son, Atwater cor Rivard. 

Detroit City Foundry, foot Randolph, J B 
Wilson, proprietor. 

Detroit and Lake Superior Iron Manufactur- 
ing Co, Hamtramck, ne limit of Detroit, 
bet Jefferson av and the river. 

Eureka Iron Co, 10 Woodward av. 

Flower James & Bro, 28 Brush. 

Fulton Iron Works, Wayne & Robinson 
proprietors, 8 Brush. 

JACKSON & WILEY, cor Fifth and Wood- 
bridge. 

Kellogg Charles & Co, Atwater bet Hastings 
and Rivard. 

Wyandotte Rolling Mill, 10 Woodward av, 

Jeivelere* 

See Watches, Jbwelbt, etc. 

Allison John H, 118 Woodward av. 
Doty George, 128 Jefferson av. 
Dunks Charles H, 167 Jefferson av. 
Gray Alexander, 159 Woodward av. 
Grospeck Frederick, 72 Jefferson av. 
Hittel Samuel, Old Odd FeUows' HaU. 



DET 



STATE 6AZETTEEB. 



DET 



275 



Ungmann Frederick, 256 JeffiNrson av. 
Holler £ G, 187 Woodward av. 
Petz Frank, 67 Gratiot, 
POHL A, 119 Woodward av. 
Bolshoven Frederick, 204 Jeffersoa av. 
Schaler George, 160 Jefferson av. 
SMITH MARTIN S, 65 Woodward av. 
Walsh Patrich J, 122 Woodward av. 

jrmi&k Dealer* 

Bostwick Joel, 94 Woodbridge w. 

Justices of tbe Peace* 

Fecht Eugene, 7 Larned w. 
FULLER JOHN, cor Griswold and Lamed. 
Knhn Joseph, cor Congress and Griswold. 
8T0LL JULIUS, Seitz block, rear A H Day's, 
Griswold. 

E>aces and Embroideries* 

See Alio Dbt Goods. 
DOELTZ & BRO, 70 Woodward av. 

I^aaips and Oilsy I^eaiers in* 

See Alto Gboceby Dealebb. 

Bartis Arthur, 135 Jefferson av. 
l^and Agents* 

Beniteaa Israel, 129 Congress e. 
Clark Charles F, 58 Griswold, (up stairs). 
Crawford Francis, 40 Fort w. 
Driggs William S, 127 Jefferson av. 
Euhn Joseph, cor Congress and Griswold. 
Rathbone William P, Waverley block. 
Smith Ralph C, 127 Jefferson ave. 
Whiting J L dt Co, 53 Griswold. 

JLandj ]>eaiers* 

Crane F J B, Waverley block. 

Crane &. Wesson, cor Griswold and Congress. 

Crane Walter, 160 Jefferson av. 

Johnson John W, 128 Jefferson av. 

Merrill Charles, 5 Merrill block. 

Thompson David, 27 Fort w. 

liapidary* 

POHL A, 119 Woodward av. 

and Boot-Tree Maker* 



CURTIS GEORGE E, 215 Jefferson av. 
l^air Blanks* 

See Aho Booksbllebs. 
Elwood H Dow, 49 Griswold. 

£«air Book»i$ellers* 

ELWOOD 8 DOW, 49 Griswold. 



Backus & Harbaugh, Masonic Hall. 

Bigelow Joseph E, room 11 Merrill block. 

Bishop Levi, 7 Rotunda Building. 

Boyntcm Albert G, room 17 Rotunda Build- 
ing. 

Brooks DaTid W, cor Jefferson av and Gris- 
wold. 

Brown Henry B, office over Post pffioe. 



BUEL & TROWBRIDGE, 2 and 3, Seits 

Building. 
Campau A T, 124 Jefferson av. ' 
Campbell James Y, Judge Supreme Court, 

office over 68 Griswold. 
Campbell Frank H, 1 Rotunda Building. 
Cheever H M & W E, 8 Rotunda Building. 
Chipman John L, 68 Griswold. 
Cochrane Lyman 2 Congress e. 
Cole Charles 8, 147 Jefferson av. 
Crosby Charles P, 149 Jefferson av. 
Cullen J W A 8, 126 Jefferson av. 
Danforth George M, 3 Buhl's block. 
Denison T Riley, 6 Seitz block. 
Dickinson & Crosby, 149 Jefferson av. 
Douglas & Andrews, 68 Griswold. 
Driggs Frederick £, 2 Rotunda Building. 
Duffield D Bethune, 124 Jefferson av. 
Eddie Clarenpe E, 46 Griswold. 
Emmons H H, 13 Rotunda Building. 
Gavin J Knox, 55 Griswold. 
Goodwin D, 124 Jefferson av. 
Gordon George C, 298 Fifth. 
Gray & O'Flynn, Rotunda Building. 
Green Wesley A, 46 Griswold. 
Hand George E, 162 Jefferson av. 
Hawley Elijah, 1 Rotunda Building. 
Hensler Augustus W, cor Griswold and 

Congress w. 
Hodges Lathrop 8, cor Jefferson av and 

Griswold. 
Holbrook DeWitt C, 6 Rotunda Building. 
Howard & Mandell, cor Jefferson av and 

Griswold. 
Hoyt William C, 4 Buhl's Block. 
Ives Lewis T, 13 Rotunda Building. 
Jerome & Swift, Waverly Block. 
Kaichen Arnold, 11 Rotunda. 
KNIGHT & JENNISON, 4 and 5 Seitz buil- 
ding. 
Lamed Sylvester, 75 Griswold. 
LOCKWOOD & CLARKE, 1 Seitz Building. 
Lothrop G V N, 124 Jefferson av. 
McClelland Robert, 68 Griswold. 
Mahon George, Griswold nr Post office. ^ 
Maynard &. Meddaugh, 19 and 20 Rotunda 

Building. 
Miller S D & H, 68 Griswold. 
Mizner Thomas W, 38 Griswold. 
Moore &. Griffin, over Michigan Insurance 

Bank. 
Morrow &. Davidson, 7 Seitz Building. 
Newberry 6l Pond, 18 Rotunda Buil&ig. 
O'Rielly Miles J, cor Griswold and Congress. 
Palmer Ervin, 6 Seitz Building. 
Patchin Jared, 17 Rotunda Building. 
Porter Frederick B, 2 Buhl's Block, 
PRENTIS GEORGE H, 8 Larned w. 
PURDY STEPHEN P, 9 Lamed w. 
ROBINSON & BROOKS, 149 Jefferson av. 
Rogers E H, cor Jefferson av and Griswold. 
Romeyn James W, 2, 8 and 4 Sheldon Block. 
Romeyn Theodore, 2, 8 and 4 Sheldon Block. 
Ross & McEntee, 9 and 10 Rotunda Building. 



276 



DET 



CHABLBS F. CLABK'S 



DET 



RUSSELL ALFRED, 2d story Post office 
building. 

RUSSELL GEORGE P, post office building. 

Sheldon Garwood T, cor Jefferson av and 
Griswold. 

Speed William J and John J, 63 Griswold, 

Steevens Sears, 21 Rotunda Building. 

SWIFT EDWARD Y, Old Odd Fellows Hall 
Woodward av. 

Taylor & Hartwell, 156 Jefferson av. 

Thelan Nicholas, cor Jefferson av and Gris- 
wold. 

Thompson John. 46 Griswold. 

Toms Robert P, 96 Woodward av. 

TRYON CHARLES, 6 Buhl's block. 

Walker Henry N, G8 Griswold. 

Walker & Kent, 4 Lamed e. 

Ward & Brown, 1 Sheldon block. 

Ward & Farnsworth, 8 Seitz building. 

Waterman Joshua W, 68 Griswold. 

Waterman William J, 68 Griswold. 

Weir James D, Griswold sw cor Congress. 

Wells & Blackraar, 68 Griswold. 

Wells & Hunt, 1 Buhl's block. 

Whitemore Joseph P, 1 Rotunda. 

WILLCOX E N & B, 17 Rotunda building. 
Witherell B F H, 40 Woodward av. 
Yerkes &• Wilkinson, 11 Rotunda building. 
Young William T, 2 Congress e. 

lieaf) Pluff and cut Tobacco Man- 

offactorers. 

See Also Tobacconists. 

Goldsmith Oliver, 103 Jefferson av. 

Eicatlier and Findings* 

CURTIS GEORGE E, 216 Jefferson av. 
Karrer J & Brother, 88 Monroe av. 
KIRBY GEORGE, 83 Woodward av. 
Parker George H, 10 State. 
Sanger C M, 28 Monroe av. 

TOMLINSON A GRAVES, 35 and 87 At- 

water. 
Turner Porter G, 14 Congress e. 
Wing & Nash, 19 Monroe av. 

Liigplitnlnff Hods* 

Brittan N G, 176 Jefferson av. 

Ijime Burners* 

L'Esperance Francis, At water nr Dequindre. 
Trowbridge William C & Son, 288 Atwater. 

liinkCj Plaster and Cement* 

Sibley Frederick B, cor Griswold and At- 
water. 
Trowbridge William C & Son, 288 Atwater. 

liiquors* 

See Wines, etc. 
BOURKE OLIVER, 100 Jefferson av. 

lilqnor ]flanufacturer» 

Schle(<inger Emanuel, ws Hastings bet Ma- 
comb and Clinton. 



Idtlftoi^rapliors* 

Elwood 8 Dow, 49 Griswold. 
DOWNER H E, 186 Jefferson av. 

EilTerff Boarding and Sale StaUett 

BURRELL A & Co, 24 Michigan Grand av. 

Green B & Brother, ss Grand River bet 
Woodward av and Farmer. 

McGregory Willard G, 46 Lamed e. 

Moross C, ss Monroe av bet Farrar and Far- 
mer. 

O'Connor Daniel, 61 Jefferson av. 

Howe George W, 26 Lamed w, 

Smolk A &> Son, ws Farmer bet State and 
Monroe av. 

Sullivan Thomas J, 94 Griswold. 

Thompson Bradley H, Woodbridge r Fire- 
men's Hull. 

Williams Edward W, 76 Lamed e. 
lioan Office* 

Clapp Samuel H, 47 Griswold. 

Ltockeniitlie and Bell«Hanferi* 

See Also Bbll Hahoers. 

Huck August, 2 Croghan. 

Traub & Brother, 2U6 Jefferson av. 

LoolLlne*4«lasees and Picture Pnuaett 

ASPINALL JAMES P & Co, 92 Woodward 
av. 

Sutton Moses, 207 Jefferson av. 
Stevens Marcus & Co, 142 and 144 Wood- 
ward av 
Wetmore F & Co, C8 Woodward av. 
Wright & Elder, 157 Jefferson av. 

Lumber Dealers and IKanufkctaren. 

Benson Henry E, Atwater, bet St Aubin and 
Dequindre. 

Brooks N W, 471 Woodbridge w. 

BROOKS & ADAMS, 3G1 Woodbridge, nr M 
C R R crossing. 

Byram Charles & Co, 237 Atwater. 

DOTY HENRY, Woodbridge foot Eleventh, 
nr M C R R crossing. 

Fletcher George N, G70 Jefferson av. 

Hubbard Frederick, Bela ' Hubbard, agt, cor 
Congress and Griswold. 

Merrill Charles, 6 Merrill block. 

Moffat Hugh, Atwater bet Dubois and Chene. 

Pi lis Samuel, Atwater nr St. Aubin av. 

Ross Daniel A, cor Michigan av and Gris- 
wold. 

Trowbridge John & Bros,* 288 Atwater. 

WARRINER WILLIAM E, Waverly block. 

Whitney David, jr, room 6 Merrill block. 

Wight U A & S G., Atwater bet McDougall 
and Walker. 

Macliiniste. 

Barclay William & Son, Atwater cor Rivard. 

Benoit John P, jr, 207 Croghan. 

DETROIT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, Larned, 

bet Third and Fourth. 
Egan Friederick, 203 Lafayette e. 



DET 



STATE 6AZETTEEB. 



DET 



217 



Elmer Aaron W, ne cor Fort and St. Clair. 

G(etz Christian, 61 High. 

Kellogg Charles k Co, Atwater bet Hastings 

and Rirard. 
Mohn John, 133 Griswold. 

Maltsters* 

See Breweries. 

Baomeister John, 278 Gratiot. 
Hawley Richard, 19 Woodbridge e. 

Marble IVorks. 

Mehling G F dc A, 15 Michigan ay. 
Peters William E, 8 Michigan av w. 
SHULTHEIS WILLIAM, 33 Michigan Grand 
av. 

Marine Reporter. 

HALL JOHN W, 4 Woodward av. 

MarlKlns Pens an4 Ink* 

Briggs Thomas B, 198 Woodward av. 

Masons. 

See AUo Builders. 

Carew Henry, 65 High. 

Diebel Friederich, 193 Mullett. 

Fisher Jeremiah, 17 John R. 

Ledbeater Thomas, jr, oflBce State Armory 

building, Griswold. 
Robinet Henry, 197 Rivard. 

Matcla Manaiaetnrers. 

Keuhner Albert & Bro, 54 High. 
RICHARDSON DAVID M, 371 Woodbridge w. 
Schulte Anthony, 497 Gratiot. 

Kathenaatleal Instrument Maker. 

Grant William C, 11 Woodbridge e. 

Meat Market. 

CLARK G & W, 122 Second. 

nielodeon Mannfiacturer. 

Simmons A Whitney, cor Monroe av and 
Campos Martins. 

Mercantile Agencies. 

BRAD8TREET J M & SON, 53 Griswold, 

(op stairs). 
I>nn R G & Co, 159 Jefferson av. 

Merekant Tailors. 

Glover Henry, 156 Jefferson av. 
^itch E D, 114 Jefferson av. 
McTerney P, 207 Jefferson av. 
SteTemjon John, 80 Griswold st. 

MUllnery. 

^l«r Anna, 80 Forte. 

Hirschman Fanny Mrs, 125 Woodward av and 

224 Jefferson av. 
jjWvin jPhoebe, 107 Michigan a v. 
™erson Elizabeth Miss, 279 Jefferson av. 
«We J, 161 Woodward av. 
«»U Phfllis, 19 Fort e. J 

B^ng Miss, 93 Elizabeth e. 
«irkel Mary Ann, 69 Adams av w. 



Varagat Mary L Mrs, cor Randolph and 
Gratiot. 

Millinery Goods. 

Bamberger M, 99 Woodward av. 

Campbell Linn & Co, 93 and 95 Woodward 

av. 
Wamsley James, 170 Jefferson av. 
Weiss F & 8, 108 Michigan av w. 

MlllwHffkt. 

Hamilton Palmer, 105 Michigan av w. 

Morocco Dealers. 

See Also Tanners. 

Wenzell Andrew, es side Beaubien bet Co- 
lumbia and Elizabeth, office 22 Monroe 
av. 

Mnslc and Mnsieal Instrnments. 

AMSDEN DWIOHT S, 137 Jefferson av. 
STEIN & BUCHHEISTER, 188 Jefferson av. 
Whittemore J H, 179 Jefferson av. 

Mustard Manufacturer. 

Zeiner Frederick, r 310 Clinton. 

Needlei;v^ork. 

Babe Joanna Mrs, 213 Jefferson av. 
Perry Catherine Mrs, 99 Atwatfer. 
Willet Eliza Mrs, 100 Woodbridge e. 

Neivspaper and Periodical Depots. 

Freeman Lawrence S, 249 Jefferson av. 
Bancroft George A, 4 Larned w 
Roys James A, cor Griswold and Larned. 
Tunis W E, 6 Larned w. 

Nen'spapers. 

For Full List seb City Register. 
, Nurserymen. 

Adair William, 954 Jefferson av. 

Cutting Charles W, Grand River near city 

limits. 
Hubbard & Davis, Porter n Fort w. 

Oculist and Aurlst. 

Terry John F, Woodward av. 

Oil Manufteeturers and Dealers. 

Burtis Arthur, 135 Jefferson av. 

Cleveland Carbon Oil Co, office over State 

Bank of Michigan. 
Daniels J, 154 Woodward av. 
Delaiiey E & Co, 37 and 43 Congress e. 
Harmon John H, office 3 Firemen's Hall. 

Optician. 

BLACK LOUIS, 206 Jefferson av. 

Oyster-Depots. 

Beard George & Son, under Russell House. 
Calnon Patrick, Congress Hall, 3 Congress w. 
Elliott & Marvin, 161 Jefferson av. 
Emmens William J, 153 Jefferson av. 
Heffron John, 208 Jefferson av. 
Jenks C &-J, 197 Jefferson av. 
Mallory D D & Co, 147 Jefferson av. 



278 



DET 



CHARLES F. CXASK'S 



DET 



See Box Makers. 

Huyser P R & Co, 71 Montcalm. 
Schaldenbrand Joseph, 248 Catherine. 

Pork and Beef Packers* 

Belknap John, 28 Woodbridge w. 
Bigly John, Woodbridge, Godfroy farm. 
Parker Willard, 80 Woodbridge e. 
Standish J D & Co, 88 Michigan Grand av. 

Painten^ Btonse and Sl^n. 

Aldour W T, 228 Randolph. 

Aspinall J P & Co, 02 Woodward av. 

Beard George R, 77 Michigan av w. 

Beddow John, cor Palmer and Grand Ri- 
ver. 

Beyer Frederick A C, 163 Lafayette e. 

Bradley Henry, cor Woodbridge and Wayne. 

Brewe Joseph.. 139 Mullett. 

Clos Joseph, 288 Orleans. 

Crouse Charles D, 268 Michigan av. 

Davenport George, 125 Catherine. 

Davis George, 90 Grand River. 

Edson A B, 136 Shelby. 

Elliott Joseph, 10 Woodbridge e. 

Farwell Alfred A, Michigan av, bet Wood- 
ward av and Griswold. 

Godfrey, Dean k Co, 48 Woodward av. 

Gygax Frederick, Orleans nr Gratiot. 

Hopkin Robert jr, 60 Bates. 

House Levi, 44 Bates. • 

Kaestle John, 213 Macomb. 

Kleiber Charles, 219 Macomb. 

Krueger William, 198 Macomb. 

Lehman F L, Clifford nr cor Washington av. 

McAdam J & J, 60 Bates. 

McKendrick Daniel, 163 Mullett. 

Ottley Oswald, 60 Randolph. 

Scheibeck John, 226 Macomb. 

Smith Herbert, 232 Clinton. 

Stow Edwin C, 15 Congress e. 

Worcester James H, Bates sw cor Congress. 

Walthell Adam, 76 Brush. 

Williams Samuel, 216 Jefferson av. 

Winterich Matthew, 126 Adams av e. 

Wright & Elder, 157 Jefferson av. 

Painters, Portrait. 

See Artists. 

Natus JoJm, 186 Hussell. 

St Alary Emile, 186 Jefferson av. 

Paints, Oils and Glass. 

Beddow John, 01 Grand River. 

FAR RAND SHELLY 6: Co, 80 Woodward 

av. 
Moore, Footo & Co, foot of Cass. 
Stokes Frederick A, cor Jefferson av and 

Wayne. 
Aspinall Jrfmes P & Co, 92 Woodward av. 

Paper, Dealers In* 

CORNWELL, VANCLEVE & BARNES, 118 
Jefferson av. 



, ninnwffaetmvera aff. 

CORNWELL VANCLEVE k BARNES, 118 
Jefferson av. 

Paper ISLmmfwm* 

See Also Picture Fbamb Dbalesa. 

Hall Thomas J, 7 Columbia w. 
Mitchell James F, 306 Mullett 
Winterich Matthew, 126 Adams av e. 

Paper "Wareltouees, 

BAPNES, SNYDER <k MATTHEWS, 60 

Jefferson av. 
CORNWELL, VANCLEVE k BARNB8, 118 

Jefierson av 
PEASE GEORGE B & SON, 210 Jefferson 

av. 

Paper and Sta,tIOAer]r. 

See Also Booksbllbba. 
Richmonds & Backus, 185 Jefferson av. 
Patent Solicitor. 

Hmit John P, 149 Jefferson av. ^ 



Altman Ira & Co, 42 Griswold* 
Birchard Matthew W, cor Griswold and Con- 
gress w. 
Clapp S H, 47 Griswold. 
Ryan J S, 189 Jefferson av. 
Sage F, 10 Larned w. 

Peoslon Ac«nt* 

Acker Samuel, 70 Griswold. 

Noyes Alexander G, old Odd Fellows' HalL 

Perftunery* 

SIMONEAU H i& L, 107 Jefferson av. 

Pliotosrapliie €k>oda« 

Sutton Moses, 207 Jefterson av. 

Pliyslclans and Sorseons. 

Albertson J A, (homoeopathic), 8 Fisher's 
block. 

Alden John M, 106 Woodward av. 

Andrews George P, 148 Woodward av. 

Barrett Charles H, 164 Jefferson av. 

Beadle David £, 204 Jefferson av. 

Biglow John M, 351 Congress e. 

Brown James A, 234 Woodward av. 

Brumme Charles, 265 Fort e. 

CASE CHARLES R, 138 Jefferson av. 

Clark E M, 72 Fort w. 

Clarke Thomas B, 93 Jefferson av. 

Clements John C, 141 Michigan av. 

Cobb H P, 484 Jefferson av. 

Cobb Lucretius H, 484 Jefferson av. 

Cranage William J, Coyl's block. 

Davenport Louis, cor Jefferson av and Gris- 
wold. 

Day D, 181 Woodward av. 

Delos Benjamin C, (private), 208 Jefferson av. 

Drake Elijah H, (homoeopathic), 16 Fort w. 

Ege Charles N, 207 Jefferson av. 



DET 



STATE OAZEITEEB. 



DET 



270 



Fanner John H, 86 Monroe av. 

Ferguson Joseph, 178 Congress e. 

Gilchrist Hector L, Michigan ave bet Cass 

and First. 
Gorton J C, 104 St Antoine. 
Griggs S, 50 Congress w. 
Gonn Moses, Trumbull av cor Howard* 
Hastings Charles, 80 Lafayette w. 
Hanmer Charles H, 208 Jefferson ay. 
Henderson David, 170 Lafayette w. 
EQldreth Joseph S, cor Lafayette and Shelby. 
Hollywood James W, 87 Woodward av. 
Huenert George, 80 Lamed e. 
Inglis Richard, 21 Stote. 
Jeyte J A dt Son, cor Randolph and Gratiot. 
Kane Edward, ss Grand River bet Woodward 

av and Farmer. 
Kiefer Hermann, 124 Randolph. 
Kermott John W, 183 Woodward av. 
Klein M J, Orleans bet Cherry and Elm. 
Klein Peter, 257 Jefferson av. 
Lauderdale Edward, 65 Woodward av. 
Lodge Edwin A, (homoe), 266 Jefferson av. 
Mcleod David, Merrill block. 
Morris Joseph M, 7 Rowland. 
Mnllaney Robert, 288 Michigan av. 
Nierendorf S Joseph, 78 Macomb. 
Oakley J J, 128 Jefferson av. 
Otto Carl, 212 Russell. 
Pitcher Zina, 58 Congress w. 
Pomeroy Thomas F, (homoe), 108 Congress e. 
Rose L C, 1 Fisher's block. 
Rudolph Benjamin, 144 Randolph. 
Sanders Charles, 95 Bates. 
Schroder Edward, 119 Croghan. 
Schulte Caspar, 23 Clinton. 
Scovel John B, 208 Jefferson av. 
Smith John C, 205 Catherine. 
Smith 6l Van Norman, 2 Congress e. 
Sparr Mary Madame. 258 Woodward av. 
Stebbins Dwight D, 28 Congress w. 
Stebbins Nehemiah D, 28 Congress w. 
Steeger Edward, 262 Jefferson av. 
Stewart Marshall P, 93 Jefferson av. 
Stewart Morse, 73 Brush. 
Terry Adrian R, 41 Congress w. 
Thuener Heinrich, 70 Clinton. 
Trudell Samuel, 476 Fort w. 
Walker Henry T, 28 Grand River. 
Wells William, 19 Fisher's block. 
Williams Caleb W, Waverley block. 

Piano Forte Healers* 

Couse Adam, 187 Jefferson av. 

STEIN & BUCHEI8TER, 188 Jefferson av. 

Whittemore J Henry, 179 Jefferson av. 

Piano Forte Tuners* 

Vandermeer Abraham J, 179 Jefferson av. 

Picture Frame Manuikctnrers* 

See Looking Glass and Pictubb Fbambs. 

Aspinall James P db Co, 92 Woodward av, 
Godfrey, Dean dt Co, 48 Woodward av. 
Wright & Elder, 167 Jefferson av. 



FIC Iron Dealenu 

Williams J Mott, cor Griswold and Atwater. 
VIGER ALEXANDER £, Atwater bet Ran- 
dolph and Bates. 

Plane maker. 

Cook John P, 183 Griswold. 

Plalnlns BUlUi. 

Doty Henry, Woodbridge foot ElevenUi 

near M C R R crossing. 
IngersoU Isaac W, 66 and 68 Fort e. 
Wight H A & S G, Atwater bet McDougail 

and Walker. 

Plaster Paris Imasesit ^^^ 

Cheli & Dante, 16 Centre. 
Zeni Amabile, 162 Lafiiyette e. 

Piaster* Dealers In. 

See Mto Lms, Plaster akd Cbxbvt. 

Field James £, 66 Atwater. 

Hinchman Joseph B, dock a^ D & M depot 

Plasterers* 

Hanley George, 19 John R. 
Ruefer Joseph, 584 Clinton. 
Smith Robert, rear 121 CaUierine. 

Plumlbers* 

Brunuer Stephen, 159 Clinton. 

Carr Richard, 166 Orchard. 

Holmes John, 117 Jeffersoa av. 

Mihalovitch Louis, 58 Michigan Grand av. 

Ross E H & Co, 21 Congress e. 

Schaefer Anton Hastings, bet Gratiot and 

Cath^ne. 
Snell Samuel C, 17 Fort e. 
Stewart James, 02 Bates. 
Westaway James, cor Wayne and Lamed. 
White George, 102 Bates. 
Wittmau Tobias, 165 Macomb. 

Potteries. 

Autresoh Martin, 166 Croghan. 

Balsley Theodore S, ss Fort, Godfroy farm. 

Vogt & Pflugh, 512 Gratiot 

Poulterers* 

Feltus Patrick, 8 City Hall Market. 
Fitzpatrick Bridget Mrs, 10 City Hall Market. 
Lurvey John C, 4 City Hall Market. 
Welch Eliza, 7 City Hall Market, 

Presaed Hay, Dealer in« 

Goodwin Wallace, State cor Griswold. 
Printers, Bonk and JTob* 

ADVERTISER and TRIBUNE ASSOCI- 
ATION. 

Dehaas & Beierle, 278 Jefferson av. 

Gulley S, 10 Congress e. 

Kramer & Co, Wowlbridge cor Griswold. 

Marxhausen A dt C, 206 Jefferson av. 

Slater John, 166 Jefferson av. 

WALKER, TAYLOR d& BARNS, Wood- 
bridge dw cor Griswold. 



280 



DET 



CHARLES F. CXABK S 



DET 



Printers' Furiiisliliis G»ods* 

GEO. B PEASE & SON, 210 Jefferson av. 

Prodnce and Commission. 

See Also Commission Merchants. 

Aspinall J & Co, dock foot of First. 
Billings Jonathan B, cor . Woodbridge and 

Griswold. 
Haywood T J, 14 Abbott Block, Atwater. 
Stimson Beigamin G, 70 Atwater. 
Williams dt Co, dock foot of First. 

Prodnce Dealers* 

Becker John J, 135 Mullett. 

Houstis Joseph, 316 Seventh. 

Jones George C, cor Gratiot and Randolph. 

Kilborn H 0, 1C6 Woodward av. 

Perin Abiel, Railroad Exchange. 

Slade & Sinclair, 3 Russell House Block. 

Provision Dealers* 

Belknap John, 28 Woodbridge w. 
Fellers George J, 66 Jefferson av. 
Hutchings John & Co, dock foot of Griswold. 
Moore, Foote & Co, foot of Cass. 
Webster Daniel, 114 Lamed e. 

Pnbllsliers* 

CLARK CHARLES F, 58 Griswold. 
Ives Knowles T, agent. Virtue & Co, Jeffer- 
son av sw cor Woodward av. 

Pnmp JXIakers* 

Grainger Edwarc^, Orleans bet Woodbridge 

and Franklin. 
Taff Samuel S, cor Woodbridge and Shelby. 

Railroad Companies* Dep#ts and 

offices. 

See City and County Register. 

Real Estate Agents. 

Clark Charles F, 63 Griswold. 

Crane & Wesson, cor Congress and Griswold. 

FROST GEORGE S, Griswold nr Congress. 

Hubbard Bela, cor Congress and Griswold. 

Palms Francis, 345 Jefferson av. 

Smith Ralph C, 127 Jefferson av. 

Wuerth Alloys, 158 St Antoine. 

Restaurants. 

See Also Dining Saloons. 

Behr Frederick, 75 Griswold. 

Brazel Thomas P, 4 Woodward av. 

Fried>=am Joseph, opposite D & M Depot. 

Gore Arthur, dock foot Woodward av. 

Griffin Allen Mrs. 8 C H Market. 

Jacobs Ilollis, 243 Jefferson av. 

Heffron J, Woodward av so cor Jefferson av. 

Johnson Edward, 2 Woodward av. 

Simpson Mrs E, 194 Jefferson av. 

Soramer William, 285 Jefferson av. 

Spillane Jane, 2 C H Market. 

Stadler Chris, 219 Jeflerson av. 

Stone Amos, 8 C H Market. 

Soiile Mrs Sarah, Michigan Grand av. 

Thomas Alfred, 62 Griswold. 



Rope Mannfaetarer* 

Gallagher Patrick, cor Grand River s&d 
South. 

Rubber Goods* 

BOSTON BELTING Co, William H Teffl & 
Co agents. 

Saddle and Barness Maken. 

Amberg Adolph, nw cor Gratiot and Pros- 
pect. 
Brown Cullen, 208 Jefferson av. 
Deinzner Frederick, 249 Gratiot. 
Duncan Brothers, 165 Jefferson av. 
Marx Henry, 190 Mullett. 
Oberlisen Anton, 92 Catherine. 
Pearce Henry, 809 Woodward av. 

Saddlery Hard^rare. 

See Also Harness Makebs. 

Hayden & Baldwin, 81 Woodward av. 
Brown Cullen, 203 Jefferson av. 
DUNCAN BROTHERS, 166 Jefferson av. 

Saf^s and Bank. Tanlts. 

HERRING'S, B Vemor, agent, 46 Griswold- 
Lil lie's Fire' and Burglar Proof, S R WooUey 
agent at C dt A Ives*. 

Sail I«ofU. 

Bloom John, Woodward av nr dock. 
Hammond John A, 492 Woodbridge w. 
Iloffnor & McBride, foot Bates. 
White Thomas, 4 Woodward av. 

Saloons. 

Alleman Bernard^ 408 Gratiot. 

Al It'll William A, 35 Woodbridge w. 

Allmaug John, 03 Croghan. 

Atkinson Robert J, 86)2 Jefferson av. 

Babillion Peter, 32 Griswold. 

Barker Joseph, ne cor St Anbin av and 

Lafayette. 
Bates John, 36 Jefferson av. 
Bennett Isaac, 6 Michigan av w. 
Dently John F, 2 Beaubien. 
Bet zing Adam, ne cor Russell and Mullett. 
Blay Moses, sw cor Hastings and Franklin. 
Blenman Henry A, 008 Jefferson av. 
Bloomer Albert, Michigan av Lafontaine 

farm. 
Bolton Edward, 43 Franklin. 
Boiiair Francis, 308 Atwater. 
Bourdingon Joseph, 22 Orleans. 
Bradford Charles, 157 Woodward av. 
Bradley Henry, cor Woodbridge and Wayne. 
Brevost Francis, 322 Gratiot. 
Briston Samuel, 10 Beaubien. 
Bristow Thomas, 305 Woodward av. 
Brooks Henry G, Campus Martins. 
Brown Henson, 60 Lafayette e. 
Brown James, 10 Monroe av. 
Brundage F, cor St Antoine and Franklin. 
Buckley John, 67 Woodbridge w. 
Buff Bernard, 887 Lafayette e. 



DET 



ffriXR GAZEITKKB. 



DET 



281 



Boms John, 74 Lafoyette e. 

Burst Peter, Woodbridge bet Second and 
Third. 

Bush Henry, cor Fort and Beaubien. 

Bnsha Larry, dock foot Woodward ar. 

Boshie Frank, 101 Atwater. 

Butler Cila, 57 Clinton. 

Oahill James, 131 Michigan av. 

Calnon Patrick, Congress Hall 3 Congress w. 

Cardy John, 292 Atwater. 

Carson William, Lamed nr post ofSoe. 

Cicott Darid, 269 Beaubien. 

Clifford Francis, 41 Clifford. 

Closset Andrew, Grand Hirer nr Second. 

Colclaugh Samuel, 195 Atwater. 

Corkery Dennis, 92 Woodbridge w. 

Croll James, 125 Randolph. 

Cudely Darid, 135 Woodbridge w. 

Curtis Stephen W, Woodbridge bet Sixth 
and SeTenth. 

Dahmer George, 101 Bates. 

Darmstatter Michael, 253 Gratiot. 

Davis William jr, 63 Jefferson aT. 

Dayton Hiram H, 111 Jefferson aT. 

Deginder Peter, ne cor Bnssell and MuUei. 

Dethier Nicholas, 191 Macomb. 

Dewin Jeremiah, 36 Front. 

Diedrich August, Woodbridge, Godfroy faim, 

Doran Thomas, 175 Michigan av. 

Drezdlius Peter, se cor Russell and Kacomb. 

Duerr GoUlieb, 13 Porter. 

Eiden Peter, Mfichigan ay Lafontaine farm. 

Bngstler John, ns Clinton ar bet Chene and 
Dubois. 

ErichsoD-Darid, 119 Randolph. 

Euler Henry, 558 Woodbridge w. 

Fairy John, 177 Miihigan av. 

Faivre Frank, 127 Grand River. 

Fancer A, 52 Front. 

Fly Broihers, Michigan av Stanton fann. 

Finn Thomas, 125 Woodbridge w. 

Fischbach Phillip, se cor Russell and Cathe- 
rine. 

Fitzgerald Michael, 205 Sixth. 

Fitzpatrick Thomas, 89 Jefferson av. 

Fleischer P, 75 Monroe av. 

Fonekner Thomas, 97 Atwater. 

Fowler William J, D & M R R Depot. 

Fox John, 56 Front. 

Frank Louis, 164 Mullett. 

Gadway Augustas, 2 Monroe av. 

Gagel Peter, 25 Fort e. 

Gebhard Christian, 51 High. 

Gerber Peter, St Antoine nr Fort. 

Gies Frederick, 95 Congress e. 

Goellaer k Bro, Lafayette sw cor Hastings. 

Goffinet James, cor Randolph and Lamed. 

Gore Arthur, foot Woodward av. 

Graiiey David, 110 Woodbridge e. 

Grant Anne, 141 Woodbridge w. 

Gravier R, 68 Gratiot 

Green Andrew C, 156 Woodward av. 

Greenslade & Sturman, 49 Shelby. 

Greer William, 105 Atwater. 



Oriffin John, 6 Brush. 

Haering Francis C, 607 Jeflferson av. 

Hahn Amandus, 121 Randolph. 

Hanniman John B, 50 Fort e. 

Harding Frederick, 91 Atwater. 

Hardy George, 74 Atwater. 

Hartman Michael, 406 Woodbridge w. 

Hawkins Edward, 438 F(»i e. 

Haynes £, 14 Monroe av. 

Havward George, Monroe av nr Market. v 

Heller John, 221 Croghan. 

Henrion George, nw cor Blvard and Fori. 

Henry John, Ann nr Seventh. 

Hepburn James, 117 Woodbridge w. 

Hill Jacob, cor Atwater and Deqnindre. 

Hibenthal Adam, 429 Woodbridge w. 

Hickey Elizabeth, wid David, 56 Franklin. 

Hilsendegen John, cor Randolph and Lamed. 

Hoek Joseph, 92 Lafayette e. 

Hoffman Jacob, 254 Woodbridge w. 

Hogan Margaret, 85 Woodbridge- w. 

BoUstein John, 91 Fort cor St Antoine. 

Horn John, 141 Woodward av. 

Hosana Charles, 237 Jefferson av. 

Humphrey Reuben, 16 Monroe av. 

Ibberson George, 8 Michigan av w. 

Ihmam Augustus, se oor Dequindre and Mft> 

comb. 
Jacklin William, 44 Michigan Grand av. 
Jacob William, cor St Antoine and Clinton. 
Jacobs HoUis, 143 Jefferson av. 
Jepp William, 153 Woodward- av. 
Johr John, Jefferson av cor First. 
Johnson George D, 40 Michigan Grand av. 
Keenan Patrick, 1*^ Beaubien. 
Kelly John, cor Michigan av and Seventh. 
Renter Anton, cor Clinton and Beaubien. 
Kiel Henry, 295 Lafayette e. 
Klein Joseph, ne cor FranUin and Orleans. 
Klinck John, 222 Russell. 
Knight James, cor First and Front. 
Koch Amanda, 470 Woodbridge w. 
Kull Jacob, sw cor Walker and Jefferson av. 
Laderoot Eli, 55 Macomb. 
Laderoot Peter, 56 Macomb. 
Lee Robert, 253 Fifth. 
Leadbeater Edward S, 214 Jefferson av. 
LenU Matthias, 406 Fort w. 
Lingemann Caspar, cor Jay and Biopelle. 
Lucker Johann, sw cor Macomb and Rio- 

pelle. 
McFee John, 47 Atwater. 
McDooIen Margaret, wid James, 39 Franklin. 
Maguire James, 85 Jefferson av. 
Marx Moses, 94 Gratiot. 
Masch Charles, 5^BeaQbien. 
May Henry, se cor St Aubin and Clinton av. 
May Samuel, cor Jefferson av and Randolph. 
Mayberry Joseph, 191 Atwater. 
Meltzar Ignaz, Michigan av nr Porter. 
Michael Gsorge, 335 Atwater. 
Miller Henry, Michigan av between Cass and 

First. 
Moeller Ernst, oor Brush and Fort. 



DET 



STATE GAZXTTKEB. 



DET 



283 



TanBaalen S, 17 Miehigan ay w. 
TiD Baakn Williaiii, 288 Jeffbnon ay. 



€iidiier If T A Co, 189 Woodward ay. 
TSNFIELD W S, ajgt, 108 Woodward ay. 



Tiggins 8 A, room 4 Merrill Mock. 



6nman*8, Edwin W Oleason, agt, Merrill 

block. 
Ororer & BiOcer's, W W Whitlark, agent, 

Fi9ber*8 block, Campus Martins. 
Sloit's, George W Gates, agt, 202 Jefibrson av. 
ha^aa\ James M Boylan, agt, Coyl's block. 
Soger I M & Co, 58 Woodward av. 
WHEELER k JTILSON'S, M PAR- 
TRIDGE, agt, room 1, Merrill Block. 

8Ml«vl« nulls. 

Ikj Aognstos, agt and patentee, 278 Atwa- 
(er. 

SlLlp «m4 ]i««f Tarda. 

Cuapbell & Owens, office and yard ne cor 
Deqnindre and Atwater. 

Clark John 8, Woodbridge nr Fort Wayne. 

JoDes James M, dock foot Rivard. 

Donstall & Boston, dock foot Russell. 

McDonald Stewart, Woodbridge, on Thomp- 
son and Loignon farm, l^low M C R R 
crossing. 

Stopinsky John, Atwater foot Rivard. 

8Mlp Brokera. 

Olmey 8 P, dock foot Bates. 
Scott Joseph B, 46 Atwater. 

Slilp €Msuidl«rs. 

HINCHMAN GUY P A Co, 16 and 18 Ab- 
bot block, Atwater. 

Kanter Edwaird, 4 and 6 Woodward ay. 

Trowbridge, Wilcox & Co, first dock e Wood- 
ward ay. 

Sklp-Smltli. 

Taylor Andrew 0, 121 Woodbridge w. 

n&lpplBfr JLffenf* 

Puton B B, 4 Woodward ay. 

EUlpplUE Furs. 

HILLS M 1, 190 Jefibrson ay. 

SMppiai^ nerckaitts. 

Fowler & Esselstyn, foot Woodward ay. 
Henick Bldridge G, foot Woodward ay ws. 
ocott Joseph B, 46 Atwater. 



SMIrf IflbaawfactBrers. 

^•rrut Darid T, 116 Jefierson ay. 
^^liAQdler k Bro, 68 Woodward ay. 

8k«ir Oasa Saauflaotarer. 

Brown Qeorge, 27 Jeflferson ay. 



SllT«r Plat«rs. 

Labruzy Blaze, 78 Fort e. 
Traub d& Bro, 206 Jefibrson ay. 

SllTer Sp««a Maaaffaetarer. 

LEA\'ENWORTH THOMAS B, 181 Gris- 

wold. 

Slata aad Marble Yard. 

Ladd £ W db Co, cor Randolph and Atwater. 

Soap aad Gaadle makers* 

Condon John B, sw c Rio|)eIle and Catherine. 
Metzner John k Co, Grand Riyer nr Second. 
Paris Henry, 127 Gratiot. 
Schulte k Brothers, cor Franklin and Ri- 

vard. 
Tomlinson k Grayes, 80 and 82 Atwater. 
Wenig John, Michigan ay, Loranger farm. 

Soda Water Illaaafaeiarer. 

Cronk Warren, 67 First. 

Spring Bed HanafaoCarer. 

Watson Horace C, 138 Griswold. 

Siatloners. 

See Booksellers, aUo^ Blank Book 
Mandpactdrbbs. 

Elwood S Dow, 49 Griswold. 
PEASE GEO B k SON, 210 Jefferson ay. 
RAYMOND k ADAMS, 90 Woodward ay. 
Richmonds <b Backus, 185 Jefierson av. 
Slater John, 166 Jefierson ay. 

Stave Dealers* 

Rosenbury Charles £, dock foot Bates. 
Wormer Groyer S, 133 Jefierson av. 
Turner Horace, Atwater foot of St Aubln 
av. 

Steanaboat Agents* 

Baldwin Charles H, 22 High. 

Keith k Carter, dock foot of Shelby. 

HUTCHINGS JOHN k Co, dock foot o 

Griswold. 
WHITING J T A CO, dock foot of First. 

Steaia'Sawr Hills. 

Benson Henry E, Atwater bat St Aubin ay 
and Dequindre. 

Brooks N W, 471 Woodbridge w. 

Brooks <Sc Adams, 361 Woodbridge w. 

Lafontaine F Hubbard, prop'r, 571 Wood- 
bridge w. 

Mofiat Hugh, Atwater bet Dubois and Chene. 

Pitts Samuel, Atwater nr St Aubin av. 

Wight H A & S G. Atwater bet McDougal 
and Walker. ^ 

Stonoll Oatters. 

E re Frederick, 138 Griswold. 

Staae Oattors. 

Bauerbach Joseph, 77 High. 

Bulman A Vasey, Atwater foot of Orleans. 

Fett Charles, 158 Mulleu. 

Fowler George, Lafayette nr Beaubien. 



\ 



284 



DET 



CHABLE8 F. CULBK'S 



DET 



Holloway & Co, foot of Shelby. 

Knapp & Co. foot of Russell. 

Lewis Thomas, 404 At water. 

Mathes Jacob, Clinton bet Rivard and Rus- 
sell. 

Ruehl John, 16 Maple. 

Sanders George, 76 Michigan av w. 

Schweikart Walter, cor Jefferson av and 
Riopelle. 

Sheehan Daniel, on dock bet Rivard and 
Russell. 

Springer Brothers, ws St Antoine abv Gratiot. 

Sugden Frederick, ss Catherine bet Rivard 
and Russell. 

Whitmore, Rathburn & Co, foot of Wayne. 

Stone l¥are. 

See POTTERIBB. 

Balsley Samuel, Fort, Godfroy farm. 

Stove and Tin l¥are. 

Se€ Hahdwaeb. 

BU8CH CHARLES, 201 Jefferson av. 
Crimmins John, 62 Jefferson av. 
Mihalovitch Louis, 68 Michigan Grand av. 
PENFIELD W S, agent, 108 Woodward av. 
Sales & Webster, 18 Michigan av. 
TEFFT W H & Co, 44 Woodward av. . 

Surveyors* 

See Civil Enginbebs. 

Campau Thomas, nw cor Jefferson av and 

Chene. 
Monroe John F, 10 Fisher's block. 
Robinson Eugene, es Griswold nr Fort. 

Tallom and Drapers* : 

Aldenbrand August, 166 Croghan. 

Baier F, 64 Monroe av. 

Beadle George W, 190 Woodward av. 

Beck John L, Gratiot nr Brush. 

Berktoldt Tadda, 261 High. 

Boode Caspar, 68 High. 

Brachlur Anthony, ns Juliet bet Dequinder 

and St Aubin av. 
Carver David, 132 Jefferson av. 
Colby Isaac, 127 Jefferson av. 
Common George, 33 Larned w. 
Crimmins P, 4 Fort w. 
Cruise James, 276 Jefferson av. 
Culver George W, 114 Woodward av. 
Decleise Louis, ns Chestnut bet St Aubin av 

and Dequindre. 
Derwien Louis, 96 Russell. 
Donaldson James, 242 Jefferson av. 
Dubois John, 187 Croghan. 
Dunlap William H, 16 Griswold. 
Farrell Phillip, 216 Woodward av. 
Fitch E D, 114 Jefferson av. 
Fitzpatrick Thomas, 89 Jefferson av. 
Glover Henry, 166 Jefferson av. 
Govin Charles, 64 Randolph. 
Hadger John, ne cor Juliet and Dequinder. 
HEINEMAN £ S, under the Russell House. 



Henderson William, 217 Jeflbrson av. 

HINTERMISTER HENRT, 145 JeAnonaii 

Hommer Fi'ederick, 400 Gratiot. 

Johannes & Volbach, 260 Jefferson av. 

Kevenny Patrick, 31 Jefferson av. 

Kirck Patrick, 88 Woodbridge w. 

Elaas Charles, 186 Russell. 

Knittweis Franz, 202 Macomb. 

Kuhn August, 161 Croghan. 

Kuhn Charles, 268 Clinton. 

Kuhn Francis, 426 Croghan. 

Kuhn Franz, 160 Rivard. 

Kuhn H, ns Croghan bet Dubolk and CbeDe. 

Lambert William, 16 Congres e. 

Lawrence George W, 98 Bates. 

McCaffV'ey James, 102 Lamed w. 

McGarry John, 91 St Antoine. 

McGrath James, 220 Gratiot. 

McTemey I atrick, 207 Jefferson av. 

Maier Matthew, 266 Jefferson av. 

Maltz George C, cor Porter and Third. 

Martin John, 118 Clinton. 

Martine Julius, 120 Catherine. 

Meier Charles, 130 Catherine. 

Melin Frank, 231 Clinton. 

Meyer Jacob L, 138 Catherine. 

Miner Edward, 62 Bates. 

Mitchell Anthony, 21 Abbott cor First. 

O'Brien Thomas, 90 Grand River. 

Orth Rudolph, 101 Macomb. 

Pfeffer Wendelin, 168 Croghan. 

Pottinger Henry, 91 Jefferson av. 

Quinkort Franz, 363 Franklin. 

Rasch & Bernart, 245 Jefferson av. 

Reich Frederick, 190 Mullett. 

Renterop John C, 399 Mullett. 

Rhode John, 69 Mullett. 

Ryan Charles, 9 Jefferson av, 

Schlitt John, 140 Mullett. 

Shahan John, 231 Fifth. 

Simmons Solomon, 169 Jefferson av. 

Stark Leonhard, cor Russell and Maple. 

Stevenson John, 80 Griswold. 

Tresczer F, 102 Jefferson av. 

Ulrich John, 79 Jay. 

Vahrenbuehler Jacob, 118 Clinton. 

Vaupel John H, r 306 St Antoine. 

Vogel Bernard, 119 Clinton. 

Vollbach William, 230 Clinton. 

Wattlaufer W, 24 Centre. 

Wilson & Hunter, 12 Congress w. 

Wright Robert M, 29 Lamed w. 

Tanners and Curriers. 

Badenbach Andreas, 162 Rivard. 

Croul Brothers, 122 Woodbridge e, fiujtory at 

Hamtramck. 
Eldred F E, 1 Michigan av w. 
Huiss Christopher F, 280 Michigan av w. 
Jewels P & Sons, 16 Campus Martins. 
Karrer J & Bro, cor Monroe av and Fanner. 
Koester Henry, 400 Gratiot. 
Ladue John T, ss Lafayette bet Rivard and 

Russell. 



DET 



STATE OAZBITSSEB. 



Diarr 



285 



Ladue Thomas, r 214 Lafayette e. 

Ladue &, Co, cor Pine and Rivard. 

Parker George H, Woodbridge, Porter farm. 

Beis Jacob, r 247 Catherine. 

Bohm & Eauch^r, r 28 Silver. 

Schehr J & A; 186 Catherine. 

Bchmidt Traugott, 68 Oroghan. 

Btich Peter, 217 Lafayette e. 

Stromer John, ne cor Michigan and Lasalle 

avs. 
Tomlinson & Graves, 80 and 82 Atwater. 
Wenzell A, office 22 Monroe av. Tannery 

cor Columbia and Beaubien. 

Tax Affencj-. 

Clark Charles F, 58 Griswold, (up stairs). 
Whiting J L & Co, 63 Griswold. 

Tea and Coffee Dealer. 

See Alto Gbocers, Wholesale. 
BAKER F G A CO, 146 Woodward av. 

Teacber* Danclny. 

Strassburg Hermann, 220 Jefferson av. 

Teacl&ers, IKIusic* 

Brandt Godfred F C, ne cor Germain and De- 

quindre. 
CENTEMERIB JENNIE MADAME, Basse; 1 

House. 
Elliott John S, 126 Congress e. 
Mawson Rosa Mrs, 84 Montcalm w. 
Philbrick Henry H, 68 Randolph. 
Strassburg Hermann, 220 Jefferson av. 
Town Thomas M, 27 Washington av. 
Wuerth Aloys, 158 St Antoine. 

Tl&resliiiiff Jllacl&iiies. 

Hitchcock A, cor Second and dock. 

Ticket Aflrents. 

MORTON JULIUS D, agt N Y C R B, office 
cor Third and Woodbridge. 

Morton Benjamin F, ticket agt G W B B, of- 
fice cor Third and Woodbridge. 

Slocom & Thompson, cor Second and Wood- 
bridge and 18 Third. 

Timber Mercliaiit* 

Carrier Augustus, office foot Woodward av 

w 8. 

Tiii9 Copper Sc Sbeet Iron IVorlLere. 

See Also Hardware. 

Baumeister John, 278 Gratiot. 
Busch Charles, 201 Jefferson av. 
Frumviller Antony, cor Jefferson av and Eio- 

pelle. 
Gill James, 145 Woodward av. 
Haller Michael, cor Second and Porter. 
Mihalovitch Louis, 63 Michigan Grand av. 
Sales & Webster, 18 Michigan av w. 

Tinsmitl&s* 

Aegerden Charles, cor Bivard and Croghan. 
Battle James, 52 Michigan Grand av. 
Coeny Edmund, 218 La?ayette e. 



Bederichs Joseph, 79 Croghan. 

De Graff Henry, Whitney bet Hastings and 
St Antoine. 

Gubby Charles, Woodbridge bet Second and 
Third. 

Hensien John P, s e cor St Antoine and La- 
fayette. 

Hodgetts John W, 75 Congress e. 

Kennedy Samuel, 198 Michigan av. 

Kneeland P N, cor Griswold and Grand Biver. 

Liebold Ernst, nw cor Hastings and Watson. 

Motz Frederick, 167 Grand Biver. 

Staiger Frederick, 281 Woodward av. 

Wilkie David, 206 Gratiot. 

Willett Michael, 195 Michigan av. 

Tolmeeonlfts. 

Bagley John J, 24 Woodward av. 

Barker Eirkland C, 62, 64 and'66 Jefferson 

av. 
Eccard Francis, 128 Bandolpb. 
Goldsmith Oliver, 168 Jefferson av. 
Grunow Herman, 70 Jefferson av. 
Hanna &, Co, 112 Woodward av. 
Leadbeater Edward S, 214 Jefferson av. 
NEYIN <9b MILLS, 92 and 94 Jefferson av. 
Rothschild &. Bro, 281 Jefferson av. 
Scotten & Lovett. 104, 106, 108 and 110 

Bandolpb. 
Silberman Joseph, 222 Jefferson av. 
Spence James P & Co, 2 Atwater e. 

Toy Stores. 

DOELTZ G & BRO, 70 Woodward av. 
Martin Peter, Russell between MuUett and 

Catherine. 
Schwartz Cbarles, 59 Woodward av. 

TrjAiieportailoii I«ines* 

See City and Codstt Bboister. 

Teamsters and Draymen* 

Bomman Diederich, 188 Crogban. 

Frede Frederick, ss Maple between Bivard 
and Russell. 

Hendrie & Co, Detroit and Milwaukee rail- 
road depot. 

TrunlUt Dealers In. 

WOLFF HENRY, 211 Jefferson av. 

Trunks, Travellnc-lMiss and Tallses. 

Colman Henry W, 129 Jefferson av. 
Heatley & Atkins, 1C8 Woodward a\k 
WOLFF H, 211 Jefferson av. 

Tubs and Churns. 

Sutton James W, 870 Fort w. 

Undertakers. 

Farwell J H, 181 Woodward av. 

Longtin Alium, 99 Lamed e. 

Myler & Son, 74 Beaubien. 

Bay A T, nw cor John B and Elizabeth. 

Boche Thomas, 75 Lamed e. 

Sutherland J, 91 Gratiot. 

Vieson Frederick, 116 Maple. 



286 



DET 



CHABIOB F. CLABK'8 



DET 



Uplioliterenu 

FraDke J, 198 Crogban. 
Janssen Louis, 260 Jefferson av. 
Krtfis Christian, 122 Catherine. 
Stevens John M, 194 Woodward av. 

Taiiety Stores. 

Frisbee Soprhia Mrs, 833 Woodward av. 
Kress Katharina Mrs, 291 Woodward av. 

Tamlsb nKannfketiirers 

Berry & Bro's, 26 Woodbridge w. 

Tamlshers, 

Baldinger Frank, 117 Ch'nton. 
Mueller Sebastian, 248 Rivard. 
Wuesthoff Martin, 173 Mullett. 

Tenetlan Blinds. 

Stevens J M, 194 Woodward av. 

Tetertnary SRrffeons. 

Dowling William, 480 Qratiot. 
Gregory J C, State nr Griswold. 
Erause Charles, 127 Gratiot. 

Vtneffar MannfiMtnrers* 

Chandler & Co, Woodbridge nr Seventh. 

Diederich William, 12 Atwater. 

Frankel Isidor, 7 Jefferson av. 

Freeman Hiram S, 40 Woodbridge e. 

Haywood T J & Co, 14 Abbott block, At- 
water. 

Holloway, Kinne & Moor, se cor John R and 
Centre 

IIuQk Charles, 112 Croghan, 

Huetter Caspar, cor Maple and Riopelle. 

Kci^mling Christopher, 403 Seventh. 

Lansberg Adolph, 51 Griswold. 

Winter William, 167 Macomb. 

"Wwigon Makers. 

See Also Blacksmiths. 

Bel nap Philo G, Woodbridge, Thompson 

farm. 
Danz William, ss Gratiot between Rivard and 

Russell. 
Gemeinhart Abraham, Grand River nr First. 
GEISLER M M, 38 Lamed w. 
Gottschalk Wilhelm, 219 Macomb. 
Grix 6l Ochsenhirt, 1G2 Gratiot. 
Hilsendegen Valentin, 898 Gratiot 
Hem Francis, 809 Michigan av. 
Lochbibler Joseph, ws Riopelle between 

Gratiot and Waterloo. 
Schmitt John, 813 Michigan av. 
Schaefer John, 828 Clinton. 
Tapert Christian, cor Macomb and Rivard. 
Tromblv Hypolite, 191 Gratiot. 
Wain William, 64 Bmsh. 
Walters Joseph, Michigan av Portdr farm. 
Zimmerman William, ws St Aubinav between 

Lamed and Jefferson av. 

"Wmmh. Board* 

WHEELER W WARD, at S Pitts' lumber 

mill. 



Boehnlein G & M, 218 Jefkmm av. 
Betz Franz, 144 Catherine. 
Crongeyer John, 235 Jefferson av. 
Fischer P dt W, 209 Jeflfersooav. 
Hall William, 187 Jefferson av. 
Hayes William B, 127 Michigan av. 
Kaiser Anton, 179 Jeffereon av. 
Korte Frank, 14 Congress w. 
Mason L M, ne cor Jefferson and Woodviid 

avs. 
POHL ANTHONY, 119 Woodward av. 
Rolshoven Frederick, 204 Jefierson av. 
SMITH MARTIN S, 55 Woodward av. 
Schuler George, 160 JefiRsrson av. 
Van Isaac M, 151 Grand River. 

unUps and liasfces. 

Noble S, 105 Woodward av. 

in&lskT BeetUlerB. 

Diederich db Melchers, 199 Jeflbrson at. 



Harbert Edward, 81 MnlleU. 
Jackson Robert, 198 Congress e. 
Mitchell James F, 806 Mullett. 
Park John, 119 Macomb. 
Pelham Robert, 192 Congress e. 
Stokes W D, 76 Clinton. 

uric and Tonpee IHalLefs. 

Clay William, 119 Jefferson av. 
Densham Thomas, 226 Jefferson av. 
Tate William, 240 Jefferson av. 



TTlndow Gil 

See Paints, Oil and Glass. 

urine and I«lqnor Dealers. 

BOURKE OLIVER, 100 Jefferson av. 
Cullen Richard, 68 Woodbridge w. 
Diederich William, 12 Atwater. 
Diederich &> Melchers, 199 Jefferson av e. 
Doyle £ & Co, 21 Michigan av w. 
Frankel Isador, 17 Jefferson av. 
Gallagher Thomas, 8 Michigan Grand av. 
Ganley John R, Jefferson av between Wayne 

and Shelby. 
Goffinet James, cor Randolph and Lamed. 
McDowell Christopher, 97 Grand River. 
MOTT & CO, 16 Jefferson av. 
Netting George, 2 Michigan Grand av. 
Niles George, 133 Woodward av. 
Robinson & Lambert, 21 Jefferson av. 
Smith Elgah, 22 Woodbridge w. 
Sprague & Co, 68 Jefferson av. 
Stokes Fred A, agt, cor Jefferson av and 

Wayne. 
Vannler Edmund, 16 Monroe av. 

l¥lre Cloth, Mannflaetorer oC 

SNOW WILLIAM, 102 Woodward av, 



Wire 

Adams Samuel, 108 Woodward av, 
Ncuhaueser Franz, 181 Croghan. 



DEX 



STATE GAZETTEEB. 



DEX 



287 



HFood Carrers. 

Melchers Julius, 69 Lamed e. 
Meyers W, cor Gratiot and Bussell. 
Natus John, 185 Russell. 
Picard Joseph, 50 Riopelle. 

fFood Dealeni. 

Brossard Sl Gunuing, Michigan av cor First. 

Griggs T D, cor Michigan av and Griswold. 

Hudson George W, 63 Woodbridge w. 

McGonegal James, dock foot Russell. 

Sheehan Daniel, dock bet Rivard and Rus- 
sell. ^ 

St Amour Francis X, ns St Aubin av bet 
Macomb and Clinton a v. 

Wood Tamers. 

Clas Christian, 288 Orleans. 
Feldman Henry, 626 Gratiot. 
Passelius A, 32 Farrar. 

UToodivork for CmrrUkgem. 

Hayden A Baldwin, 81 Woodward av. 

Wool Dealers. 

BURNS JAMES & Co, 57 Woodward av. 
Folsom S, 90 Woodward av. 
Wenzel A, 22 Monroe av. 

ITsnkee Notions. 

AUSTIN A C, 190 Jefferson av. 

Carr Michael W, 26 Third. 

Fisher Sarah Mrs, 210 Woodward av. 

Kress Christian, 276 Woodward av. 

KNOLL & WISEMAN, 189 Jefferson av. 



DE \A/ITT- 

A beautiful and flourishing village of Clin- 
ton county, on the Looking Glass river, 90 
miles north-west from Detroit. It contains 
three churches, two flour mills, two saw 
mills, and six stores. The township is also 
called " De Witt," and has a population of 
1 ,300. Population of village, 800. (For list 
of Trades, etc., see ^^too late for intertion") 



DEXTER. 

An incorporated village of Washtenaw 
county, in the township of Scio, situated on 
the Michigan Central railroad, at the junction 
of the Huron river with Mill Creek. It has 
a fine water power, which has been well 
improved. The village contains one masonic 
lodge, a Baptist, a Catholic, a Methodist 
Episcopal, and a Presbyterian church, one 
woolen factory, two flour mills, one saw 
mill, one foundry and machine shop, three 
hotels, and about twenty stores. Population 
of village, 1,000; of entire township, 3,000. 
Distance from Detroit, 47 miles, fare $1.86 ; 
237 miles from Chicago, fare ^7.00. Two 
mails are received per day. Foatmuter'^ 
Harvey B. Muscott. 



YILLAOB 0FFICBB8. 

Presideni — Samuel W. Murdock. 
Recorder — Burton Alley. 
TrueUes — Nelson Green, Alexander Sou- 
lier, Amos Gray, John Costello, Elisha Adams. 

last of ProftssloiiSf Trades, etc* 

Adams Elisha, hotel. 

Alley & Bro, (James B and Burton), general 
store. 

Andrews Nathan, lumber dealer. 

Beal Rice A, woolen manufacturer. 

Beal R A & Co, (Rice A B and John Marble), 
flour mill. 

Beal, Southwick & Costello, (Alfred A Beal, 
George Southwick and John Costello), 
general store. 

Bentley Amos, livery stable. 

Bilby Christopher, blacksmith. 

Blanchard Rev, (Methodist). 

Boyden William Mrs, milliner. 

Costello & Bro, (John Costello and B yron Cos- 
tello), grocers. • 

Crane Alexander D, lawyer. 

Croarkin John, grocer and druggist. 

Dolan Patrick, grocer. 

Eamon William, tailor. 

Ewing Alexander, drugs and books. 

Fields James, lumber dealer. 

Goodspee<l Harvey, carpenter. 

Gray Amos, physician. 

Guest &> Hoyt, (Albert G and Jesse H), har- 
ness makers. 

Gunion Mathew, grocer. 

Hays James E, hotel. 

Honey James T, lawyer. 

Hosier William, carriage maker. 

Howell Charles, physician. 

Judson David, mason. 

Keith Nathan, grocer. 

Kelley William Rev, (Episcopal). 

Kellogg Edward P, blacksmith. 

Langdon Reuben J, tailor. 

Long John, jeweler. 

McCorney Mrs, daguerreotypist. 

Maynes Joseph, grocer. 

Moore Shubael T, lumber dealer. 

Murdock Samuel W, jeweler. 

Page George C, justice of the peace. 

Powers Isaac, blacksmith. 

Pratt & Son, (Thomas and Marcus) , flour and 
saw mill. 

Raywalt Isaac T, hotel. 

Smith James L Rev, (Baptist). 

Smith M & Co, (Rice A Beal and Oliver M 
Smith), general store. 

Soulier Alexander, cooper. 

Stebbins Henry, billiard saloon. 

Stevens William, boots and shoes. 

Taylor William, physician. 

Thayer Frederick, carriage maker. 

Tozer Warren, foundry and machine shop. 

Tuite Peter, justice of the peace. 

Tyler Edmund B, insurance agent. 



288 



DOW 



CHASLBS F. CLABK'S 



DOW 



Vanfleet John, blacksmith. 

Van Geniss James Rev, (Catholic). 

Van Riper James C, carpenter. 

VAN RIPER JAMES *M, general store and 

banker. 
Vinkle Henry, cabinet maker. 
Williams James R Rev, (Presbyterian). 
Wygant James, mason. 



DISCO. 

A post village of Macomb county, in the 
township of Shelby, on the Detroit and Al- 
mout stage route, 27 miles north of Detroit. 
It contains t^o Methodist and one Presbyte- 
rian church, a general store, and hotel. A 
daily mail is received. Merchants ship 
goods from Detroit by the Grand Trunk 
railway, via Mt. Clemens, 12 miles from 
Disco. Population, 200. Fostmaster — Josiah 
Kingsbury. 

Ijist of ProfosslonSf Trades* etc* 

Bell James, blacksmith. 
Burgess & Andrews, boot and shoe makers. 
Church Chauncey, boots and shoes and gro- 
ceries. 
Cross G C, carpenter. 
Harris Elijah N, physician. 
Eelley James, justice of the peace. 
Kingsbury Josiali, general store. 
Men-ifield Horace, insurance agent. 
Russel John Rev, (Methodist). 
Stearns Sylvester S, physician. 
Switzer John, blacksmith. 
Trowbridge Job, hotel. 
Warren Lafayette, justice of the peace. 
Withey William M, carriage maker. 



DIXBORO. 

A post office of Washtenaw county. 



DOVER. 

A township and small post village of Lena- 
wee county. Population, 1,400. The village 
contains a Methodist and a Baptist church, 
two steam saw mills, and a few mechanics. 
Fostmaster — Elias P. Drake. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — Isaac Warren. 
Ckrk — Anderson H. Sargeant. 

Thompson Sydney, justice of the peace. 
Towusend Henry F, justice of the peace. 
Warren Jesse, justice of the peace. 



DOWAQIAC- 

A thriving and important incorporated 
post village of Cass county, situated on the 
Michigan Central railroad, and on the Dowa- 
giac creek, 178 miles south-westerly from 



Detroit, and 106 miles from Chicago. Fare 

from the former place, |5,25; from the 
latter, $3,10, It is also connected by daStf 
stage with Elkhart, Ind., on the Michi^ 
Southern railroad, distant 20 miles; &«, 
$1,00. The place enjoys a considerable 
trade, and is the principal business point is 
the county. It has fbor churches, repn- 
senting the Congregational, Baptist, Metho- 
dist and Universalist denondnations, a ireddj 
newspaper, called the ^^Ctut Oouniy B^d' 
lican" published and edited by Willism E 
Campbell, at $1 per year ; a lodge of Masom, 
("Dowagiac, No. 10"), a 1<^ of Odd 
Fellows, (" Dowagiac, No. 67 "); a baslut 
factory, (employing 2^ hands), a door, sish 
and blind factory, a spoke and hub fiictorf, 
with several manufactories of agricnluuil 
implements, carriages, and cabinet work. It 
has, also, two hotels, one saw mill, two flow 
mills, a tannery, machine shop, iron foundiy, 
private banking house, and about twenty 
stores, together with a large number of trades 
and professions. This is regarded as one of 
the most prosperous and flourishing towns io 
the State. It is surrounded by a rich and 
productive farming country, and is evidently 
destined to become a place of consideiabte 
importance. A daily mail is reodrei 
Population, 1,500. Pm^hmu^— William E 
Campbell. 

VILLAGE OFFICERS. 

Fresident — Henry C. Ly brook. 
Marshal — Ebenezer M. Taylor. 
Trustees — Frederick A. Stebbins, Patrick 
Hamilton, Henry Bigelow, Abel Townsend. 

I«lst of Profeaslone, Trades, etet 

Ackerman David, harness maker. 
Alward Albert N, books and stationery. 
Ashley, Kays & Co, (Z Ashley, Hugh Kays 

and Mark Judd>, lumber dealers. 
Atwood William H, saloon. 

Beckwith Philo D, machinist. 

Beckwith & Messenger, (Philo D Beckwith 

and J A Messenger), foundry. 
Bell Samuel, mason. 
Bigelow Henry, lumber dealer. 
Bigelow Hervey, cabinet maker. 
Bloodgood James, physician. 
Bock Nicholas, hotel. 
Bowling Strother, justice of the peace. 
Campbell William H, editor and proprietor 

^^ Republican.^' 
Clark Joseph B, lawyer. 
Cobb Norris, boot and shoe maker. 
Cooper John E, mason. 

Defoe Nathaniel, mason 
DENMAN HENRY B, BANKEB. 
Dixon N B, harness maker. 
Dunning Orvin B, daguerreotypist. 

Esch George, blacksmith. 



DOW 



STATS GA2BITEXB, 



DUN 



289 



FaaseU Nathan Rer, (Methodist). 
Fosdick Qeorge W, dentist. 
Foster John T, bootfi and shoes. 
Foster 8 C, milliner. 
Fritz Charles, jeweler. 

Gage Justus, insurance agent. 
Gardner &. Co, livery stable. 
Gould Noali, blacksmith. 
Griswold William, grocer. 
Harwood Abram, carpenter. 

Haslet Daniel, carpenter. 

Hirach Jacob Jr, clothing. 

fiollitter Joseph, justice of the peace. 

Howard A Comstock, (John G Howard and 

John C Comstock), general store. 
Howard John G, druggist. 
Huntington Asa, druggist. 

Jones C C, dentist. 

Jones G C & Co, (Gilman C and Azro), gen- 
eral store. 

Jones 6b Co, (Horace C Jones, Richard Head- 
ing and Peter Hamman), basket manufac- 
turers. 

Larxelere D dt Co, (Daniel and William), 
general store. 

Lyie Daniel, tanner. 

McNab Warren, saloon. 

Mason Hamilton, carpenter. 

Metcalf Sarah £, milliner. 

Miller George, justice of the peace. 

O'Dell C M, physician. 

Palmer William, livery stable. 

Pattison Edward, saloon. 

Pond Dennis, saloon. 

Porter Moses, physician. 

Potter Nathan, gunsmith. 

P« indie C C, physician. 

Ramsey Albert G, cooper. 

Rice Enos H Rev, (Congregational). 

Rood William A, daguerreotypist. 

Ross F H, hardware. 

Rouse Amos, cabinet maker. 

Smith George, merchant tailor. 

Smith Mason F, grocer. 

Smith Jacob, jeweler. 

Spaulding N Mack, flour and saw mill. 

Spencer James M, lawyer. 

Sprague &, Hawks, (William Sprague and 
John Hawks), hardware. 

Squire U C, carriage maker. 

Stebbius R N &. Co, (Richard N and Fre<ler- 
ick A), general store. 

Stroup Jacob Rev, (Universalist). 

Sturgis William R, general store. 

Sullivan James, lawyer. 

Taylor E M, hotel. 

Townsend Abel, grocer. 

Townsend Albert G, baker and confectioner. 

Van Antwerp Frank A, carriage maker. 

Vaun 8 H D Rev, (Baptist). 

Wheelock George A, grocer. 

Wiley James P, cooper. 

Willsee Charles C, carriage maker. 



DRAYTON PLAINS. 

A post office of Oakland county. 

DRYDEN. 

A township and post village of Lapeer 
county, on the mail route from Royal Oak. 
and from Almont to Grant Blanc. Distant 
from Detroit 44 miles, north, fare, by usual 
route, f 2 00. It has a Methodist church, a 
hotel, a flour mill and three stores. Mer- 
chants receive goods from Detroit by the De- 
troit and Milwaukee railroad, via Pontlac, 
or by wagons via Mt. Clemens and Romeo. 
A daily mail is received. FovtmaaUr — Jo- 
seph Manwaring. 

T0WV8HIP OPFXCBRB. 

Stiptfrmtor — Charles Lamon. 
CZ^rX— Albert Bartlett 
TrHuwreir — Joseph Durwood. 

Uet of Proftoaslone, Trmdeii, etc. 

Alcott William, blacksmith. 
Alexander Robert, druggist. 
Baker Elisa H jr, saloon. 
Baker Elisha H, hotel. 
Bartlett Albert, mason. 
Brophy James, shoe maker. 
Conklin G B, shoe maker. 
Darwood Joseph, carpenter. 
Davis Barzillai, saloon. 
Day John W, justice of the peace. 
Edgerton Duncomb, blacksmith. 
Fermon Royal, harness maker. 
Goodrich Josiah, grocer. 
Hall Seth T, cabinet maker. 
Hendrich Lucian, justice of the peace. 
Huntley Samuel, mason. 
Lamb & Eldridge, (Jacob C Lamb and Nath- 
aniel B. Eldridge), general store. 
Lamb John M, justice of the peace. 
Manwaring Joseph, general store. 
Marsh Jonathan W, physician. 
Maynard William, flour mill. 
Mitchell Lewis Rev, (Methodist). 
Randolph Benjamin, blacksmith. 
Sessions Levi, carriage maker. 
Shin Benjamin, carpenter. 
Smith David, cabinet maker. 
Stuver Daniel, carpenter. 



DUCK LAKE. 

See " WhU$ Biver." 



DUNCAN. 

An important incorporated post village, 
in the township of Inverness and county of 
Cheboygan, of which it is the seat of justice. 
It is situateid on the west bank of Cheboy- 
gan river, near its ent ance into the St aits 
of Maeldiiao. It is in the direct steamboat 



290 DUX cei^LSB f. class's DITl* 



EAG 



STATB OAZETTEKB. 



EAG 



291 



Daily mail received. Pot master — Samuel R. 
Dewstoe. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — Job D. Sickles. 
Clerk — Joseph H. Lane. 
Treasurer — Henry P. Barker. 

Ijlsi of Profeaatons, Trades, etc* 

Brass S & Son, (Samuel and Samuel L), 

general store. 
Brown Almond, justice of the peace. 
Brown George W, mason. 
Chapman Stephen N, lawyer. 
Cowlos Ebenezer, carpenter. 
Dewstoe Samuel R, carnage maker. 
Foss Phillip, carpenter. .:•'*. 

Gleason J T, carpenter. ■-■....■. • ,r->: 

Hammon James, carpenter. 

Hart Clark B, saw mill. 

Hart& Hosley, (Clark B Hart and Osmer 

Hosley), flouring mill. 
House Francis A, physician. 
Moore Peter, hotel. 
Paine Edward, justice of the peace. 
Pearl & Faxon, (Orsamus N Pearl and Henry 

Faxon), general store. 
Shaw Henry, blacksmith. 
Sickles Job D, justice of the peace. 
Stewart Joel, flouring mills. 
Tucker James, cooper. 
Watson William B, physician. 
Wisher Conrad, carriage maker. 



EAQLE. 

A township and post office of Clinton coun- 
ty, 9f) miles north-west from Detroit. There 
are two saw mills, a hot«l and store, located 
here. Population, 1,000. Postmaster — William 
F. Jenuisou. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisor — William F. Jennison. 
Clfrk — James W- McMillan. 
Treasurer — Hiram C. Briggs. 

liist of Proffeaaionay Tradesy etc* 

Barns Benjamin E, boot and shoe maker. 

Beers Burtis H, justice of the peace. 

Boll John, blacksmith. 

Burtch Milton P, lawyer. 

Cron John, general store. 

Doremus John, saw mill. 

Dotv Oliver, justice of the peace. 

Esle'r William P Rev, (Methodist). 

Hogle A Josiah, justice of the peace. 

Jennison William F, hotel. 

McCrumb George W, saw mill. 

Rider Jonathan Rev, (Methodist). 

Saudford Holbrook, cooper. 

Scuddin John C, machinist. 

Taylor David, justice of the peace. 

Wait Benjamin F, stave dealer. 



EAQL.E HARBOR. 

An important post village and township of 
Keweenaw county, situated on the northern 
shore of Kewc^enaw Peninsula, 700 miles 
north-west of Detroit. The village is a regu- 
lar stopping place for the Lake Superio^ 
steamers. Fare from Detroit, f 18 ; Chicago, 
same pi ice. It has a considerable trade in 
the shipment of copper ore and supplies for 
the neighboring mining country. It contains 
one Catholic and one Methodist church, one 
lodge of Odd Fellows, (•' Keweenaw, No. 
82,") six stores, and three hotels. The 
"Copper Falls," " Petherick," "Central," 
" Amygdaloid," and " Pennsylvania " mines, 
are located in the vicinity. Pqpulation, 500. 
PwtmasUr — J. H. Bawden. 

TOWirsniP OFFICEBS. 

Supervisor — John A. Bawden. 
C/tfrA;— William Reichel. 
Treasurer — Henry Qillett. 

lilat of Proresalons, Trades, etc* 

Beedon John, carriage maker. 

Benson Martin R, carpenter. 

Brunsweiler Q L, physician. 

Cooley Charles L daguerreotypist. 

Foley Michael, John anc^ Martin, " Houghton 

House." ^ 

Freud M Son & Co, (Marcus Freud, Julias 

Freud, and Samuel Hofihian), general 

store. 
Funk Dominick, mason. 
Gibson Alexander, boot and shoe maker. 
Gibson David, boot and shoe maker. 
Gillett Henry, grocer. 
Hart Henry, news dealer. 
Jackson Thomas, blacksmith. 
Jones Charles De Haven, physician. 
Kunz Charles, " Kunz's Hotel." 
Moyle Bennett, justice of the peace. . 
Osborne Robert, carpenter. 
Parks Arthur, justice of the peace. 
Railey & Shapley, (William P Railey and 

Justin Shapley), general store. 
Redfield Samuel J, physician. 
Schroeder August, boot and shoe maker. 
Shulte Francis, merchant tailor. 
Thiele H L Rev, (Catholic). 
Todd Edwin A, hardware. 
Uren & Bawden, (John Uren and John H 

Bawden), general store. 
Wisbarth Jacob, mason. 
Williams ——^ Miss, milliner. 
Wright William B, "Wright's Hotel" 



EAQLE RIVER. 

A mining village of Houghton township, 
and county seat of Keweenaw County, on 
the northern coast of Keweenaw Peninsula. 
It is one of the regular stopping places of Che 
Cleveland, Detroit and Lake Superior and the 



292 



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CHABLBS F. CULBK'S 



EAS 



Chicago and Lake Superior lino of steamers, 
and is distant north-westerly, 800 miles, by 
water, from Detroit, (fare,|18 00, same from 
Chicago). The Tillage has three churches, 
(Catholic, Episcopal and Methodist), one 
lodge of Odd Fellows, ("Houghton No. 68"), 
one ashery, two breweries, three general 
stores, two saw mills, and several mechanics 
and professional men. During the summer 
season a large business is done in the ship- 
ment of ore, and considerable trade carried 
on in the way of supplies for the long and 
severe winter. Two mails received per week. 
Populationofvillage about 800. Postmaster — 
Abel A. Bennett. 

JLIst off ProfessloBSy TradeSf etc. 

Alexander John, physician. 

Betallack Joseph &> Joseph jr, blacksmiths. 

Bigelow Russell, carpenter. 

Blaine John, lumber dealer. 

Bockway D D, hotel. 

Clemens Joseph, brewery. 

Dressell George, carpenter. 

Engles Andrew, boot and shoe maker. 

Finch John, carpenter. 

Heaton Abram S, physician. 

Hocking William, saloon. 

HOUGHTON C W, lawyer. 

Johns James, saloon. 

Kinvel dt Co, (Francis and Antoine), brewery. 

Kramer Peter, pot ash manufacturer. 

Leapold H F & Bro, (Henry F, Samuel F, 

Aaron F Leopold and Joseph Austrian), 

general store. 
Leibold William, jeweler. 
Lott Joseph, saloon. 
Musliner &- Freisner, jewelers. 
Nut Henry, hardware. 
Paull J 6l Co, (Joseph Paull and William 

Camsue), general store. 
Richard Joseph, justice of the peace. 
Ruoch John, boot and shoe maker. 
Schuler Rheinold, boot and shoe maker. 
Senter John, insurance agent. 
Senter Mortimer D, physician. 
Sowden James, justice of the peace. 
Vivian John, justice of the peace. 



EAQL.E RIVER MINE. 

A small mining villase of the upper Penin- 
sula. (See ''Houffhion"). 



EAST CHINA. 

Is a township and post office in St. Clair 
county, situated on the bank of the St. Clair 
river, ft'onting about six miles on the river 
and averaging about a mile in depth, em- 
•bracing what is called the '' private claims," 
between the town of Cottrellville and St. 
Clair, on the steamboat route from Detroit to 



Port Huron, sixteen miles from Detroit It 

has three mails per week. Fasinuuier—tMi^ 
Drone. 

TOWN OPPICBRS. 

Supervisor — Laurance P. Remar. 
C/^rjfc -William D. Hart. 
Treaturer — Enoch Drone. 

List of Professlonay TnUtoa, ete. 

Clark James S. hotel. 

Feltmire John, blacksmith. 

Hagerman James. P, justice of the peaop. 

Jerome Reed, justice of the peace. 

Newcomb James B, carpenter. 

Owen Benjamin F justice of the peace. 

Peabody Jeremiah N, physician. 

Recor, Lambert & Joseph, general store. 

Smith Eugene, saw mill. 

Smith Louis, carriage maker. 



EA3T DAYTON. 

A post office in the township of Dayloo. 
Tuscola county, on the Bridgeport, Watrons- 
ville and Port Sanilac state road ; 91 miW 
north of Detroit ; fare, via Pontiac and Lapeer 
$2 75. The township is but thinly settled, 
but has a fine soil, is well timbeed, has a 
good waterpower, and offers good induce- 
ments to farmers and mechanics. Two mails 
are received per week. Population of Town- 
ship. 200. Postmaster — James L. Hitchcock. 

List or Proreselone, Tradea, etc 

Bates Daniel T, flour and saw mill. 

Belnap Lyman, clothing. 

Church Alexander, boot and shoe maker. 

Clark Arnold, justice of the peace. 

Clinesmith Daniel, carriage maker. 

Clinesmith David, boot and shoe maker. 

Goodall Stewart, mason. 

Green George, mason. 

Hall Curtis T, blacksmith. 

Hall Mary E, milliner. 

Hitchcock Jamos L, hotel^ postmaster and 

justice of the peace. 
Ingles Anthony, carpenter. 
McClair Matliew Rev, (Methodist). 
Phelps Nelson T, carpenter. 
Rice L T, carpenter. 

EAST QIL.EAO. 

A'postoffice of Branch county. 



EAST LEROY. 

A small post village of LeHoy township. 
Calhoun county, ten miles south of BatUe 
Creek station, on the Michigan Central rail- 
road, and 130 miles west from Detroit. It 
has a Congregational church, a general store,' 
three saw mills, one flour mill, and several 
mechanics. Population, 100. Semi-weekly 
mail. Pottmcuter — W. H. Kinecon. 



BTATE GAZETTEEK. 



294 



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CHABiJss F. Clark's 



EAS 



Michiiran, and about one hundred miles in a 
northwesterly direction from Detroit. From 
a pamphlet, " History of the Saginaw 
Valley," published by Truman B. Fox, Eeq., 
in 1858, we extract the following paragraphs 
relating to the settlement of this place. 

" In the year 1836, Charles Little, Esq.. 
father of the Hon. Norman Little, of this 
village, entered the land upon which a por- 
tion of East Saginaw now stands. Having 
passed into the hands of the Farmers' and 
Mechanics' Bank, of Detroit, it was purchased 
of that institution in 1849, by Norman Little, 
agent for Hoyt & Co , New York city A 
short distance below the present center of 
the to^n was a small cl<»aring, which had 
been made by the Hon. G D. Williams, of 
Saginaw city, and which was called ** The 
Farm." This farm was purchased by Nor- 
man Little about this time for agricultural 
purposes, while that portion i)urcha8ed of 
the Bank, was intended to be laid out into a 
village. Near where now stands a large 
brick block, a solitary log cabin reared its 
"shake" covered roof in 13o0, apparently 
monarch of all it surveyed, shut in by the 
green woods upon three sides, while the 
broad Saginaw rolled in majestic beauty 
before the door. This log house was built, l 
think, by the Ame ican Fur Company, many 
years since, and at the time of wliich 1 
speak, was occupied by Cai>tain Leon Siiay, 
a French hunter and trapper About this 
time, a small clearing was made in the 
vicinity of this log hou.se, and a steam saw- 
mill, a boarding house, an office, a rough 
building called " the store," and a barn, were 
erected, which, together with a few board 
.shanties, formed tlie nucleus of the large 
an«l nourishing village of East Saginaw 
pro])er. During the year 1835, how«»ver, a 
large steam saw-mill had been built by a 
New York company, at Buena Vista, nearly 
opposite Saginaw city, which mill is known 
as the Emerson mill. After the happy idea 
had been conc(Mved of building a town* upon 
the eastern bank of the river, this portion of 
the town was as a matter of choice and con- 
venience taken into fellowship, and it is con- 
ceded by all, to be the most beautiful part 
of our village. On the first day of May, 
1850, a town meeting was held at the house 
of Curtis Emerson, Esq., for the purpose 
«»f organizing the town of Buena Vista. 
This, be it remembered, was the first election 
and meeting of the kind, held in the town. 
Stephen Little, Esq., was chosen chairman, 
Messrs. George Oliver and A. K. Penney, 
inspectors of the election, and Alfred M. 
Hoyt, clerk. Curtis Emerson was elected 
supervisor, C. W. Grant, town clerk, Stephen 
Little, town treasurer, Andrew Grant, George 
Oliver, and Stephen Little, justices of the 
I)eace. The whole number of votes cast 



was 10. It is generally supposed tfait to 
naturalization papers were iieeded, or de- 
manded, on that memo able occasion. 

About this time comiderable improfe- 
ments were being made at the i ew loctti(B 
above mentioned. Under the supenrision of 
Norman Little, Esq., a village was rising is 
if by magic, out of the wilderness, and ths 
scene that presented itself was one of buy 
life and animation. 

Vessels and steamers began to visit the 
town — then came a demand for more docb. 
In every direction steam saw-mills begin to 
be visible, and the demand for Inmber to 
increase. After getting business matters 
thoroughly under way, the citizens began to 
think that educational interests had been 
entirely overlooked — that witb all the busi- 
ness pursuits and money-making schemes 
engaged in, not a syllable had been uttered, 
as yet, in regard to schools "This will 
never do," said they, " for if we would 
prosper, we must no^ neglect that most im* 
portant concomitant of advancement and 
happiness, the education of our children, 
and the establishment of schools among us." 
So they set themselves at work, and in a 
short time a beautiful and commodious edi- 
fice was erected upon a high rise of ground, 
commanding a fine and extensive Tiew of not 
only the village and river, but also of the 
city and vicinity. After Its completion, 
excellent teachers were empfoyed, and almoaft 
before the citizens of East Saginaw were 
aware of it, a flourishing school of near three 
hundred scholars was in full and happy 
operation. Previous to the building of the 
Academy, the citizens had no suitable place 
of worship, for which reason we are willing 
to attribute the deplorable lack of divine 
service in those days. But when the school- 
house was finished, and regular service held 
there, the appearance of the Sabbath assumed 
a far difi^erent phase than before, for the 
little town in the wilderness could boast of 
school's, and divine service upon the Sab- 
bathV 

After a while an excellent and well select- 
ed town library ^aa obtained, to which all 
had free access. Before the village had at- 
tained to its third year, it had so far trans- 
cended its original limits, or at least bid so 
fair of doing it, that it was found necessary 
to add to its already large territory, so the 
" old farm" was crowded "out of town," and 
in its place more lots were surveyed out and 
eagely taken up. By this time the town 
had become so important, that it was found 
impossible to get along without a newspaper. 
Accordingly, after the usual preliminaries, a 
neat looking sheet made its a]y>earance, call- 
ed " The Saginaw £nfcrpt%aT" edited and 
published by F. A Williamson and A.J. 
Mason. This newspaper was established in 



EAS 



8TA.TE GAZETTEER. 



EAS 



295 



Aoj^t, 1853, EDd did much for the business 
ind social interests of the county. During 
the early part of the summer of 1854 a fire 
broke out in town, destroying the steam saw 
mill previously mentioned, the printing office, 
• large hotel, and seTeral dwelling houses. 
In addition to the above losses, over three 
million feet of pine lumber was destroyed, 
together with considerable dock Before 
the town had recovered from this shock, 
and while the work of reparation was being 
completed, another fire, far more fearful and 
deitructive than the first broke out in the very 
heart of the village, which laid waste about 
two entire blocks o( buildings, including the 
"Irving House," a large wholesale ware- 
house and dock, occupied by W. L. P. Little 
* Co., and several grocery stores and dwel- 
ling houses. For a while eve y thing stood 
aghast, but " never despair," was the motto, 
and before the embers had fairly ceased 
smoking, workmen were employed in clearing 
away the rubbish, and not many monthc had 
elapsed ere an elegant brick block reared its 
imposing fVont on the spot where stood the 
Ill-fated *'Irving House." 

On the loth of February, 1859, the city 
was incorporated under its present name. 
A.ccordiDg to the census of 1850, when it was 
known as " Buena Vista," i^ contained 251 
inhabitants. The census of 1860 shows 
3,237, since which time there has been a 
rapid increase, and the population is now 
estimated at about 5,000, making it the lead- 
ing city of the Saginaw valley. A degree of 
rivalry exists between the cities along the 
river, that has tended greatly to the benefit 
of each, though it is now generally acknow- 
ledged that Bast Saginaw is a long distance 
ahead in the race, and that it is destined to 
be th€ point for a large city. To the liberal- 
ity of Messrs W. L. P. Little and Jesse Hoyt, 
the present prosperity of the city of East 
Saginaw is mainly if not wholly due Both 
these gentlemen, who were the early pro- 
prietors of the place, have evinced a spir.t of 
enlerprize and perseverance that has earned 
for them the lasting gratitude of every in- 
habitant of the town. 

The Saginaw river, at this point, is about 
one-fourth of a mile wide, and is navigable 
for vessels drawing nine feet of water. The 
season of navigation lasts from about the 
middle of March to the last of November. 
The city has upwards of two miles of dock- 
Ige. and will, in this respect, be second to no 
!:ity on the lakes. The land upon which the 
rity is built, as well as that upon both sides 
jf the river for nearly its whole length is low 
ind level, elevated but a few feet fiom the 
irater. The soil is a dark alluvial loam, of 
peculiar richness, producing all kinds of 
regetables in the greatest abundance. It is 
msurpassed for grain land, and if properly 



cultivated will be a source of immense profit 
to its owners The river abounds in trout 
and whitefish, and all the varieties of fish 
usual in the lakes, all of which are utfcrcd 
for sale on the docks at the rate of about 
two cents i>er pound The most magnificent 
lake trout, of the largest sizo, are Ireimently 
retailed here at from one to twoyniillings 
each. Since the discovery of «al^and the 
establisliment of the numerous extensive 
works in the ueighborhoi^d of the city.if 
])rofltable bu.sino.ss has sprung up in the cut- 
tinjr of cordwood, and bv this moans the 
fore.st that formerly walled in the city are 
gradually disappearing and civing place to 
dvvollings and cniltivatotl fields. 

The city can boast of several elegant stores, 
one of which does a wholesale and retail 
trade, the cash receipts of which often 
amount to upwards of $1,000 per day. There 
is also a banking house located h<^, which 
does a business equal to any ba/fKing house 
in the State. 

The following list of manufacturing estab- 
lishments upon one street, within the distance 
of a mile, will convey some Idea of the ini- 
mence business carried along in the valley of 
the Saginaw, and more especially in this 
city. Begiriing at the lower end of the town, 
at the railro:'d depot, we proceed up the river, 
meeting DwightG. Holland's steam stfw mill, 
capable of turning out 5,000,000 feet (.f lum- 
ber annually, and giving employment to 
eighteen men. Next in order conies the 
East Saginaw ship^yard, owned by Jesse 
Hoyt, Esq., from which have been turii^rdout 
several of the best vessels now afloat upon 
the Lakes, among them the lir.st-class barc^ues 
" Sunshine," " Newsboy," " Shai»gha<\"' and 
"Jesse Hoyt," the brig ''Starlight," the 
schooner "Quickstep," and the teanier 
"Magnet". A fine steamer, of an iniprove<l 
and elegant model, desigiMul expressly for a 
river boat between the three < ities of the 
valley, is now on the stocks at (liis yard, and 
will, when completed, be one of the fastest 
and most thoroughly c<»nstr acted vessels ever 
built. The superintendeiit and master build- 
er at this yard, is Mr. StPj>hen R. Kirhy. 
one of the most skillful and accomplished 
draughtsmen and naval architects in the 
country. Next above the ship yard c«)mes 
the extensive stAve-^actory « f E. &- C. Ten 
Eyck, which gives employni'Mit to t'Mi hands 
and has a capacity f«>r turuiiig out l!,00t>,000 
staves j)^r season. Next in order is Jesse 
Hoyt's planing mill, empfoying twei.ly men. 
and capable of planing 40,0i)0 feet of lum^ 
ber per dav. Above this is the 'Genel^e 
Iron Works," owned by U W. Wcod & Co., 
in which is manufa(!tunMl every description 
of iron work, Q.i\d ma phinej v. from a dumb 
bell to a first class steam engine, 20 men are 
employed. The "Mayflt)wer Mill" comes 



BAS 



STATB UAZBTTSBB. 



EAB 



297 



employs twelve men; the "City Mills/' owned 
by 0. H. P. Ohamplin, capable of manofac- 
tariog 60 barrels of flour per day ; the sash 
and blind factory of Allen &. McLean, on 
■Jefferson street, and the brewery of Charles 
Langla8, on the same street J ust outside 
the corporate limits of the city, but which 
should be properly regarded as a portion of 
its manufactures, are several extensive salt 
works and steam saw mills, a list of which 
will be found under the head of " Saginaw 
comity," and the location of which is shown 
on the accompanying map. 

With the exception of the main business 
streets in the centre of the city, on which 
there are several elegant blocks, the appea' - 
anoe of the place to a stranger accustomed 
to the substantial style of building prevalent 
In the cities of the east, is not pleasing. As 
might reasonably be expected of a town 
scarcely in its " teens ", an unfinished air 
pervades everything, but ou riding through 
Its streets, and examining its immense manu- 
factories, and its facilities for business, he 
will admit that the city of East Saginaw is 
one of the most enterprising and progressive 
places in the country. The city now con- 
tains, beside^ the churches, schools, halls, 
newspapers, societies, etc., enumerated below, 
one of the largest, most substantially built, 
elegantly fitted up, and liberally conducted 
botehi in the United states, the " Bancroft 
House," (see engraving on oppos te page). 
This elegant establishment was commenced 
in 1866, and opened in 1859. It has 
a front of 96 feet on Genesee street, and 100 
on Washington street ; it is L shaped, built 
of brick, and four stories high. It is fitted 
with baths, warmed with steam, and lighted 
by gas, and cost, with furniture, upwaids of 
$75,000. It is owned by Mr. Jesse Hoyt, and 
is under the management of Mr. Henry 
Hobbs, one of the most accomplished gentle- 
men and thorough landlords in the country. 
To the enterprise and liberality of Mr. Hoyt 
in constr